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THERAVANCE BIOPHARMA, INC.
2021 Form 10-K Annual Report
Table of Contents
Special Note regarding Forward-Looking Statements
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). Such forward-looking statements involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions. All statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, other than statements of historical facts, including statements regarding our strategy, future operations, future financial position, future revenues, projected costs, prospects, plans, intentions, designs, expectations and objectives are forward-looking statements. The words “aim,” “anticipate,” “assume,” “believe,” “contemplate,” “continue,” “could,” “designed,” “developed,” “drive,” “estimate,” “expect,” “forecast,” “goal,” “indicate,” “intend,” “may,” “mission,” “opportunities,” “plan,” “possible,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “pursue,” “represent,” “seek,” “suggest,” “should,” “target,” “will,” “would,” and similar expressions (including the negatives thereof) are intended to identify forward looking statements, although not all forward looking statements contain these identifying words. These statements reflect our current views with respect to future events or our future financial performance, are based on assumptions, and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors which may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions, expectations or objectives disclosed in our forward-looking statements and the assumptions underlying our forward-looking statements may prove incorrect. Therefore, you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Actual results or events could differ materially from the plans, intentions, expectations and objectives disclosed in the forward-looking statements that we make. Factors that we believe could cause actual results or events to differ materially from our forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, those discussed in “Risk Factors,” in Item 1A, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in Item 7 and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Our forward-looking statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are based on current expectations and we do not assume any obligation to update any forward-looking statements for any reason, even if new information becomes available in the future. In addition, while we expect the effects of COVID-19, including new variants, to continue to adversely impact our business operations and financial results, the extent of the impact on our ability to generate revenue from YUPELRI® (revefenacin), our clinical development programs, and the value of and market for our ordinary shares, will depend on future developments that are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted with confidence at this time. These potential future developments include, but are not limited to, the ultimate duration of the COVID-19 pandemic, travel restrictions, quarantines, vaccination levels, social distancing and business closure requirements in the United States and in other countries, other measures taken by us and those we work with to help protect individuals from contracting COVID-19, and the effectiveness of actions taken globally to contain and treat the disease, including vaccine availability, distribution, acceptance and effectiveness. When used in this report, all references to “Theravance Biopharma”, the “Company”, or “we” and other similar pronouns refer to Theravance Biopharma, Inc. collectively with its subsidiaries.
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
Theravance Biopharma, Inc. (“we,” “our,” “Theravance Biopharma” or the “Company”) is a biopharmaceutical company primarily focused on the discovery, development and commercialization of respiratory medicines. Our core purpose is to create medicines that make a difference® in people’s lives.
In pursuit of our purpose, we leverage decades of respiratory expertise to discover and develop transformational medicines that make a difference. These efforts have led to the development of the United States (“US”) Food and Drug Administration (the “FDA”) approved YUPELRI® (revefenacin) inhalation solution indicated for the maintenance treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (“COPD”). Our respiratory pipeline of internally discovered programs is targeted to address significant patient respiratory needs.
We have an economic interest in potential future payments from Glaxo Group or one of its affiliates (“GSK”) pursuant to our agreements with Innoviva, Inc. (“Innoviva”) relating to certain programs, including TRELEGY.
2021 Significant Developments
We successfully closed an offering of 7,705,000 ordinary shares at a price to the public of $15.00 per share in June 2021 raising $115.6 million, before deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and offering expenses. The net proceeds from the offering are intended to support the development of our clinical product candidates and for general working capital purposes.
Clinical Results from Late-Stage Studies of Izencitinib and Ampreloxetine
In August 2021, we reported that results from our Phase 2b dose-finding induction study of izencitinib, our oral gut-selective pan-JAK inhibitor for inflammatory intestinal diseases, previously partnered with Janssen Biotech, Inc. (“Janssen”), did not meet its primary endpoint of change in the total Mayo score or the key secondary endpoint of clinical remission at week 8, relative to placebo.
In addition, in September 2021, we reported that results from our four-week Phase 3 study (SEQUOIA) of ampreloxetine, our norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, did not meet its primary endpoint for assessing safety and efficacy compared to placebo for the treatment of symptomatic neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (“nOH”).
Strategic Actions to Focus on Respiratory Diseases
Given the above clinical results, in September 2021, our board of directors approved a plan to focus our resources on our most promising respiratory programs and reduce the size of the Company in order to maximize shareholder value. At completion, the corporate restructuring (the “Restructuring”) will result in us reducing headcount by approximately 75%, an estimated 270 positions, through a reduction in our workforce. Approximately 75% of the total reduction in workforce occurred at the end November 2021, and the remainder will be completed at the end of February 2022.
As a result of the Restructuring, we expect to realize estimated operating expense savings (excluding share-based compensation and any one-time restructuring, severance, and termination costs) of approximately $170.0 million. We estimate that we will incur total Restructuring and related expenses of approximately $32.0 million comprised of $17.0 million in cash expenses associated with employee termination benefits and related costs and $15.0 million in non-cash expenses relating to the acceleration of equity-awards for employees affected by the Restructuring. In 2021, we recognized $20.1 million of the Restructuring expenses comprised of $11.5 million in cash-related expenses and $8.6 million in non-cash expenses.
We expect to recognize the majority of the remaining Restructuring and related expenses of approximately $12.0 million, comprised of $5.0 million in cash-related expenses and $7.0 million in non-cash expenses, in the first quarter of 2022 and the balance by the third quarter of 2022. The remaining Restructuring expense estimates are subject to a number of assumptions, and actual final amounts may differ. We may also incur additional costs not currently contemplated due to events that may occur as a result of, or that are associated with, the Restructuring.
The go-forward organization leverages our expertise in developing and commercializing respiratory therapeutics. We intend to significantly narrow our R&D focus on our core respiratory assets, including a clinical study with Viatris Inc. (“Viatris”) intended to provide data to support a possible label update for YUPELRI, which we believe would capture more of YUPELRI’s addressable market and further strengthen its competitive advantage, and investment in our inhaled Janus kinase inhibitor portfolio, with focus on our most advanced clinical candidate, nezulcitinib, initially targeting acute lung injury. We will also continue to explore strategic partnerships for both core and non-core assets to unlock value. All of these actions drive towards our goal to maximize shareholder value.
After implementing these strategic actions, we plan to become sustainably cash flow positive beginning in the second half of 2022, and we will work to optimize our capital structure in order to maximize total shareholder returns.
Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic
The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and the related actions by governments, companies, and individuals around the world in an attempt to contain the spread of the virus (including new variants of COVID-19) continue to present a substantial public health and economic challenge and are affecting our employees, patients, communities, clinical trial sites, suppliers, business partners and business operations. The full extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic will continue to directly or indirectly impact our business, results of operations and financial condition, including revenue, expenses, clinical trials and research and development costs, will depend on future developments that are highly uncertain and may be impacted by the emergence of new information concerning the COVID-19 pandemic, ongoing spread of the disease across the US and the globe, and the actions taken to contain or treat the disease, including vaccine availability, distribution, acceptance and effectiveness.
As part of our response to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, we have taken steps to identify and mitigate the adverse impacts on, and risks to, our business posed by its spread and actions taken by governmental and health authorities to address the COVID-19 pandemic. We expect to continue to implement measures as may be required or recommended by government authorities or as we determine are in the best interests of our employees, clinical trial sites and participants, the patients we serve, and other stakeholders in light of COVID-19.
The table below summarizes the status of our approved product and our other product candidates in development. The table also includes the status of the respiratory programs in which we have an economic interest and for which GSK is responsible pursuant to agreements between Innoviva and GSK (“GSK-Partnered Respiratory Programs”). These programs consist primarily of the Trelegy program. We have an economic interest in these programs through our interest in Theravance Respiratory Company, LLC (“TRC”), a limited liability company managed by Innoviva. The status of all GSK-Partnered Respiratory Programs referenced in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are based solely upon publicly available information and may not reflect the most recent developments under the programs.
|(1)||We hold an 85% economic interest in upward-tiering royalty stream of 6.5% – 10% payable by GSK (net of TRC expenses paid and the amount of cash, if any, expected to be used by TRC pursuant to the TRC LLC Agreement over the next four fiscal quarters). 75% of TRC royalties received are pledged to service outstanding notes, and 25% of royalties received are retained by us. All statements concerning TRELEGY are based on publicly available information.|
* Limited additional capital investment planned after the first quarter of 2022.
Glossary of Defined Terms used in Table Above:
COPD: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease;
CD: Crohn’s Disease;
FF: Fluticasone Furoate;
JAKi: Janus Kinase Inhibitor;
LAMA: Long-Acting Muscarinic Antagonist;
nOH: Neurogenic Orthostatic Hypotension;
NRI: Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor;
UC: Ulcerative Colitis;
UMEC: Umeclidinium; and
Respiratory Program Highlights
YUPELRI (revefenacin) Inhalation Solution
YUPELRI (revefenacin) inhalation solution is a once-daily, nebulized long-acting muscarinic antagonist (“LAMA”) approved for the maintenance treatment of COPD in the US. LAMAs are recognized by international COPD treatment guidelines as a cornerstone of maintenance therapy for COPD, regardless of severity of disease. Our market research indicates there is an enduring population of COPD patients in the US that either need or prefer nebulized delivery for maintenance therapy. The stability of revefenacin in both metered dose inhaler and dry powder inhaler (“MDI/DPI”) formulations suggests that revefenacin could also serve as a foundation for novel handheld combination products.
In November 2018, YUPELRI was approved by the FDA for the maintenance treatment of patients with COPD. Following shipments into commercial channel in late 2018, we and our collaboration partner, Viatris, formally launched our sales and marketing efforts in early 2019. In 2020 and through 2021, YUPELRI’s growth trajectory was impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. However, in late 2021, we began to observe a return to growth in YUPELRI sales. We continue to monitor the impact of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic on demand for YUPELRI, including the duration and degree to which we may see the rate of starting new patients on YUPELRI and customer orders return to pre-pandemic levels. Although we believe there are signals of easing pandemic restrictions, at this time, we are unable to predict with certainty the ultimate disruptive impact of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic on YUPELRI, but it is possible the pandemic may continue to put downward pressure on our sales. As a result, the observed sales volatility may continue into 2022.
We and Viatris continue to supply YUPELRI to our patients and currently do not anticipate any interruptions in supply. In addition, we are tracking several key performance metrics to gauge success in building market acceptance, including formulary success and market access.
In August 2021, we announced that in collaboration with our partner Viatris, we are initiating a Phase 4 study comparing improvements in lung function in adults with severe to very severe COPD and suboptimal inspiratory flow rate following once-daily treatment with either YUPELRI delivered via standard jet nebulizer or tiotropium delivered via a dry powder inhaler (Spiriva® HandiHaler®). This study is aimed at helping to better inform decisions when physicians are designing a personalized COPD treatment plan with patients and is intended to support a possible label update for YUPELRI, which would capture more of YUPELRI’s addressable market and further strengthen its competitive advantage. In January 2022, we announced the enrollment of the first patient in the Phase 4 study.
In January 2015, we and Viatris established a strategic collaboration for the development and commercialization of revefenacin. Partnering with a leader in nebulized respiratory therapies enables us to expand the breadth of our revefenacin development program and extend our commercial reach beyond the acute care setting. Viatris funded the Phase 3 development program of YUPELRI, enabling us to advance other high value pipeline assets
Under the terms of the Viatris Development and Commercialization Agreement (the “Viatris Agreement”), Viatris and Theravance Biopharma co-develop revefenacin for COPD and other respiratory diseases. We led the US Phase 3 development program for YUPELRI in COPD, and Viatris was responsible for reimbursement of our costs related to the registrational program up until the approval of the first new drug application (“NDA”), after which costs are shared. With YUPELRI approved in the US, Viatris is leading commercialization, and we co-promote the product in the US under a profit and loss sharing arrangement (65% to Viatris; 35% to Theravance Biopharma). Outside the US, Viatris is responsible for development and commercialization and will pay us a tiered royalty on net sales at percentage royalty rates ranging from low double-digits to mid-teens.
In June 2019, we announced the expansion of the Viatris Agreement to grant Viatris exclusive development and commercialization rights to nebulized revefenacin in China and adjacent territories, which include Hong Kong SAR, the Macau SAR, and Taiwan. In exchange, we received an upfront payment of $18.5 million (before a required tax withholding) and will be eligible to receive additional potential development and sales milestones totaling $54.0 million and low double-digit tiered royalties on net sales of nebulized revefenacin, if approved. In March 2020, we earned a $1.5 million development milestone for the acceptance of a clinical trial application associated with the use of revefenacin monotherapy in China and adjacent territories. Viatris is responsible for all aspects of development and commercialization in the partnered regions, including pre- and post-launch activities and product registration and all associated costs. We retain worldwide rights to revefenacin delivered through other dosage forms, such as a MDI/DPI.
Under the Viatris Agreement, as of December 31, 2021, we are eligible to receive from Viatris potential global development, regulatory and sales milestone payments totaling up to $257.5 million in the aggregate with $205.0 million associated with YUPELRI monotherapy and $52.5 million associated with future potential combination products. Of the $205.0 million associated with monotherapy, $187.5 million relates to sales milestones based on achieving certain levels of net sales and $17.5 million relates to global development and regulatory actions. The $52.5 million associated with future potential combination products relates solely to global development and regulatory actions.
Lung-selective, Nebulized Pan-Janus Kinase (JAK) Inhibitor (Nezulcitinib)
Nezulcitinib (formerly known as TD-0903) is a lung-selective, nebulized JAK inhibitor, in clinical development for the potential treatment of hospitalized patients with Acute Lung Injury (“ALI”) caused by COVID-19. We discovered nezulcitinib, and it has been shown in experimental murine models to have potent, broad inhibition of JAK-STAT signaling in the airways following challenges with multiple cytokines. Preclinical studies suggest that nezulcitinib has a high lung to plasma ratio and rapid metabolic clearance resulting in low systemic exposure, compatible with its lung selectivity. Nezulcitinib is administered via nebulized inhalation solution, which further enhances its lung selectivity. Preclinical pharmacodynamic studies indicate that nezulcitinib has an extended duration of action that should enable once daily dosing in humans.
We believe nezulcitinib has the potential to inhibit the cytokine storm associated with ALI and prevent progression to Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (“ARDS”). The first healthy volunteer was dosed in a Phase 1 study of nezulcitinib in April 2020, and in June 2020, we completed Phase 1 and entered a two-part Phase 2 study. Phase 2 was designed to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of nezulcitinib in subjects with confirmed symptomatic COVID-19 hospitalized for symptomatic respiratory insufficiency. This study also evaluated the PK of nezulcitinib in these subjects. To expedite enrollment, we opened additional sites in other regions including Europe, the US, and South America.
We completed Phase 2, Part 1, a small sub-study of 25 patients intended to assess safety, PK and exploratory clinical measures of three doses of nezulcitinib versus placebo. Data showed that inhaled administration of nebulized nezulcitinib, once daily over seven days, was generally well-tolerated and showed a numerical trend towards improved clinical status, reduced hospital stay and resulted in fewer deaths compared to placebo during a 28-day observation period. Nezulcitinib also demonstrated evidence of improvements in several relevant inflammatory biomarkers and low systemic exposure at all doses. This demonstrates the lung-selective design features of the molecule.
The Phase 2 Dose Finding study was a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study evaluating efficacy and safety of one dose (3 mg) of nezulcitinib (selected based on the data from Part 1) as compared with placebo in 200 patients. In June 2021, we announced top-line results from our Phase 2 study of 3 mg once-daily nezulcitinib compared to placebo, each in combination with standard of care, which generally included steroids. The study did not meet the primary endpoint of number of Respiratory Failure-Free Days from randomization through Day 28 in the intent-to-treat population. The study also did not meet secondary endpoints, with no difference shown in change from baseline at Day 7 in SaO2/FiO2 ratio, proportion of patients in each category of the eight-point Clinical Status scale, or proportion of patients alive and respiratory failure-free at Day 28. However, nezulcitinib demonstrated a favorable trend in improvement when compared to placebo for 28-day all-cause mortality. In addition, in a post-hoc analysis of patients with C-reactive protein (“CRP”) <150 mg/L, there was an improvement in those treated with nezulcitinib when compared to placebo in 28-day all-cause mortality and in time to recovery while there was no difference in these outcomes in patients with CRP >150 mg/L. Nezulcitinib was generally well-tolerated, and we intend to further investigate its therapeutic potential as part of our newly focused respiratory portfolio.
Lung-selective Pan-JAK Inhibitor Program
TD-8236, an inhaled lung-selective pan-JAK inhibitor, demonstrated a high affinity for each of the JAK family of enzymes (JAK1, JAK2, JAK3 and TYK2) that play a key role in cytokine signaling. Inhibiting these JAK enzymes interferes with the JAK/STAT signaling pathway and, in turn, modulates the activity of a wide range of pro-inflammatory cytokines. While orally-administered JAK inhibitors are currently approved for the treatment of a range of inflammatory diseases, no inhaled JAK inhibitor is approved for the treatment of airway disease, including asthma. The pan-JAK activity of TD-8236 suggests that it may impact a broad range of cytokines that have been associated both T2-high and T2-low asthma. Many moderate to severe asthma patients comprising both T2 phenotypes remain symptomatic despite being compliant on high doses of inhaled steroids. Importantly, TD-8236 was designed to distribute and exert its anti-inflammatory effect within the lungs following dry powder inhalation, with the potential to treat inflammation within that organ while minimizing systemic exposure. In preclinical assessments, TD-8236 has shown to potently inhibit targeted mediators of T2-high and T2-low asthma in human cells.
In September 2019, we announced positive results from a Phase 1 single-ascending dose and multiple-ascending dose clinical trial of TD-8236, an investigational, inhaled lung-selective pan-JAK inhibitor that has demonstrated a high affinity for each of the JAK family of enzymes (JAK1, JAK2, JAK3 and TYK2) that play a key role in cytokine signaling. The Part C extension portion of the Phase 1 trial, assessing additional biomarkers in patients with moderate to severe asthma, demonstrated that biomarkers of JAK target engagement (including exhaled nitric oxide and pSTAT1 and pSTAT6 in cellular fractions of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) were reduced after 7 days of once-daily dosing at a dose level of 1500 µg. In December 2019, we announced the initiation of a Phase 2 allergen challenge study of TD-8236 in mild allergic asthma patients, and we reported results of the Phase 1C study in the third quarter of 2020. TD-8236 is the first JAK inhibitor to be studied in a Phase 2a Lung Allergen Challenge (“LAC”) study, but inconsistent with our expectations, it had no impact on decrease in lung function (FEV1) following allergen inhalation after 14 days of once-daily dosing at dose levels of 150 µg and 1500 µg compared to placebo and did not meet the primary study objective. The collective data set (preclinical, Phase 1, Phase 2a) demonstrates TD-8236 engages the JAK mechanism at a dose of 1500 µg as evidenced by the reduction in FeNO and reductions in pSTAT, but does not protect against the lung function decline seen after allergen inhalation.
After completing additional analysis on TD-8236 gene signature and biomarker data from the Phase 1C study, we found that the data are consistent with target engagement in the lung. However, based on our current understanding of TD-8236, we have decided to pause the clinical program for this compound in its current form and apply our learnings to refining and expanding molecules in our portfolio of inhaled JAK inhibitors. We expect to proceed into the clinic with the next generation compound after securing a strategic partnership.
The robust body of scientific evidence from TD-8236 and nezulcitinib programs provide confidence for us to continue the lung-selective inhaled JAK inhibitor program for asthma. The full data set for TD-8236 will be presented at future scientific meetings.
Non-Core Asset Highlights
The key operational activities for all izencitinib and ampreloxetine studies will be completed by the end of the first quarter of 2022.
Ampreloxetine is an investigational, once-daily norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (“NRI”) that we were developing for the treatment of patients with symptomatic neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (“nOH”). nOH is caused by primary autonomic failure conditions, including multiple system atrophy, Parkinson’s disease and pure autonomic failure. The compound has high affinity for binding to norepinephrine transporters. By blocking the action of these transporters, ampreloxetine causes an increase in extracellular concentrations of norepinephrine. Ampreloxetine is wholly owned by Theravance Biopharma.
Based on positive top-line four-week results from a small exploratory Phase 2 study in nOH and discussions with the FDA, we advanced ampreloxetine into a Phase 3 program. We announced the initiation of patient dosing in study in early 2019. The Phase 3 program consists of two pivotal studies and one non-pivotal study. The first pivotal study (SEQUOIA), a four-week, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study, was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ampreloxetine in patients with symptomatic nOH. The second pivotal study (REDWOOD), a four-month open label study followed by a six-week randomized withdrawal phase was designed to evaluate the durability of patient response of ampreloxetine. The third, non-pivotal study (OAK), was designed to allow patients who completed REDWOOD to have continued access to ampreloxetine for up to three and half years.
In September 2021, we reported that the four-week SEQUOIA Phase 3 clinical study did not meet its primary endpoint. Most treatment-related adverse events were mild or moderate in severity. Serious adverse events occurred in two patients on placebo and four on ampreloxetine and none were considered related to the study drug. No deaths were reported, and there was no signal for supine hypertension. Study activities for the ampreloxetine Phase 3 program will be completed by the end of the first quarter of 2022.
Gut-selective Pan-JAK Inhibitor Program (Izencitinib)
JAK inhibitors function by inhibiting the activity of one or more of the Janus kinase family of enzymes (JAK1, JAK2, JAK3, TYK2) that play a key role in cytokine signaling. Inhibiting these JAK enzymes interferes with the JAK/STAT signaling pathway and, in turn, modulates the activity of a wide range of pro-inflammatory cytokines. JAK inhibitors are currently approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, myelofibrosis, atopic dermatitis, and ulcerative colitis and have demonstrated therapeutic benefit for patients with Crohn’s disease. However, these products are known to have side effects based on their systemic exposure. With izencitinib, our goal was to develop an orally administered, gut-selective pan-JAK inhibitor specifically designed to distribute adequately and predominantly to the tissues of the intestinal tract, treating inflammation in those tissues while minimizing systemic exposure.
Based on positive results from a Phase 1b exploratory study in ulcerative colitis and following dialogues with the FDA and European Medicines Agency (“EMA”) regarding study design, we advanced izencitinib into two clinical studies in inflammatory intestinal diseases. The Phase 2 (DIONE) study was a twelve-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of patients with Crohn’s disease, which began dosing patients in late 2018. The Phase 2b/3 (RHEA) study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of eight weeks induction and 44 weeks maintenance therapy in patients with ulcerative colitis, which began dosing patients in early 2019.
In August 2021, we reported that the Phase 2b/3 (RHEA) study did not meet its primary endpoint of change in the total Mayo score or the key secondary endpoint of clinical remission at week 8, relative to placebo. There was a small dose-dependent increase in clinical response measured by the adapted Mayo score, which was driven by a reduction in rectal bleeding.
At all doses, izencitinib was well-tolerated when administered orally once daily for 8 weeks; adverse event rates were similar among patients receiving izencitinib and placebo. There were no instances of perforation, opportunistic
infection, major cardiovascular or thromboembolic event, complicated zoster, or non-melanoma skin cancer in patients receiving izencitinib. There were no notable changes in lab values including creatine phosphokinase and lipids in
patients receiving izencitinib relative to placebo. Plasma exposure of izencitinib was low, consistent with expectations for a gut-selective medicine. We plan to present the study results at a future scientific forum. The Phase 2 study in Crohn’s disease with izencitinib has completed enrollment with top-line results expected in the first quarter of 2022.
Irreversible JAK3 Inhibitor (TD-5202)
TD-5202 is an investigational, orally administered, gut-selective, irreversible JAK3 inhibitor that has demonstrated a high affinity for the JAK3 enzyme. Through the selective inhibition of JAK3, TD-5202 interferes with the JAK/STAT signaling pathway and, in turn, modulates the activity of select pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-2, IL-15, and IL-21 which play a central role in the pathogenesis of T-cell mediated disease, including inflammatory intestinal disease, such as celiac disease. Importantly, TD-5202 is specifically designed to act locally within the intestinal wall thereby limiting systemic exposure.
In September 2019, we announced the initiation of a Phase 1 single ascending dose and multiple ascending dose trial designed to evaluate the safety and tolerability of TD-5202 in healthy participants, plus assess plasma pharmacokinetics of TD-5202 to confirm circulating levels are low, consistent with a gut-selective approach. In February 2020, we announced that data from the Phase 1 study indicated that TD-5202 was generally well tolerated as a single oral dose up to 2000 milligrams and as a twice-daily oral dose up 2000 milligrams total per day given for ten consecutive days in healthy participants.
Janssen Biotech Collaboration
In February 2018, we announced a global co-development and commercialization agreement with Janssen for izencitinib and related back-up compounds for inflammatory intestinal diseases, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Under the terms of the agreement, we received an upfront payment of $100.0 million and was eligible to receive up to an additional $900.0 million in potential payments, inclusive of a potential $200.0 million opt-in payment following completion of the Phase 2 Crohn’s disease study and the Phase 2b induction portion of the ulcerative colitis study. Following the unfavorable Phase 2b ulcerative colitis study results announced in August 2021, in December 2021, we received notice from Janssen terminating the agreement, effective January 16, 2022.
Our ALK5 inhibitor is a potential first-in-class, inhaled anti-fibrotic agent for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (“IPF”), a fatal chronic lung disease with limited treatment options. Despite treatment with the current standard of care, IPF patients continue to experience disease progression and exacerbation, and therefore IPF treatment represents a significant unmet medical need. The compound targets the TGFβ pathway, a core signaling pathway that drives fibrosis. By being inhaled, the ALK5i efficiently inhibits TGFβ signaling locally in the lung which is expected to maximize its therapeutic effect.
Economic Interest in GSK-Partnered Respiratory Programs
We hold an 85% economic interest in any future payments that may be made by GSK to Theravance Respiratory Company, LLC (“TRC”) pursuant to its agreements with Innoviva (net of TRC expenses paid and the amount of cash, if any, expected to be used by TRC pursuant to the TRC LLC Agreement over the next four fiscal quarters) relating to the GSK-Partnered Respiratory Programs, which Innoviva partnered with GSK and assigned to TRC in connection with Innoviva’s separation of its biopharmaceutical operations into its then wholly-owned subsidiary Theravance Biopharma in June 2014. The GSK-Partnered Respiratory Programs consist primarily of the TRELEGY program, which is described in more detail below. We are entitled to this economic interest through our equity ownership in TRC. Our economic interest does not include any payments associated with RELVAR ELLIPTA/BREO ELLIPTA, ANORO ELLIPTA or vilanterol monotherapy.
The following information regarding the TRELEGY program is based solely upon publicly available information and may not reflect the most recent developments under the programs.
TRELEGY (the combination of fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium bromide/vilanterol)
TRELEGY provides the activity of an inhaled corticosteroid (FF) plus two bronchodilators (UMEC, a LAMA, and VI, a long-acting beta2 agonist, or LABA) in a single delivery device administered once-daily. TRELEGY is approved for use in the US, European Union (“EU”), and other countries for the long-term, once-daily, maintenance treatment of patients with COPD. We hold an 85% economic interest in the royalties payable by GSK to TRC on worldwide net sales (net of TRC expenses paid and the amount of cash, if any, expected to be used by TRC pursuant to the TRC LLC Agreement over the next four fiscal quarters) through our interest in TRC. Those royalties are upward-tiering from 6.5% to 10%, resulting in cash flows to us of approximately 5.5% to 8.5% of worldwide net sales of TRELEGY (net of TRC expenses paid and the amount of cash, if any, expected to be used by TRC pursuant to the TRC LLC Agreement over the next four fiscal quarters). Theravance Biopharma is not responsible for any of GSK’s costs related to the development or commercialization of TRELEGY.
Additionally, the FDA approved an sNDA for the use of TRELEGY to treat asthma in adults in September 2020 making TRELEGY the first once-daily single inhaler triple therapy for the treatment of both asthma and COPD in the US. GSK has obtained approval for the asthma indication in ten additional markets. TRELEGY is currently expected to generate global peak sales of $3.6 billion annually according to consensus estimates. Over the past three years, TRELEGY has shown impressive growth, with global net sales increasing from $663 million in 2019 to $1.1 billion in 2020 and to $1.7 billion in 2021.
Theravance Respiratory Company, LLC
Prior to the June 2014 spin-off from Innoviva, our former parent company, Innoviva assigned to Theravance Respiratory Company, LLC (“TRC”), a Delaware limited liability company formed by Innoviva, its strategic alliance agreement with GSK and all of its rights and obligations under its collaboration agreement with GSK, other than with respect to RELVAR ELLIPTA/BREO ELLIPTA, ANORO ELLIPTA and vilanterol monotherapy.
Our equity interest in TRC is the mechanism by which we are entitled to the 85% economic interest in any future payments made by GSK under the strategic alliance agreement and under the portion of the collaboration agreement assigned to TRC by Innoviva (net of TRC expenses paid and the amount of cash, if any, expected to be used by TRC pursuant to the TRC LLC Agreement over the next four fiscal quarters). TRELEGY is currently the only commercial product arising out of the GSK agreements assigned by Innoviva to TRC. Royalty payments from GSK to TRC arising from the net sales of Trelegy are presented in our consolidated statements of operations within “Income from investment in TRC, LLC” and is classified as non-operating income. In June 2020, we also recorded $8.5 million within “Income from investment in TRC, LLC” representing our share of a $10.0 million fee that GSK agreed to pay TRC upon termination of the inhaled Bifunctional Muscarinic Antagonist-Beta2 Agonist (“MABA”) program. Seventy-five percent of the “Income from investment in TRC, LLC,” as evidenced by the Issuer II Class C Units (defined below), is available only for payment of the $400.0 million original aggregate amount of 9.5% fixed rate non-recourse term notes due 2035 (the “Non-Recourse 2035 Notes”) and is not available to pay our other obligations or the claims of our other creditors.
Our special purpose subsidiary Triple Royalty Sub II LLC (the “Issuer II”) issued the Non-Recourse 2035 Notes in February 2020, the proceeds of which were used in part to repay the outstanding balance of our 9.0% non-recourse notes, due on or before 2033 (the “Non-Recourse 2033 Notes”) that were issued in November 2018. The Non-Recourse 2035 Notes are secured by all of the Issuer II’s rights, title and interest as a holder of certain membership interests (the “Issuer II Class C Units”) in TRC. The Issuer II Class C Units entitle the Issuer II to receive 63.75% of the economic interest that TRC receives in any future payments made by GSK under the agreements described above, or 75% of the income from our 85% ownership interest in TRC.
We initiated an arbitration proceeding in October 2020 against Innoviva and TRC, challenging the authority of Innoviva and TRC to pursue a business plan to use TRELEGY royalties to invest in certain privately-held companies, rather than distribute such funds that would otherwise be available for distribution to us under the terms of the TRC LLC Agreement to us in a manner that we believe is consistent with the TRC LLC Agreement and our 85% economic interest in TRC.
On March 30, 2021, the arbitrator ruled that, we had not shown that at their then current levels of investment, Innoviva and TRC had not breached the TRC LLC Agreement as of the date of the arbitration. The arbitrator further ruled that Innoviva and TRC had not breached the implied covenant of good faith and fair dealing; or their fiduciary duties. The arbitrator also ruled that (i) Innoviva was entitled to indemnification from TRC for all legal fees and expenses reasonably incurred in the arbitration and (ii) we were entitled to indemnification from TRC for legal fees and costs incurred in defending an action Innoviva brought against us in the Delaware Court of Chancery. The arbitrator noted in the ruling that although we failed to show that Innoviva’s investment activities, at the then current levels of investment, have or will have a material and adverse effect on our economic interest in TRC, this does not mean that any future investments or actions will not require our consent. The arbitrator noted in the ruling that we may, in the future, have a consent right over the decision to continue this investment strategy or whether to make a particular investment if, for example, Innoviva develops a track record of poor investments, over allocates royalties to these investment activities, or fails to distribute sufficient investment returns, and such facts cause the strategy or investment to have a material adverse effect on our economic interest in TRC.
Pursuant to the terms of the TRC LLC Agreement, Innoviva is required to deliver to us a draft quarterly financial plan 30 days prior to the end of each fiscal quarter covering the next fiscal quarter. While the TRC LLC Agreement provides that Innoviva must consider in good faith any comments the Company provides, an applicable financial plan becomes effective 30 days after the draft plan is provided to the Company. We have objected to the proposed investments in private companies presented in draft TRC quarterly financial plans to date. If TRC identifies and consummates investments and incurs associated fees identified in a TRC quarterly plan, even over the Company’s objections, distributions by TRC to its members in subsequent quarters will be reduced.
Our objections with regard to a draft TRC quarterly plan or other actions by TRC could result in additional legal proceedings between us, TRC and Innoviva, as was the case when we initiated arbitration proceedings against Innoviva and TRC in May 2019 and again in October 2020. Any such legal proceedings could divert the attention of management and cause us to incur significant costs, regardless of the outcome, which we cannot predict. If such proceedings were pursued, there can be no assurance that they would result in us receiving additional distributions from TRC. An adverse result could materially and adversely affect the funds that our affiliates would otherwise expect to receive from TRC in the future. See “Risk Factors—We do not control the commercialization of TRELEGY and we do not control TRC; accordingly the amount of royalties we receive will depend on, among other factors, GSK’s ability to further commercialize TRELEGY and TRC’s decisions concerning use of cash in accordance with the TRC LLC Agreement” for additional information.
Other Economic Interests
Selective 5-HT4 Agonist (TD-8954)
TD-8954 is a selective 5-HT4 receptor agonist being developed for potential use in the treatment of gastrointestinal motility disorders.
Takeda Collaborative Arrangement
In June 2016, we entered into a License and Collaboration Agreement (the “Takeda Agreement”) with Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (“Millennium”), in order to establish a collaboration for the development and commercialization of TD-8954 (TAK-954). Millennium is an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited (“Takeda”). TD-8954 is currently in a Phase 2 study as a potential treatment for post-operative gastrointestinal dysfunction. Under the terms of the Takeda Agreement, Takeda is responsible for worldwide development and commercialization of TD-8954. We received an upfront cash payment of $15.0 million and will be eligible to receive success-based development, regulatory and sales milestone payments from Takeda. We will also be eligible to receive a tiered royalty on worldwide net sales by Takeda at percentage royalty rates ranging from low double-digits to mid-teens.
Skin-selective Pan-JAK inhibitor Program
In December 2019, we entered into a global license agreement with Pfizer Inc. (“Pfizer”) for our preclinical skin-selective, locally-acting pan-JAK inhibitor program (the “Pfizer Agreement”). The compounds in this program are
designed to target validated pro-inflammatory pathways and are specifically designed to possess skin-selective activity with minimal systemic exposure.
Under the Pfizer Agreement, Pfizer has an exclusive license to develop, manufacture and commercialize certain compounds for all uses other than gastrointestinal, ophthalmic and respiratory applications. We received an upfront cash payment of $10.0 million and are eligible to receive up to an additional $240.0 million in development and sales milestone payments from Pfizer. In addition, we are eligible to receive a tiered royalty on worldwide net sales of any potential products under the license at percentage royalty rates ranging from middle single-digits to low double-digits.
Our research projects leverage years of experience in developing lung-selective medicines to address the needs of patients suffering from respiratory illness. As a result of our strategic restructuring announced in September 2021, we intend to streamline and narrow our R&D focus on our highest value core respiratory opportunities. This would include the peak inspiratory flow rate (“PIFR”) clinical study, in partnership with Viatris, to support the label update of YUPELRI and continued investment in our investigational inhaled Janus kinase inhibitor portfolio, with focus on the most advanced clinical candidate, nezulcitinib, initially targeting acute lung injury.
Our core purpose is to create medicines that help improve the lives of patients suffering from respiratory illness. We strive to apply insight and innovation at each stage of our business, including research, development and commercialization. Our principle strategic objective is to leverage decades of respiratory expertise to discover and develop respiratory medicines that make a difference in people’s lives.
We follow these core guiding principles in our mission to drive value creation:
Focus on insight and innovation;
Outsource non-core activities;
Create and foster an integrated environment; and
Aggressively manage uncertainty.
We manage our pipeline with the goal of optimizing program value and allocation of resources. We employ multiple strategies for commercialization of our products. Our approach may involve retaining product rights and marketing a product independently in the US or we may partner a product to extend our commercial reach, to expand our geographic reach, and/or to manage the financial risk associated with the program. Alternatively, we may monetize or divest an asset that we designate as outside our core business, where we believe the program is optimized by leveraging partner capabilities and removing or limiting our research and development costs.
We rely primarily on a network of third-party manufacturers, including contract manufacturing organizations, to produce the active pharmaceutical ingredients (“API”) and drug products required for our clinical trials and drug product. We believe that we and our partners have in-house expertise to manage this network of third-party manufacturers, and we believe that we will be able to continue to negotiate third-party manufacturing arrangements on commercially reasonable terms and that it will not be necessary for us to rely on internal manufacturing capacity in order to develop or, potentially, commercialize our products. However, if we are unable to obtain contract manufacturing or obtain such manufacturing on commercially reasonable terms, or if manufacturing is interrupted at one of our suppliers, whether due to regulatory or other reasons, we may not be able to develop our products or commercialize product as planned.
Any inability to acquire sufficient quantities of API or drug product in a timely manner from current or future sources could disrupt our research and development programs, the conduct of future clinical trials or our commercialization efforts. For more information, see the risk factor under the heading “There is a single source of
supply for a number of our product candidates and for YUPELRI, and our business will be harmed if any of these single-source manufacturers are not able to satisfy demand and alternative sources are not available” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
The development and commercialization of pharmaceutical products and our product candidates by us, our collaboration partners and licensees, and those commercializing products in which we have an economic interest, such as GSK, and our ongoing research are subject to extensive regulation by governmental authorities in the US and other countries. Before marketing in the US, any medicine must undergo rigorous preclinical studies and clinical studies and an extensive regulatory approval process implemented by the FDA under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. Outside the US, the ability to market a product depends upon receiving a marketing authorization from the appropriate regulatory authorities which are subject to equally rigorous regulatory obligations. The requirements governing the conduct of clinical studies, marketing authorization, pricing and reimbursement vary widely from country to country. In any country, however, the commercialization of pharmaceutical products is permitted only if the appropriate regulatory authority is satisfied that we have presented adequate evidence of the safety, quality and efficacy of the product.
Before commencing clinical studies in humans in the US, we must submit to the FDA an investigational new drug application (“IND”) that includes, among other things, the general investigational plan and protocols for specific human studies and the results of preclinical studies. An IND will go into effect 30 days following its receipt by the FDA unless the FDA issues a clinical hold. Once clinical studies have begun under the IND, they are usually conducted in three phases and under FDA oversight. These phases generally include the following:
Phase 1. The product candidate is introduced into patients or healthy human volunteers and is tested for safety, dose tolerance and pharmacokinetics.
Phase 2. The product candidate is introduced into a limited patient population to assess the efficacy of the drug in specific, targeted indications, assess dosage tolerance and optimal dosage, and identify possible adverse effects and safety risks.
Phase 3. Phase 3 clinical trials are undertaken to further evaluate dosage, clinical efficacy, potency and safety in an expanded patient population at geographically dispersed clinical trial sites. These clinical trials are intended to establish the overall risk/benefit profile of the product and provide an adequate basis for product labeling.
The results of product development, preclinical studies and clinical studies must be submitted to the FDA as part of an NDA. The NDA also must contain extensive manufacturing information, and under the Pediatric Research Equity Act (“PREA”), certain applications for approval must also include an assessment, generally based on clinical study data, of the safety and effectiveness of the subject drug in relevant pediatric populations. The submission of an NDA generally requires payment of a substantial user fee to the FDA under the Prescription Drug User Fee Act (“PDUFA”), subject to certain limited deferrals, waivers and reductions. FDA’s PDUFA performance goal is to review and act on 90 percent of priority new molecular entity (“NME”) NDA submissions within 6 months of the 60-day filing date, and to review and act on 90 percent of standard NME NDA submissions within 10 months of the 60-day filing date. The FDA may determine that a Risk Evaluation and Management Strategy (“REMS”) is necessary to ensure that the benefits of a product outweigh its risks. At the end of the review period, the FDA communicates either approval of the NDA or issues a complete response letter (“CRL”) listing the application’s deficiencies. The CRL may require additional testing or information, including additional pre-clinical or clinical data, for the FDA to reconsider the application. Even if such additional information and data are submitted, the FDA may decide that the NDA still does not meet the standards for approval. Data from clinical trials are not always conclusive and the FDA may interpret data differently than the sponsor. FDA approval of any application may include many delays or never be granted. If FDA grants approval, an approval letter authorizes commercial marketing of the product candidate with specific prescribing information for specific indications. Post-approval modifications to the drug, such as changes in indications, labeling, or manufacturing processes or facilities, may require a sponsor to develop additional data or conduct additional pre-clinical studies or clinical trials, to be submitted in a new or supplemental NDA, which would require FDA approval.
If an application is approved, drug products are subject to continuing regulation by the FDA, and the FDA may withdraw the product approval if compliance with post-marketing regulatory standards is not maintained or if safety or quality issues are identified after the product reaches the marketplace. In addition, the FDA may require post-marketing studies, sometimes referred to as Phase 4 studies, to monitor the safety and effectiveness of approved products, and may limit further marketing of the product based on the results of these post-marketing studies. The FDA has broad post-market regulatory and enforcement powers, including the ability to require changes to a product’s approved labeling, including the addition of new warnings and contraindications, or the implementation of other risk management measures, including distribution-related restrictions, if there are new safety information developments, suspend or delay issuance of approvals, seize products, withdraw approvals, enjoin violations, and initiate criminal prosecution.
If regulatory approval for a medicine is obtained, the clearance to market the product will be limited to those diseases and conditions approved by FDA and for which the medicine was shown to be effective, as demonstrated through clinical studies and specified in the medicine’s labeling. If this regulatory approval is obtained, a marketed medicine, its manufacturer and its manufacturing facilities are subject to continual review and periodic inspections by the FDA. The FDA ensures the quality of approved medicines, carefully monitoring manufacturers’ compliance with its current Good Manufacturing Practice (“cGMP”) regulations by conducting regular, periodic visits to re-inspect equipment, facilities, and processes following the initial approval of a product. Failure to comply with applicable cGMP requirements and conditions of product approval may lead the FDA to take enforcement actions or seek sanctions, including fines, issuance of warning letters, civil penalties, injunctions, suspension of manufacturing operations, operating restrictions, withdrawal of FDA approval, seizure or recall of products, and criminal prosecution. The cGMP regulations for drugs contain minimum requirements for the methods, facilities, and controls used in manufacturing, processing, and packaging of a medicine. The regulations are intended to make sure that a medicine is safe for use, and that it has the ingredients and strength it claims to have. Discovery of previously unknown problems with a medicine, manufacturer or facility may result in restrictions on the medicine or manufacturer, including fines, issuance of warning letters, civil penalties, injunctions, suspension of manufacturing operations, operating restrictions, costly recalls, withdrawal of FDA approval, and criminal prosecution.
Additionally, the FDA and other federal regulatory agencies closely regulate the marketing and promotion of drugs through, among other things, standards and regulations for direct-to-consumer advertising, advertising and promotion to healthcare professionals, communications regarding unapproved uses, industry-sponsored scientific and educational activities, and promotional activities involving the Internet. A product cannot be promoted before it is approved. After approval, product promotion can include only those claims relating to safety and effectiveness that are consistent with the labeling approved by the FDA. Healthcare providers are permitted to prescribe drugs for “off-label” uses - that is, uses not approved by the FDA and not described in the product’s labeling - because the FDA does not regulate the practice of medicine. However, FDA regulations impose restrictions on manufacturers’ communications regarding off-label uses. Broadly speaking, a manufacturer may not promote a drug for off-label use, but under certain conditions may engage in non-promotional, balanced, scientific communication regarding off-label use. Failure to comply with applicable FDA requirements and restrictions in this area may subject a company to adverse publicity and enforcement action by the FDA, the Department of Justice, or the Office of the Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services, as well as state authorities. This could subject a company to a range of penalties that could have a significant commercial impact, including civil and criminal fines and agreements that materially restrict the manner in which a company promotes or distributes a drug.
We, our collaboration partners and licensees are also subject to various laws and regulations regarding laboratory practices, the experimental use of animals and the use and disposal of hazardous or potentially hazardous substances in connection with our research. In each of these areas, as above, the FDA and other regulatory authorities have broad regulatory and enforcement powers, including the ability to suspend or delay issuance of approvals, seize products, withdraw approvals, enjoin violations, and initiate criminal prosecution, any one or more of which could have a material adverse effect upon our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Outside the US, the ability to market products will also depend on receiving marketing authorizations from the appropriate regulatory authorities. Risks similar to those associated with FDA approval described above exist with the regulatory approval processes in other countries.
United States Healthcare Reform
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended (the “Healthcare Reform Act”), substantially changed the way healthcare is financed by both governmental and private insurers, and impacts pricing and reimbursement of YUPELRI and the marketed drugs with respect to which we are entitled to royalty or similar payments, and related commercial operations. Certain provisions of the Healthcare Reform Act have been subject to judicial challenges as well as efforts to modify them or to alter their interpretation or implementation. We expect that the Healthcare Reform Act, its implementation, efforts to modify, or invalidate, the Healthcare Reform Act or portions thereof, or its implementation, and other healthcare reform measures that may be adopted in the future, could have a material adverse effect on our industry generally and on the ability of us, our collaboration partners, or those commercializing products with respect to which we have an economic interest or right to receive royalties to maintain or increase sales of our existing products or to successfully commercialize our product candidates, if approved. For more information, see the risk factor under the heading “Changes in healthcare law and implementing regulations, including government restrictions on pricing and reimbursement, as well as healthcare policy and other healthcare payor cost-containment initiatives, may negatively impact us, our collaboration partners, or those commercializing products with respect to which we have an economic interest or right to receive royalties” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement
We participated in and had certain price reporting obligations under the Medicaid Drug Rebate and other programs for VIBATIV ® for which we remain responsible, as described in greater detail under the risk factor “If we failed to comply with our reporting and payment obligations under the Medicaid Drug Rebate program or other governmental pricing programs, we could be subject to additional reimbursement requirements, penalties, sanctions and fines, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Our ability, and the ability of our collaboration partners, licensees, or those commercializing products with respect to which we have an economic interest or right to receive royalties to commercialize our products successfully, and our ability to attract commercialization partners for our products, depends in significant part on the availability of adequate financial coverage and reimbursement from third-party payors, including, in the US, governmental payors such as the Medicare and Medicaid programs, managed care organizations, and private health insurers. The reimbursement environment is described in greater detail under the risk factor “Changes in healthcare law and implementing regulations, including government restrictions on pricing and reimbursement, as well as healthcare policy and other healthcare payor cost-containment initiatives, may negatively impact us, our collaboration partners, or those commercializing products with respect to which we have an economic interest or right to receive royalties” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Fraud and Abuse Laws
Our interactions and arrangements with customers and third-party payors are subject to applicable US federal and state fraud and abuse laws and equivalent third country laws. These laws and the related risks are described in greater detail under the risk factor “Our relationships with customers and third-party payors are subject to applicable anti-kickback, fraud and abuse, transparency and other healthcare laws and regulations, which could expose us to criminal sanctions, civil penalties, exclusion, contractual damages, reputational harm and diminished profits and future earnings” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Data Privacy and Protection
We are subject to laws and regulations that address privacy and data security. In the US, numerous federal and state laws and regulations, including state data breach notification laws, state health information and/or genetic privacy laws, and federal and state consumer protection laws (e.g., Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act (“FTC Act”)), govern the collection, use, disclosure, and protection of health-related and other personal information. Similar obligations apply outside of the US. For example, the General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) which entered into force on May 25, 2018 amplified existing data protection obligations in the EU. These laws and related risks are described in greater detail under the risk factor “If we fail to comply with data protection laws and regulations, we could be subject to government enforcement actions (which could include civil or criminal penalties), private litigation and/or
adverse publicity, which could negatively affect our operating results and business” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Patents and Proprietary Rights
We will be able to protect our technology from unauthorized use by third parties only to the extent that our technology is covered by valid and enforceable patents or is effectively maintained as trade secrets. Our success in the future will depend in part on obtaining patent protection for our product candidates. Accordingly, patents and other proprietary rights are essential elements of our business. Our policy is to seek in the US and selected foreign countries patent protection for novel technologies and compositions of matter that are commercially important to the development of our business. For proprietary know-how that is not patentable, processes for which patents are difficult to enforce and any other elements of our drug discovery process that involve proprietary know-how and technology that is not covered by patent applications, we rely on trade secret protection and confidentiality agreements to protect our interests. We require all of our employees, consultants and advisors to enter into confidentiality agreements. Where it is necessary to share our proprietary information or data with outside parties, our policy is to make available only that information and data required to accomplish the desired purpose and only pursuant to a duty of confidentiality on the part of those parties.
As of December 31, 2021, we owned 285 issued US patents and 1,968 granted foreign patents, as well as additional pending US patent applications and foreign patent applications. The claims in these various patents and patent applications are typically directed to compositions of matter, including claims covering product candidates, crystalline forms, lead compounds and key intermediates, pharmaceutical compositions, methods of use and/or processes for making our compounds. In particular, our wholly-owned subsidiary Theravance Biopharma R&D IP, LLC owns the following US patents which are listed in the FDA Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations (Orange Book) for YUPELRI (revefenacin) inhalation solution: US Patent No. 7,288,657, expiring on December 23, 2025; US Patent No. 7,491,736, expiring March 10, 2025; US Patent No. 7,521,041, expiring March 10, 2025; US Patent No. 7,550,595, expiring March 10, 2025; US Patent No. 7,585,879, expiring March 10, 2025; US Patent No. 7,910,608, expiring March 10, 2025; US Patent No. 8,034,946, expiring March 10, 2025; US Patent No. 8,053,448, expiring March 10, 2025; US Patent No. 8,273,894, expiring March 10, 2025; US Patent No. 8,541,451, expiring August 25, 2031; US Patent No. 9,765,028, expiring July 14, 2030; US Patent No. 10,106,503, expiring March 10, 2025; US Patent No. 10,343,995, expiring March 10, 2025; US Patent No. 10,550,081, expiring July 14, 2030; and US Patent No. 11,008,289, expiring July 14, 2030 (each of the aforementioned expiration dates not including any patent term extensions that may be available under the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984). Thus, the last to expire patent currently listed in the Orange Book for YUPELRI (revefenacin) inhalation solution expires on August 25, 2031. On December 19, 2018, we filed patent term extension (“PTE”) applications in the US Patent and Trademark Office (“USPTO”) for US Patent Nos. 7,288,657 and 7,585,879. These PTE applications are currently pending and if granted, we will be permitted to extend the term of one of these patents for the period determined by the USPTO.
Issued US and foreign patents generally expire 20 years after their filing date. The patent rights relating to YUPELRI (revefenacin) inhalation solution currently consist of issued US patents, pending US patent applications and counterpart patents and patent applications in a number of jurisdictions, including Europe. Additionally, our patent rights relating to nezulcitinib currently include an issued US composition of matter patent that expires in 2039 (not including any patent term extensions that may be available under the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984), as well as additional pending patent applications in a number of jurisdictions. Nevertheless, issued patents can be challenged, narrowed, invalidated or circumvented, which could limit our ability to stop competitors from marketing similar products and threaten our ability to commercialize our product candidates. Our patent position, similar to other companies in our industry, is generally uncertain and involves complex legal and factual questions. To maintain our proprietary position, we will need to obtain effective claims and enforce these claims once granted. It is possible that, before any of our products can be commercialized, any related patent may expire or remain in force only for a short period following commercialization, thereby reducing any advantage of the patent. Also, we do not know whether any of our patent applications will result in any issued patents or, if issued, whether the scope of the issued claims will be sufficient to protect our proprietary position.
Patent Term Restoration and Regulatory Exclusivities
Depending upon the timing, duration, and specifics of FDA approval of our product candidates, some of our United States patents may be eligible for limited patent term extension under the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984, referred to as the Hatch-Waxman Act. The Hatch-Waxman Act permits a patent restoration term of up to five years as compensation for patent term lost during product development and the FDA regulatory review process. However, patent term restoration cannot extend the remaining term of a patent beyond a total of 14 years from the product’s approval date. The patent term restoration period is generally one-half the time between the effective date of an IND, and the submission date of an NDA, plus the time between the submission date of an NDA and the approval of that application, except that the period is reduced by any time during which the applicant failed to exercise due diligence. Only one patent applicable to an approved drug is eligible for the extension, and the extension must be applied for prior to expiration of the patent and within 60 days of approval. The United States Patent and Trademark Office, in consultation with the FDA, reviews and approves the application for any patent term extension or restoration.
The Hatch-Waxman Act also provides periods of regulatory exclusivity for products that would serve as a reference listed drug, or RLD, for an abbreviated new drug application, or ANDA, or application submitted under section 505(b)(2) of the FDCA, or 505(b)(2) application. If a product is a new chemical entity, or NCE — generally meaning that the active moiety has never before been approved in any drug — there is a period of five years from the product’s approval during which the FDA may not accept for filing any ANDA or 505(b)(2) application for a drug with the same active moiety. An ANDA or 505(b)(2) application may be submitted after four years, however, if the sponsor of the application makes a “Paragraph IV” certification.
A may also qualify for a three-year period of exclusivity if the NDA contains new clinical data (other than bioavailability studies), derived from studies conducted by or for the sponsor, that were necessary for approval. In that instance, the exclusivity period does not preclude filing or review of an ANDA or 505(b)(2) application; rather, the FDA is precluded from granting final approval to the ANDA or 505(b)(2) application until three years after approval of the RLD. Additionally, the exclusivity applies only to the conditions of approval that required submission of the clinical data.
Once the FDA accepts for filing an ANDA or 505(b)(2) application containing a Paragraph IV certification, the applicant must within 20 days provide notice to the RLD NDA holder and patent owner that the application has been submitted and provide the factual and legal basis for the applicant’s assertion that the patent is invalid or not infringed. If the NDA holder or patent owner files suit against the ANDA or 505(b)(2) applicant for patent infringement within 45 days of receiving the Paragraph IV notice, the FDA is prohibited from approving the ANDA or 505(b)(2) application for a period of 30 months or the resolution of the underlying suit, whichever is earlier. If the RLD has NCE exclusivity and the notice is given and suit filed during the fifth year of exclusivity, the regulatory stay extends until 7.5 years after the RLD approval. The FDA may approve the proposed product before the expiration of the regulatory stay if a court finds the patent invalid or not infringed or if the court shortens the period because the parties have failed to cooperate in expediting the litigation.
Our core development programs, and the marketed products to which we are entitled to profit share revenue, royalty or similar payments is focused on respiratory therapeutics. Our commercial infrastructure is focused primarily on the acute care setting. We expect that any respiratory medicines that we commercialize with our collaborative partners or on our own will compete with existing and future market-leading medicines.
Many of our competitors have substantially greater financial, technical and personnel resources than we have. In addition, many of these competitors have significantly greater commercial infrastructures than we have. Our ability to compete successfully will depend largely on our ability to leverage our experience in drug discovery, development and commercialization to:
discover and develop respiratory medicines that are superior to other products in the market;
attract and retain qualified scientific, clinical development and commercial personnel;
obtain patent and/or other proprietary protection for our medicines and technologies;
obtain required regulatory approvals;
commercialize approved products; and
successfully collaborate with pharmaceutical companies in the discovery, development and commercialization of new respiratory medicines.
YUPELRI (revefenacin) inhalation solution, a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA)
YUPELRI competes predominately with the nebulized LAMA Lonhala® Magnair® (glycopyrrolate) dosed two times per day and with short acting nebulized bronchodilators that are dosed three to four times per day.
Trelegy or FF/UMEC/VI (fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium bromide/vilanterol)
For treatment of COPD, Trelegy competes in all major markets with AstraZeneca’s Breztri® Aerosphere® (budesonide/glycopyrronium/formoterol fumarate, dosed twice per day). Trimbow (beclometasone dipropionate/formoterol fumarate/glycopyrronium bromide, dosed twice per day) from Chiesi Farmaceutici is an additional COPD competitor in Europe.
For treatment of asthma, TRELEGY is the only triple therapy approved in the US and competes in Japan with Novartis’s Enerzair® Breezhaler® (indacaterol acetate, glycopyrronium bromide and mometasone furoate, dosed once daily).
In both COPD and asthma, TRELEGY also competes with “open triple” therapy which can be accomplished by the concurrent use of two or three products. An example of such use includes a LABA/ICS combination such as AstraZeneca’s Symbicort and a LAMA such as Boehringer Ingelheim’s Spiriva.
As of December 31, 2021, we had 159 employees, 158 full-time and one part-time. Of these employees, 143 were in the US, and 16 were non-US. As previously disclosed, due to the Restructuring event in September 2021, approximately 75% of our headcount was reduced, with approximately 75% of the reduction taking place in November 2021 and the remainder to be completed in February 2022, leaving approximately 106 employees as part of the new structure.
Culture and Employee Engagement
We consider our employee relations first-rate and strive to provide a culture of purpose, engagement, and learning. Theravance has a strong value proposition anchored in our Core Values—We Think it Through, We Find a Way, We Get it Done, and We Win Together. We strive to live these values across the Company every day, integrating them into everything from our interview, hiring, and onboarding processes to our PULSE performance process, total rewards, and recognition programs. In addition to valuing professional qualifications, we emphasize the importance of character and integrity, fostering a culture of empowerment where employees have ownership in business outcomes. Reflected in our Core Values are behaviors that keep our people engaged and working collaboratively. Our employees are encouraged to ask questions, make suggestions, and provide input through many forms of corporate communication such as an open-door policy, all-employee meetings, an anonymous online suggestion box, and an employee PULSE survey.
Our employee PULSE survey is designed to assist us in measuring overall employee engagement and consistently achieves participation rates between 85-92%. 2021 survey scores averaged in the positive range from 4.1 to 4.6 on a scale of 1 (Strongly Disagree) through 5 (Strongly Agree). Our highest score on average (4.6) was related to the frequency of discussions with managers. When compared to October 2020, there was a significant increase in the frequency of discussions with managers (from 3.9 to 4.6) and a slight increase in senior leadership communication (from
3.9 to 4.3). These survey results provide important insight into organizational success and opportunity, allowing potential variation in overall satisfaction to be identified and addressed as we move forward.
We have significant retention incentives in place post-Restructuring. These include a special incentive compensation program of both long- and short-term offerings and an engagement plan that connects the importance of achieving our core purpose to the strength of our connections and team-building. In addition, through Reimagining Theravance, we empowered and engaged employees to provide feedback on our existing operating model and actively set the foundation for a hybrid-remote operating model to be launched in 2022. Our reimagined operating model celebrates the increased flexibility and productivity many employees reported during remote work while allowing broad access to office workstations and the in-person collaborations that elevate our culture and give us our competitive advantage.
We expect all employees to observe the highest levels of business ethics while delivering the highest levels of performance. These expectations are outlined and reinforced in various documents and forms of communication within and across our Company. The Company encourages employees to speak up and raise questions and concerns promptly about any situation that may violate our Code of Business Conduct, our Core Values, or our policies. We believe that it benefits the entire Company for employees to raise concerns so the Company may consider them carefully and address them appropriately. We seek to promote an environment that fosters honest communications about matters of conduct related to our business activities, whether that conduct occurs within the Company, involves one of the Company’s contractors, suppliers, consultants, clients, or any other party with a business relationship with the Company. We work diligently to make clear that management is prepared to address any reported violations and ensure that it is known that any form of retaliation is strictly prohibited. In addition, we have an easily accessible hotline available to employees wishing to report complaints anonymously.
Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion
As an equal opportunity employer, we strive to build and maintain a culture of diversity, equity, and inclusion through both our business and human resources practices and policies. We work to eliminate discrimination and harassment in all its forms, including related to color, race, sex or gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, age, pregnancy, caste, disability, ethnicity, national origin, ancestry, religious beliefs, veteran status, uniformed service member status, or physical or mental disability. We strive to build and foster a culture where all employees feel empowered to be their authentic selves. Our Diversity, Equity & Inclusion Council and Women’s Leadership Network are Company-sponsored, employee-led groups that aim to improve attraction, retention, development, inclusion, and engagement of a diverse and global workforce. For the benefit of our employees, patients, and community, we must celebrate, encourage, and support similarities and differences to drive innovation.
Talent, Development, and Total Rewards
We believe that our talent strategy of providing exciting career growth and development opportunities, recognizing and rewarding performance, providing competitive compensation and benefits assists us in attracting and retaining the best talent. We believe we are successful in our retention efforts because we provide challenging work assignments, cross-functional teamwork experiences, and career progression supported by new skill-building. We invest in employee learning and development by identifying and providing training and development programs, speakers, tuition reimbursement, and cross-training in areas of interest beyond hired role. We strive to average between 25-35 training hours per employee per year.
We offer a competitive total rewards package that supports our business strategy to attract, retain and reward our employees in a highly competitive market. Our employees are provided with a strong base salary, cash bonus opportunities, equity incentives, health and wellness benefits, and programs. We regularly evaluate our compensation programs with an independent consultant and utilize industry benchmarking. In addition, we provide a variety of programs and services that meet our employees' needs and encourage work-life balance. These services include competitive and affordable healthcare and additional insurance benefits for both full-time and part-time employees, including eligible dependents. We also match contributions to tax-qualified defined contribution savings (401k) plans, offer an employee share purchasing plan (“ESPP”), and provide training and development programs designed to improve workplace performance while supporting flexible, hybrid-remote working.
Understanding the importance of goal setting and ongoing career development conversations, Theravance Biopharma requires managers and employees to play an active role in the PULSE performance management process at monthly, quarterly, and annual frequencies. PULSE is designed to increase clarity and accountability for roles and responsibilities, strengthen communication, build trust, all while championing personal and professional growth, learning, and success.
Great teamwork is a critical foundation for Theravance Biopharma. The TheraStars Rewards and Recognition Program helps us maintain a culture of recognition and teamwork by offering various options for our employees and managers to recognize and reward colleagues across the organization. In 2021, 97% of our employee population were active registered users, with each user averaging seven awards sent in recognition. These moments of celebration establish, reinforce, and maintain our sense of community and teamwork so critical in our ability to achieve our core purpose.
Workplace Safety and COVID-19
Workplace safety is always a priority for Theravance Biopharma. To maintain a safe and healthy workplace, we have implemented initiatives, procedures, and policies designed to address risk and stay compliant with relevant national and international health and safety standards.
In response to COVID-19, our COVID Task Force continues to lead the Company through the evolution of a pandemic with a continued focus on employee wellness and safety, policy updates based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (“CDC”), county, federal and state guidelines, and ongoing employee communication. As part of this evolution, we have an initiative in place to move to a strategically flexible workforce, encouraging a hybrid-remote model, allowing us to reimagine how we work, and propelling us to emerge as a stronger, more nimble company.
Financial Information About Geographic Areas
Information on our total revenues attributed to geographic areas and customers who represented at least 10% of our total revenues is included in “Item 8, Note 4. Segment Information,” to our consolidated financial statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Theravance Biopharma was incorporated in the Cayman Islands in July 2013 under the name Theravance Biopharma, Inc. Theravance Biopharma began operating as an independent, publicly-traded company on June 2, 2014 following a spin-off from Innoviva, Inc. Our corporate address in the Cayman Islands and principal executive office is P.O. Box 309, Ugland House, Grand Cayman, KY1-1104, Cayman Islands and the address of our wholly-owned US operating subsidiary Theravance Biopharma US, Inc. is 901 Gateway Boulevard, South San Francisco, California 94080. While Theravance Biopharma is incorporated under Cayman Island law, the Company became an Irish tax resident effective July 1, 2015. The address of our wholly-owned Irish operating subsidiary, Theravance Biopharma Ireland Limited, is Connaught House, Burlington Road, Dublin 4, Ireland.
Our Internet address is www.theravance.com. Our investor relations website is located at https://investor.theravance.com. We make available free of charge on our investor relations website under “SEC Filings” our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, our directors’ and officers’ Section 16 Reports and any amendments to those reports as soon as reasonably practicable after filing or furnishing such materials to the US Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). Our current Code of Business Conduct, Corporate Governance Guidelines, Articles of Association, Board of Director Committee Charters, and other materials, including amendments thereto, may also be found on our investor relations website under “Corporate Governance.” The information found on our website is not part of this or any other report that we file with or furnish to the SEC. Theravance Biopharma and the Theravance Biopharma logo are registered trademarks of the Theravance Biopharma group of companies. Trademarks, tradenames or service marks of other companies appearing in this report are the property of their respective owners.
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
The risks described below and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and in our other public filings with the SEC are not the only risks facing the Company. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be not material also may materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and/or operating results.
Summary of Principal Risks Associated with Theravance Biopharma’s Business
|●||We anticipate that we may incur losses for the foreseeable future on a US GAAP basis. We may never achieve or sustain profitability;|
|●||We face risks related to health epidemics, including the recent COVID-19 pandemic, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations;|
|●||We do not control TRC and, in particular, have no control over the GSK Partnered Respiratory Programs, including TRELEGY, or access to non-public information regarding the development of the GSK Partnered Respiratory Programs;|
|●||If there are any adverse developments or perceived adverse developments with respect to the GSK-Partnered Respiratory Programs in which we have a substantial economic interest, including TRELEGY, our business will be harmed, and the price of our securities could fall;|
|●||Any delay in commencing or completing clinical studies for product candidates and any adverse results from clinical or non-clinical studies or regulatory obstacles product candidates may face, would harm our business and the price of our securities could fall;|
|●||If our product candidates are not approved by regulatory authorities, including the FDA, we will be unable to commercialize them;|
|●||If sufficient capital is not available, we may have to further curtail operations or we could be forced to share our rights to commercialize our product candidates with third parties on terms that may not be favorable to us;|
|●||We may fail to achieve the expected cost savings and related benefits from our September 2021 Restructuring;|
|●||If our partners do not satisfy their obligations under our agreements with them, or if they terminate our partnerships with them, we may not be able to develop or commercialize our partnered product candidates as planned; and|
|●||Our ongoing drug discovery and development efforts might not generate additional successful product candidates or approvable drugs.|
RISKS RELATING TO THE COMPANY
We anticipate that we will incur losses for the foreseeable future. We may never achieve or sustain profitability.
First as part of Innoviva, Inc., and since June 2, 2014 as Theravance Biopharma, we have been engaged in discovery and development of compounds and product candidates since mid-1997. We may never generate sufficient revenue from the sale of medicines, royalties on sales by our partners or from our interest in Theravance Respiratory Company, LLC (“TRC”) to achieve profitability. During the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020, and 2019, we recognized net losses of $199.4 million, $278.0 million and $236.5 million, respectively, which are reflected in the
shareholders’ deficit on our consolidated balance sheets. We reflect cumulative net loss incurred after June 2, 2014, the effective date of our spin-off from Innoviva, Inc. (the “Spin-Off”), as accumulated deficit on our consolidated balance sheets, which was $1.7 billion as of December 31, 2021. We expect to continue to incur net losses at least over the next several years as we continue our drug discovery and development efforts and incur preclinical and clinical development costs related to our current product candidates and commercialization and development costs relating to YUPELRI. In particular, to the extent we continue to advance our product candidates into and through additional clinical studies, we will incur substantial expenses. For example, we initiated a Phase 2b/3 induction and maintenance study of izencitinib in ulcerative colitis, we initiated a Phase 2 induction study of izencitinib in Crohn’s disease, and we have progressed ampreloxetine (TD-9855) into a Phase 3 registrational program. The expenses associated with these clinical studies are substantial and, as there was the unfavorable outcome in two of the studies, the compounds are unlikely to generate substantial revenues. While our YUPELRI operations were profitable on a brand basis for the second half of 2020, we will continue to incur costs and expenses associated with the commercialization of YUPELRI in the United States (“US”), including the maintenance of an independent sales and marketing organization with appropriate technical expertise, a medical affairs presence and consultant support, and post-marketing studies. Our commitment of resources to the continued development of our existing product candidates, our discovery programs, and YUPELRI will require significant additional funding. Our operating expenses also will increase if, among other things:
|●||our earlier stage potential products move into later-stage clinical development, which is generally more expensive than early stage development;|
|●||additional preclinical product candidates are selected for clinical development;|
|●||we pursue clinical development of our potential or current products in new indications;|
|●||our clinical trials become more complicated due to the COVID-19 pandemic or other external factors;|
|●||we increase the number of patents we are prosecuting or otherwise expend additional resources on patent prosecution or defense; or|
|●||we acquire or in-license additional technologies, product candidates, products or businesses.|
While we are generating revenues and income from (i) sales of YUPELRI, (ii) our economic interest in royalties from net sales of TRELEGY paid to TRC (63.75% of which amounts are used to make payments on the Non-Recourse 2035 Notes), (iii) payments under collaboration agreements, and (iv) minor royalties from the net sales of VIBATIV, we do not expect to generate significant revenues or become profitable in the near future. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic (defined below), we could experience declines in revenues from these sources. If we or our collaborators or licensees are not able to successfully develop additional products, obtain required regulatory approvals, manufacture products at an acceptable cost or with appropriate quality, or successfully market and sell such products with desired margins, our expenses will continue to exceed any revenues we may receive for the foreseeable future.
In the absence of substantial licensing payments, contingent payments or other revenues from third-party collaborators, royalties on sales of products licensed under our intellectual property rights, or other sources of revenues, we will continue to incur operating losses and will require additional capital to execute our business strategy. The likelihood of reaching, and the time required to reach, and then to sustain, profitability are highly uncertain. As a result, we expect to continue to incur substantial losses for the foreseeable future. We are uncertain when or if we will ever be able to achieve or sustain profitability. Failure to become and remain profitable would adversely affect the price of our securities and our ability to raise capital and continue operations.
We face risks related to health epidemics, including the recent COVID-19 pandemic, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Our business has been and will continue to be adversely affected by the recent widespread and contagious outbreak of respiratory illness caused by a novel strain of coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, causing the Coronavirus Disease 2019, also known as COVID-19 (the “COVID-19 pandemic”). Global health concerns relating to the COVID-19 pandemic have weighed on the macroeconomic environment, and the pandemic has significantly increased economic volatility and uncertainty.
The pandemic resulted in government authorities implementing numerous measures to try to contain the virus, such as travel bans and restrictions, quarantines, shelter-in-place or stay-at-home orders, and business shutdowns. These measures have adversely impacted and may further impact our employees and operations and the operations of our customers, suppliers and business partners, and may negatively impact spending patterns, payment cycles and insurance coverage levels. In addition, certain aspects of our business, such as laboratory-based research, cannot be conducted remotely and other aspects of our business, like our hospital-based sales team, our field-based medical affairs team, and our support of sites in our clinical trials, cannot be accomplished as effectively or efficiently remotely. These measures by government authorities, as well as the precautions we will take in order to operate our business responsibly in light of the COVID-19 pandemic, may continue to remain in place for a significant period of time, and they are likely to continue to adversely affect our business and results of operations.
In addition, we expect sales cycles, particularly for new customers, to continue to be impacted as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, and we have observed continued volatility in YUPELRI sales. Sales momentum has been affected by COVID-19 and may continue to be in the future. We market YUPELRI in the hospital setting, where healthcare workers are prioritizing the treatment of patients with or suspected of COVID-19 disease and to pulmonologists, whose practices have been impacted by the pandemic. In mid-March 2020, we suspended in-person sales calls to accounts in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. In August 2020, we began reengaging with these customers in-person when certain criteria are met and remotely via telephone calls, electronic mail, digital outreach or video conferencing as we seek to continue to support healthcare professionals and patient care. We are now able to more frequently conduct in-person customer engagements, however there is still high variability of access regionally. Customer orders or new patient use of YUPELRI may decline as a result of, among other things, a shift in our marketing efforts, increased workload of healthcare providers, and the impact of the Center for Disease Control interim guidelines for limiting the exposure of health care workers to the virus that causes COVID-19, in which drug nebulization in COVID-19 positive patients is listed as a high-risk procedure while present in the room for procedures when the healthcare providers’ eyes, nose, or mouth are not protected. We are preparing for continued volatility as disruptions of day-to-day operations of hospitals and clinics may continue. In addition, while we do not currently anticipate any supply issues, the COVID-19 pandemic could impact our supply of YUPELRI in the future. At this stage, we are unable to predict with certainty the ultimate disruptive impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on both YUPELRI and the rest of our business.
In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic makes the conduct of clinical trials more challenging given the paramount importance of adequate safety monitoring, collection of data and distribution of study drug, all of which are traditionally achieved by in-person visits to our study sites. Challenges may continue to arise from quarantines, shelter-in-place or stay-at-home orders, site closures, travel limitations, potential interruptions to the supply chain for investigational products, other measures to help prevent the spread of COVID-19 or other considerations if site personnel or trial participants become infected with COVID-19. These challenges may lead to difficulties in meeting protocol-specified procedures. In light of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Company implemented mitigation plans to help ensure patients in the clinical trials have continued access to drug supply and regular visits with their physicians for study visits per trial protocols, but there is a risk that our trial data could be impacted if our efforts are insufficient. It is also possible that demand for products that we may pursue could be materially and adversely affected as a result of COVID-19 and any related economic impact. Furthermore, we cannot assure you that our publicly-announced initiatives addressing COVID-19 will result in commercially-viable products.
The spread of COVID-19 has caused us to modify our business practices and we may take further actions as may be required by government authorities or that we determine are in the best interests of our employees, customers and business partners. There is no certainty that such actions will be sufficient to mitigate the risks posed by the virus or otherwise be satisfactory to government authorities. If significant portions of our workforce, and particularly our field-
based teams and laboratory staff, are unable to work effectively, including due to illness, quarantines, social distancing, government actions or other restrictions in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic, our operations will be impacted. The COVID-19 pandemic could limit the ability of our customers, suppliers and business partners to perform under their contracts with us, including third-party payers’ ability to make timely payments to us during and following the pandemic. We may also experience a shortage of supplies and materials or a suspension of services from third parties. Additionally, while the potential economic impact brought by, and the duration of, the coronavirus pandemic is difficult to assess or predict, the impact of the coronavirus on the global financial markets may reduce our ability to access capital, which could negatively impact our long-term liquidity. Even after the COVID-19 pandemic subsides, we may continue to experience an adverse impact to our business as a result of its global economic impact.
The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic impacts our business, results of operations and financial condition will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and difficult to predict, including, but not limited to, the duration and spread of the pandemic, its severity, the actions to contain the virus or address its impact, vaccine rollout, distribution and acceptance, and how quickly and to what extent normal economic and operating activities can resume. There are no comparable recent events which may provide guidance as to the effect of the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, and, as a result, the ultimate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic or a similar health epidemic is highly uncertain and subject to change. We do not yet know the full extent of COVID-19’s impact on our business, our operations, or the global economy as a whole. However, the effects are likely to continue to have a material adverse impact on our future results of operations.
We do not control TRC and, in particular, have no control over the GSK-Partnered Respiratory Programs or access to non-public information regarding the development of the GSK-Partnered Respiratory Programs.
Innoviva assigned to TRC its strategic alliance agreement with GSK and all of its rights and obligations under its LABA collaboration agreement other than with respect to RELVAR ELLIPTA/BREO ELLIPTA, ANORO ELLIPTA and vilanterol monotherapy. Our equity interest in TRC entitles us to an 85% economic interest in any future payments made by GSK under the strategic alliance agreement and under the portion of the collaboration agreement assigned to TRC (the “GSK Agreements”) (net of TRC expenses paid and the amount of cash, if any, expected to be used by TRC pursuant to the TRC LLC Agreement over the next four fiscal quarters), which agreements govern Innoviva’s and GSK’s respective interests in the GSK-Partnered Respiratory Programs. Our equity interest primarily covers TRELEGY (the combination of fluticasone furoate, umeclidinium, and vilanterol in a single ELLIPTA inhaler) products. Our economic interest does not include any payments by GSK associated with RELVAR ELLIPTA/BREO ELLIPTA, ANORO ELLIPTA or vilanterol monotherapy. Innoviva controls TRC and, except for certain consent rights, we have no right to participate in the business and affairs of TRC. Innoviva has the exclusive right to appoint TRC’s manager who, among other things, is responsible for the day-to-day management of the GSK-Partnered Respiratory Programs and exercises the rights relating to the GSK-Partnered Respiratory Programs. As a result, we have no rights to participate in, or access to non-public information about, the development and commercialization work GSK and Innoviva are undertaking with respect to the GSK-Partnered Respiratory Programs and no right to enforce rights under the GSK Agreements assigned to TRC. We have had and may in the future have disagreements with Innoviva and TRC regarding Innoviva’s decisions regarding the management of TRC. The dispute resolution procedures set forth in the TRC LLC Agreement have been invoked two times to date. These procedures can divert management’s attention and require us to incur significant costs. Further, if resolved in a manner adverse to our interests, these procedures and the actions that lead to them could have a material impact on our operations. See the Risk Factor entitled “We do not control the commercialization of TRELEGY and we do not control TRC; accordingly the amount of royalties we receive will depend on, among other factors, GSK’s ability to further commercialize TRELEGY and TRC’s decisions concerning use of cash in accordance with the TRC LLC Agreement” for more information. Moreover, we have many of the same risks with respect to our and TRC’s dependence on GSK as we have with respect to our dependence on our own partners, including any adverse impacts on GSK’s operations as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.
If there are any adverse developments or perceived adverse developments with respect to the GSK-Partnered Respiratory Programs in which we have a substantial economic interest, including TRELEGY, our business will be harmed, and the price of our securities could fall.
We have no access to non-public information regarding the development progress of, or plans for, the GSK-Partnered Respiratory Programs, including TRELEGY, and we have little, if any, ability to influence the progress of those programs because our interest in these programs is only through our ownership interest in TRC, which is
controlled by Innoviva. However, if any of the GSK-Partnered Respiratory Programs in which we have a substantial economic interest encounter delays, do not demonstrate required quality, safety and efficacy, are terminated, or if there are any adverse developments or perceived adverse developments with respect to such programs, our business will be harmed, and the price of our securities could fall. Examples of such adverse developments include, but are not limited to:
|●||disappointing or lower than expected sales of TRELEGY;|
|●||the emergence of new closed triple or other alternative therapies or any developments regarding competitive therapies, including comparative price or efficacy of competitive therapies;|
|●||disputes between GSK and Innoviva or between us and Innoviva, such as our 2019 arbitration and the arbitration with Innoviva that was completed in early 2021 (see “Risk Factors—We do not control the commercialization of TRELEGY and we do not control TRC; accordingly the amount of royalties we receive will depend on, among other factors, GSK’s ability to further commercialize TRELEGY and TRC’s decisions concerning use of cash in accordance with the TRC LLC Agreement”);|
|●||GSK deciding to modify, delay or halt the TRELEGY program;|
|●||the FDA and/or other national or foreign regulatory authorities determining that any of the studies under the TRELEGY program does not demonstrate the required quality, safety or efficacy, or that additional non-clinical or clinical studies are required with respect to the program;|
|●||any adverse effects resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic;|
|●||any safety, efficacy or other concerns regarding the TRELEGY program or any GSK-Partnered Respiratory Program in which we have a substantial economic interest; or|
|●||any particular FDA requirements or changes in FDA policy or guidance regarding the TRELEGY program or any other GSK-Partnered Respiratory Program or any particular regulatory requirements in other jurisdictions or changes in the policies or guidance adopted by foreign regulatory authorities.|
Because GSK is a strategic partner of Innoviva, a strategic partner of TRC and a significant shareholder of us, it may take actions that in certain cases are materially harmful to our business and to our other shareholders.
Based on our review of publicly available filings, as of December 31, 2021, GSK beneficially owned 13.0% of our outstanding ordinary shares (although GSK, through a subsidiary, has issued $280,336,000 of exchangeable senior notes due 2023 (the “GSK Notes”), initially exchangeable into 9,644,792 of our ordinary shares which, as of December 31, 2021, represented 13.0% of our outstanding ordinary shares). GSK is also a strategic partner to Innoviva with rights and obligations under the GSK Agreements, which include the strategic alliance agreement and the collaboration agreement assigned to TRC, that may cause GSK’s interests to differ from our interests and those of our other shareholders. For example, GSK’s commercialization efforts are guided by a portfolio approach across products in which we have an indirect interest through TRC and products in which we have no interest. Accordingly, GSK’s commercialization efforts may have the effect of reducing the value of our interest in TRC. Furthermore, GSK has a substantial respiratory product portfolio in addition to the products covered by the GSK Agreements. GSK may make respiratory product portfolio decisions or statements about its portfolio which may be, or may be perceived to be, harmful to the respiratory products partnered with Innoviva and TRC. For example, GSK could promote its own respiratory products and/or delay or terminate the development or commercialization of the respiratory programs covered by the GSK Agreements, which include TRELEGY. Also, given the potential future royalty payments GSK may be obligated to pay under the GSK Agreements, GSK may seek to acquire us or acquire our interests in TRC in order to effectively reduce those payment obligations and the price at which GSK might seek to acquire us may not reflect our true value. As a result of these differing interests, GSK may take actions that it believes are in its best interest but which might not be in the best interests of either us or our other shareholders. In addition, GSK could also seek to challenge our or Innoviva’s post-Spin-Off operations as violating or allowing it to terminate the GSK Agreements, including by violating the confidentiality provisions of those agreements or the master agreement between GSK, Innoviva and us entered into in connection with the Spin-Off (the “Master Agreement”), or otherwise violating its legal rights. While we
believe our operations fully comply with the GSK Agreements, the Master Agreement and applicable law, there can be no assurance that we or Innoviva will prevail against any such claims by GSK. Moreover, regardless of the merit of any claims by GSK, we may incur significant cost and diversion of resources in defending them. In addition, any other action or inaction by either GSK or Innoviva that results in a material dispute, allegation of breach, litigation, arbitration, or significant disagreement between those parties or between us and either of those parties may be interpreted negatively by the market or by our investors, could harm our business and cause the price of our securities to fall. Other examples of these kinds of issues include but are not limited to non-performance of other contractual obligations and allegations of non-performance, disagreements over the relative marketing and sales efforts for Innoviva’s partnered products and other GSK respiratory products, disputes over public statements, and similar matters. In general, any uncertainty about respiratory programs partnered with GSK, the enforceability of the GSK Agreements or the relationship/partnership between Innoviva and GSK or between us and Innoviva could result in significant reduction in the market price of our securities and other material harm to our business.
We do not control the commercialization of TRELEGY and we do not control TRC; accordingly the amount of royalties we receive will depend on, among other factors, GSK’s ability to further commercialize TRELEGY and TRC’s decisions concerning use of cash in accordance with the TRC LLC Agreement.
We only receive revenues from TRELEGY based on the amount of sales of this product by GSK in the form of our economic interest in the royalties paid by GSK to TRC, which is managed by Innoviva. There are no required minimum future payments associated with the product and any royalties we receive will depend on GSK’s ability to commercialize the product, the future payments, if any, made by GSK to TRC, TRC’s expenses, and the amount of cash, if any, expected to be used by TRC pursuant to the TRC LLC Agreement. Following our 2019 arbitration with Innoviva concerning its withholding of certain royalty distributions to the TRC members, the arbitrator ruled, among other things, that in the future if Innoviva desires to invest TRC funds in any initiatives that require the consent of GSK under the collaboration agreement, Innoviva must first obtain the consent of GSK. The timeframe for seeking GSK’s consent for these initiatives and the associated dates by which GSK’s consent must be received means that royalty distributions could be delayed for several quarters (if GSK ultimately does not consent) or perhaps not made at all until the completion of the initiatives (to the extent that GSK does consent and agrees with TRC that TRC funding will be used for such initiatives). We initiated an arbitration proceeding in October 2020 against Innoviva and TRC, challenging the authority of Innoviva and TRC to pursue a business plan to use TRELEGY royalties to invest in certain privately-held companies, rather than distribute such funds that would otherwise be available for distribution to us under the terms of the TRC LLC Agreement to us in a manner that we believe is consistent with the TRC LLC Agreement and our 85% economic interest in TRC. On March 30, 2021, the arbitrator ruled that, we had not shown that at their then current levels of investment, Innoviva and TRC had not breached the LLC Agreement as of the date of the arbitration. The arbitrator further ruled that Innoviva and TRC had not breached the implied covenant of good faith and fair dealing; or their fiduciary duties. The arbitrator also ruled that (i) Innoviva was entitled to indemnification from TRC for all legal fees and expenses reasonably incurred in the arbitration and (ii) we were entitled to indemnification from TRC for legal fees and costs incurred in defending an action Innoviva brought against us in the Delaware Court of Chancery. The arbitrator noted in the ruling that although we failed to show that Innoviva’s investment activities, at the then current levels of investment, have or will have a material and adverse effect on our economic interest in TRC, this does not mean that any future investments or actions will not require our consent. The arbitrator noted in the ruling that we may, in the future, have a consent right over the decision to continue this investment strategy or whether to make a particular investment if, for example, Innoviva develops a track record of poor investments, over allocates royalties to these investment activities, or fails to distribute sufficient investment returns, and such facts cause the strategy or investment to have a material adverse effect on our economic interest in TRC. We have objected to the proposed investments in private companies presented in draft TRC quarterly financial plans to date.
Accordingly, our economic interest in TRC LLC involves a number of risks and uncertainties, including:
|●||any future withholding by Innoviva or TRC of royalty distributions and decisions made by Innoviva, as TRC’s manager, regarding the timing and amount of distributions;|
|●||the amount of cash associated with any additional future investments for which Innoviva expends TRC funds;|
|●||GSK’s ability to have an adequate supply of TRELEGY product;|
|●||ongoing compliance by GSK or its suppliers with the FDA’s current Good Manufacturing Practice;|
|●||compliance with other applicable FDA and other regulatory requirements in the US or other foreign jurisdictions, including those described elsewhere in this report;|
|●||competition, whether from current competitors or new products developed by others in the future;|
|●||claims relating to intellectual property;|
|●||any future disruptions in GSK’s business which would affect its ability to commercialize TRELEGY, including, disruptions due to the COVID-19 pandemic;|
|●||the ability of TRELEGY to achieve wider acceptance among physicians, patients, third-party payors, or the medical community in general;|
|●||the amount of cash associated with any additional future TRELEGY commercialization initiatives that Innoviva proposes to GSK for TRC to pursue, the time it may take to present those initiatives to GSK for approval and the time it takes for GSK to consent or not consent;|
|●||global economic conditions;|
|●||the resolution of any disputes between Innoviva and TRC, on the one hand, and us, on the other, regarding the timing of distributions, the amount of distributions, and the proper business activities of TRC; and|
|●||any of the other risks relating to commercialization of TRELEGY.|
These risks and uncertainties could materially impact the amount and timing of future royalties or other revenues we may receive from sales of TRELEGY, which could have a material adverse effect on our future revenues, other financial results and our financial position and cause the price of our securities to fall.
In the future, Innoviva may cause TRC to withhold funds from distribution to its members, including our affiliates, for purposes consistent with the 2019 and 2021 arbitration rulings, or otherwise. Accordingly, we cannot predict the amount of the funds that our affiliates would otherwise expect to receive from TRC that TRC may withhold in the future, or the timing of any such withholding.
We may object to the withholding of funds in the future on the basis that such withholding is in violation of the terms of the TRC LLC Agreement, as interpreted by the 2019 and 2021 arbitration rulings, or otherwise, and such objection could result in additional legal proceedings between us, TRC and Innoviva. Any such legal proceedings could divert the attention of management and cause us to incur significant costs, regardless of the outcome, which we cannot predict. An adverse result could materially and adversely affect the funds that our affiliates would otherwise expect to receive from TRC in the future and thus have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Any delay in commencing or completing clinical studies for product candidates and any adverse results from clinical or non-clinical studies or regulatory obstacles product candidates may face, would harm our business and the price of our securities could fall.
Each of our product candidates must undergo extensive non-clinical and clinical studies as a condition to regulatory approval. Non-clinical and clinical studies are expensive, take many years to complete and study results may lead to delays in further studies, new requirements for conducting future studies or decisions to terminate programs. The commencement and completion of clinical studies for our product candidates may be delayed and programs may be terminated due to many factors, including, but not limited to:
|●||lack of effectiveness of product candidates during clinical studies;|
|●||adverse events, safety issues or side effects (or perceived adverse developments or results) relating to the product candidates or their formulation into medicines;|
|●||insufficient capital to continue our development programs, some of which are which are expensive;|
|●||inability to enter into partnering arrangements relating to the development and commercialization of our programs and product candidates or partner decisions not to maintain a partnership with us;|
|●||delays in patient enrollment and variability in the number and types of patients available for clinical studies;|
|●||the need to sequence clinical studies as opposed to conducting them concomitantly in order to conserve resources;|
|●||our inability or the inability of our collaborators or licensees to manufacture or obtain from third parties materials sufficient for use in non-clinical and clinical studies;|
|●||governmental or regulatory delays or suspensions of the conduct of the clinical trials and changes in regulatory requirements, policy and guidelines, including as a result of any class-based risks that emerge as an area of FDA or other regulatory agency focus;|
|●||challenges related to the COVID-19 pandemic, including with recruitment and/or progressing patients through studies;|
|●||failure of our partners to advance our product candidates through clinical development;|
|●||difficulty in maintaining contact with patients after treatment, resulting in incomplete data;|
|●||varying regulatory requirements or interpretations of data among the FDA and foreign regulatory authorities; and|
|●||a disturbance where we or our collaborative partners are enrolling patients in clinical trials, such as a pandemic, terrorist activities or war, political unrest or a natural disaster.|
Any adverse developments or results or perceived adverse developments or results with respect to our clinical programs including, without limitation, any delays in development in our programs, any halting of development in our programs, any difficulties or delays encountered with regard to the FDA or other third country regulatory authorities with respect to our programs, or any indication from clinical or non-clinical studies that the compounds in our programs are not safe or efficacious, could have a material adverse effect on our business and cause the price of our securities to fall. For example, in August 2021 we announced that our Phase 2b study of izencitinib in ulcerative colitis did not meet its primary endpoint and in September 2021 we announced that our four-week SEQUOIA Phase 3 study for ampreloxetine did not meet its primary endpoint.
In July 2019, the FDA issued a Boxed Warning for a systemically active pan-JAK inhibitor, calling out an increased risk of pulmonary embolism and death following the results of a safety study in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. We are planning to develop certain pan-JAK inhibitors that are designed to remain organ-selective so that they do not become systemically active in order to minimize the risk of side effects. It is unknown at this time what, if any, additional requirements the FDA may put in place with respect to the development of JAK inhibitors generally or what other future FDA actions may have on the prospects for JAK inhibitors. Delays or adverse developments or results or
perceived adverse developments or results relating to JAK inhibitors could harm our business and could cause the price of our securities to fall. Examples of such adverse developments include, but are not limited to:
|●||the FDA and/or other regulatory authorities determining that additional non-clinical or clinical studies are required with respect to our JAK inhibitor programs;|
|●||safety, efficacy or other concerns relating to our JAK inhibitor programs or JAK inhibitors under development or commercialized by other companies;|
|●||the FDA determining that class-based warnings are required for JAK inhibitors generally; or|
|●||any change in FDA policy or guidance regarding JAK inhibitors.|
If our product candidates are not approved by regulatory authorities, including the FDA, we will be unable to commercialize them.
The FDA must approve any new medicine before it can be marketed and sold in the US. We will not obtain this approval for a product candidate unless and until the FDA approves an NDA. We, or our collaborative partners, must provide the FDA and similar foreign regulatory authorities with data from preclinical and clinical studies that demonstrate that our product candidates comply with the regulatory requirements for the quality of medicinal products and are safe and effective for a defined indication before they can be approved for commercial distribution. FDA or foreign regulatory authorities may disagree with our trial design and our interpretation of data from preclinical studies and clinical trials. The processes by which regulatory approvals are obtained from the FDA and foreign regulatory authorities to market and sell a new product are complex, require a number of years, depend upon the type, complexity and novelty of the product candidate and involve the expenditure of substantial resources for research, development and testing. The FDA has substantial discretion in the drug approval process and may require us to conduct additional non-clinical and clinical testing or to perform post-marketing studies. Further, the implementation of new laws and regulations, and revisions to FDA clinical trial design guidance may lead to increased uncertainty regarding the approvability of new drugs. See the risk factor entitled “Any delay in commencing or completing clinical studies for product candidates and any adverse results from clinical or non-clinical studies or regulatory obstacles product candidates may face, would harm our business and the price of our securities could fall” above for additional information. The rapidly shifting environment surrounding the collective response to the COVID-19 pandemic has led to additional guidance from US and foreign regulatory agencies with respect to numerous matters regarding the conduct of clinical trials in general and the development of COVID-19 related therapies, which is subject to the risk of further change, misinterpretation or non-compliance due to the rapidly changing regulatory landscape. In addition, the FDA has additional standards for approval of new drugs, including recommended advisory committee meetings for certain new molecular entities, and formal risk evaluation and mitigation requirements at the FDA’s discretion. Even if we receive regulatory approval of a product, the approval may limit the indicated uses for which the drug may be marketed or impose significant restrictions or limitations on the use and/or distribution of such product.
In addition, in order to market our medicines in foreign jurisdictions, we or our collaborative partners must obtain separate regulatory approvals in each country. The approval procedure varies among countries and can involve additional testing, and the time required to obtain approval may differ from that required to obtain FDA approval. Approval by the FDA does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities in other countries, and approval by one foreign regulatory authority does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities in other foreign countries or by the FDA. Conversely, failure to obtain approval in one or more jurisdictions may make approval in other jurisdictions more difficult. These laws, regulations, additional requirements and changes in interpretation could cause non-approval or further delays in the FDA’s or other regulatory authorities’ review and approval of our and our collaborative partner’s product candidates, which would materially harm our business and financial condition and could cause the price of our securities to fall.
If sufficient capital is not available, we may have to further curtail operations or we could be forced to share our rights to commercialize our product candidates with third parties on terms that may not be favorable to us.
Based on our current operating plans and financial forecasts, we believe that our existing cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities will be sufficient to meet our anticipated operating needs for at least the next twelve months. However, our current operating plans or financial forecasts occasionally change. For example, in August 2017, we announced an increase in our anticipated operating loss for 2017, primarily driven by our decision to accelerate funding associated with the next phase of development of izencitinib in our JAK inhibitor program. In addition, following unfavorable results from our late-stage development programs, in September 2021, we announced a strategic update and corporate restructuring (the “Restructuring”) to focus on leveraging our expertise in developing and commercializing respiratory therapeutics, including a reduction in headcount by approximately 75% through a reduction in our workforce of regular and contingent workers. If our current operating plans or financial forecasts change, we may require or seek additional funding sooner in the form of public or private equity or equity-linked offerings, debt financings or additional collaborations and licensing arrangements.
We may need to raise additional capital in the future to, among other things:
|●||fund our discovery efforts and research and development programs;|
|●||fund our commercialization strategies for any approved products and to prepare for potential product approvals;|
|●||support our independent sales and marketing organization and medical affairs team;|
|●||support our additional investments in YUPELRI, including post-marketing clinical studies;|
|●||progress any additional product candidates into later-stage development without funding from a collaboration partner;|
|●||progress mid-to-late stage product candidates into later-stage development, if warranted;|
|●||respond to competitive pressures; and|
|●||acquire complementary businesses or technologies.|
Our future capital needs depend on many factors, including:
|●||the scope, duration and expenditures associated with our discovery efforts and research and development programs;|
|●||continued scientific progress in these programs;|
|●||the extent to which we encounter technical obstacles in our research and development programs;|
|●||the outcome of potential licensing or partnering transactions, if any;|
|●||competing technological developments;|
|●||the extent of our proprietary patent position in any approved products and our product candidates;|
|●||our facilities expenses, which will vary depending on the time and terms of any facility lease or sublease we may enter into, and other operating expenses;|
|●||the scope and extent of the expansion of our sales and marketing efforts;|
|●||potential litigation and other contingencies; and|
|●||the regulatory approval process for our product candidates.|
We may seek to raise additional capital or obtain future funding through public or private equity offerings, debt financings or additional collaborations and licensing arrangements to meet our capital needs or to take advantage of opportunistic market conditions. We may not be able to obtain additional financing on terms favorable to us, if at all. General market conditions may make it difficult for us to seek financing from the capital markets. We may be required to relinquish rights to our technologies, product candidates or territories, or grant licenses on terms that are not favorable to us, in order to raise additional funds through collaborations or licensing arrangements. We may sequence preclinical and clinical studies as opposed to conducting them concomitantly in order to conserve resources, or delay, reduce or eliminate one or more of our research or development programs and reduce overall overhead expenses. If we are unable to raise additional capital or obtain future funding in sufficient amounts or on terms acceptable to us, we may have to make reductions in our workforce and may be prevented from continuing our discovery, development and commercialization efforts and exploiting other corporate opportunities. This would likely harm our business, prospects and financial condition and cause the price of our securities to fall.
We may seek to obtain future financing through the issuance of debt or equity, which may have an adverse effect on our shareholders or may otherwise adversely affect our business.
We may in the future need to raise additional funds to continue to progress our business. If we raise funds through the issuance of additional debt, including convertible debt or debt secured by some or all of our assets, or equity, any debt securities or preferred shares issued will have rights, preferences and privileges senior to those of holders of our ordinary shares in the event of liquidation. Neither the terms of our $230.0 million of 3.25% convertible senior notes, due 2023 (the “Convertible Senior 2023 Notes”) nor the terms of the Issuer II’s 9.5% Fixed Rate Term Notes due on or before 2035 (the “Non-Recourse 2035 Notes”) restrict our ability to issue additional debt. If additional debt is issued or we otherwise borrow additional funds, there is a possibility that once all senior claims are settled, there may be no assets remaining to pay out to the holders of ordinary shares. Moreover, 75% of the income from our investment in TRC, as evidenced by the Issuer II Class C Units, is currently available only for payment of the Non-Recourse 2035 Notes and is not available to pay our other obligations or the claims of our other creditors. Additionally, the conversion price of our Convertible Senior 2023 Notes is $34.45 per share and as of December 31, 2021, we had cash, cash equivalents and short-term marketable securities of $173.5 million. If the trading price of our ordinary shares does not exceed this amount, we would be required to repay or refinance the Convertible Senior 2023 Notes, and we cannot assure you that we would be able to do so. In addition, if we raise funds through the issuance of additional equity, whether through private placements or public offerings, such an issuance would dilute ownership of our current shareholders that do not participate in the issuance. If we are unable to obtain any needed additional funding, we may be required to reduce the scope of, delay, or eliminate some or all of, our planned research, development and commercialization activities or to license to third parties the rights to develop and/or commercialize products or technologies that we would otherwise seek to develop and/or commercialize ourselves or on terms that are less attractive than they might otherwise be, any of which could materially harm our business.
Furthermore, the terms of any additional debt securities we may issue in the future may impose restrictions on our operations, which may include limiting our ability to incur additional indebtedness, pay dividends on or repurchase our share capital, or make certain acquisitions or investments. In addition, we may be subject to covenants requiring us to satisfy certain financial tests and ratios, and our ability to satisfy such covenants may be affected by events outside of our control.
If our partners do not satisfy their obligations under our agreements with them, or if they terminate our partnerships with them, we may not be able to develop or commercialize our partnered product candidates as planned.
In January 2015, we entered into a collaboration agreement with Viatris for the development and commercialization of a nebulized formulation of our LAMA revefenacin, including YUPELRI. Under the terms of the agreement, we and Viatris will co-develop nebulized revefenacin, including YUPELRI, for COPD and other respiratory diseases. In June 2016, we entered into a License and Collaboration Agreement with Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Inc.,
an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited (collectively with Millennium, “Takeda”) in order to establish a collaboration for the development and commercialization of TD-8954, a selective 5-HT4 receptor agonist in development for gastrointestinal motility disorders. In December 2019, we entered into a License Agreement with Pfizer Inc. (“Pfizer”). Under the license agreement, we provide Pfizer with an exclusive global license to develop, manufacture and commercialize compounds from our preclinical program for skin-targeted, locally-acting pan-Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors that can be rapidly metabolized. We also have an exclusive development and commercialization agreement with Alfasigma for velusetrag, our internally discovered 5-HT4 agonist for the treatment of gastromotility disorders, under which we have transferred to Alfasigma global rights for velusetrag. In connection with these agreements, these parties have certain rights regarding the use of patents and technology with respect to the compounds in our development programs, including development and marketing rights.
Our partners have in the past and may in the future not fulfill all of their obligations under these agreements, and, in certain circumstances, they or we may terminate our partnership with them. In addition, our partners may also be facing significant business interruptions as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. In either event, we may be unable to assume the development and commercialization responsibilities covered by the agreements or enter into alternative arrangements with a third-party to develop and commercialize such product candidates. If a partner elected to promote alternative products and product candidates such as its own products and product candidates in preference to those licensed from us, does not devote an adequate amount of time and resources to our product candidates or is otherwise unsuccessful in its efforts with respect to our products or product candidates, the development and commercialization of product candidates covered by the agreements could be delayed or terminated, and future payments to us could be delayed, reduced or eliminated and our business and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected. Accordingly, our ability to receive any revenue from the product candidates covered by these agreements is dependent on the efforts of our partners. If a partner terminates or breaches its agreements with us, otherwise fails to complete its obligations in a timely manner or alleges that we have breached our contractual obligations under these agreements, the chances of successfully developing or commercializing product candidates under the collaboration could be materially and adversely affected. In addition, effective collaboration with a partner requires coordination to achieve complex and detail-intensive goals between entities that potentially have different priorities, capabilities and processes and successful navigation of the challenges such coordination entails. We could also become involved in disputes with a partner, which could lead to delays in or termination of our development and commercialization programs and time-consuming and expensive litigation or arbitration. Furthermore, termination of an agreement by a partner could have an adverse effect on the price of our ordinary shares or other securities even if not material to our business.
Our ongoing drug discovery and development efforts might not generate additional successful product candidates or approvable drugs.
Our compounds in clinical trials and our future leads for potential drug compounds are subject to the risks and failures inherent in the development of pharmaceutical products. These risks include, but are not limited to, the inherent difficulty in selecting the right drug and drug target and avoiding unwanted side effects, as well as unanticipated problems relating to product development, testing, enrollment, obtaining regulatory approvals, maintaining regulatory compliance, manufacturing, competition and costs and expenses that may exceed current estimates.
Clinical studies involving our product candidates may reveal that those candidates are ineffective, inferior to existing approved medicines, unacceptably toxic, or that they have other unacceptable side effects. In addition, the results of preclinical studies do not necessarily predict clinical success, and larger and later-stage clinical studies may not produce the same results as earlier-stage clinical studies. For example, despite promising early stage studies, we recently announced that two late stage clinical programs failed to meet their primary endpoints and we now no longer plan to continue to pursue the development programs for those compounds as planned.
Frequently, product candidates that have shown promising results in early preclinical or clinical studies have subsequently suffered significant setbacks or failed in later non-clinical or clinical studies. In some instances, there can be significant variability in safety and/or efficacy results between different trials of the same product candidate due to numerous factors, including changes in trial protocols, differences in size and type of the patient populations, varying levels of adherence to the dosing regimen and other trial protocols and the rate of dropout among clinical trial participants. Clinical and non-clinical studies of product candidates often reveal that it is not possible or practical to continue development efforts for these product candidates. In addition, the design of a clinical trial can determine
whether its results will support regulatory approval and flaws in the design of a clinical trial may not become apparent until the clinical trial is well underway or completed. As our clinical studies for two of our current product candidates suggested that our product candidates were not efficacious in the indications we were investigating, we choose to cease development of these product candidates and are currently winding down our development programs for these product candidates. In addition, our product candidates may have undesirable side effects or other unexpected characteristics that could cause us or regulatory authorities to interrupt, delay or halt clinical trials and could result in a more restricted label or the delay or denial of regulatory approval by regulatory authorities.
We face substantial competition from companies with more resources and experience than we have, which may result in others discovering, developing, receiving approval for or commercializing products before or more successfully than we do.
Our ability to succeed in the future depends on our ability to demonstrate and maintain a competitive advantage with respect to our approach to the discovery, development and commercialization of medicines. Our objective is to discover, develop and commercialize new small molecule medicines with superior efficacy, convenience, tolerability and/or safety using our proprietary insight in chemistry, biology and multivalency, where applicable. We expect that any medicines that we commercialize with or without our collaborative partners will compete with existing or future market-leading medicines.
Many of our current and potential competitors have substantially greater financial, technical and personnel resources than we have. In addition, many of these competitors have significantly greater commercial infrastructures than we have. Our ability to compete successfully will depend largely on our ability to leverage our experience in drug discovery and development, and, more recently, commercialization, to:
|●||discover and develop medicines that are superior to other products in the market;|
|●||attract and retain qualified personnel;|
|●||obtain and enforce patent and/or other proprietary protection for our medicines and technologies;|
|●||conduct effective clinical trials and obtain required regulatory approvals;|
|●||develop and effectively implement commercialization strategies, with or without collaborative partners; and|
|●||successfully collaborate with pharmaceutical companies in the discovery, development and commercialization of new medicines.|
Pharmaceutical companies, including companies with which we collaborate, may invest heavily to quickly discover and develop or in-license novel compounds that could make our product candidates obsolete. Accordingly, our competitors may succeed in obtaining patent protection, receiving FDA or equivalent regulatory approval outside the US or discovering, developing and commercializing medicines before we do. Other companies are engaged in the discovery of medicines that would compete with the product candidates that we are developing.
Any new medicine that competes with a generic or proprietary market leading medicine must demonstrate compelling advantages in efficacy, convenience, tolerability and/or safety in order to overcome severe price competition and be commercially successful. For example, YUPELRI competes predominantly with the nebulized LAMA Lonhala® Magnair® (glycopyrrolate) dosed two times per day and with short acting nebulized bronchodilators that are dosed three to four times per day. If we are not able to compete effectively against our current and future competitors, our business will not grow, our financial condition and operations will suffer and the price of our securities could fall.
If we are unable to enter into future collaboration arrangements or if any such collaborations with third parties are unsuccessful, we will be unable to fully develop and commercialize all of our product candidates and our business will be adversely affected.
We have collaborations with a number of third parties including Viatris for the development and commercialization of a nebulized formulation of revefenacin, our LAMA compound (including YUPELRI). Also, through our interest in TRC we may participate economically in Innoviva’s collaborations with GSK with respect to the GSK-Partnered Respiratory Programs. Additional collaborations will likely be needed to fund later-stage development of certain programs that have not been licensed to a collaborator and to commercialize the product candidates in our programs if approved by the necessary regulatory authorities. We evaluate commercial strategy on a product by product basis either to engage pharmaceutical or other healthcare companies with an existing sales and marketing organization and distribution system to market, sell and distribute our products or to commercialize a product ourselves. However, we may not be able to establish these sales and distribution relationships on acceptable terms, or at all, or may encounter difficulties in commercializing a product ourselves. For any of our product candidates that receive regulatory approval in the future and are not covered by our current collaboration agreements, we will need a partner in order to commercialize such products unless we establish independent sales, marketing and distribution capabilities with appropriate technical expertise and supporting infrastructure.
Collaborations with third parties regarding our programs may require us to relinquish material rights, including revenue from commercialization of our medicines, or to assume material ongoing development obligations that we would have to fund. These collaboration arrangements are complex and time-consuming to negotiate, and if we are unable to reach agreements with third-party collaborators, we may fail to meet our business objectives and our financial condition may be adversely affected. We face significant competition in seeking third-party collaborators. We may be unable to find third parties to pursue product collaborations on a timely basis or on acceptable terms. Furthermore, for any collaboration, we may not be able to control the amount of time and resources that our partners devote to our product candidates and our partners may choose to prioritize alternative programs or otherwise be unsuccessful in their efforts with respect to our products or product candidates. In addition, effective collaboration with a partner requires coordination to achieve complex and detail-intensive goals between entities that potentially have different priorities, capabilities and processes and successful navigation of the challenges such coordination entails. For example, Viatris has a substantial existing product portfolio and other considerations that influence its resource allocation, and other priorities and internal organizational processes that differ from our own. As a result of these differing interests and processes, Viatris may take actions that it believes are in its best interest but which might not be in the best interests of either us or our other shareholders. Our inability to successfully collaborate with third parties would increase our development costs and may cause us to choose not to continue development of certain product candidates, would limit the likelihood of successful commercialization of some of our product candidates, may cause us not to continue commercialization of our authorized products and could cause the price of our securities to fall.
We depend on third parties in the conduct of our non-clinical and clinical studies for our product candidates.
We depend on independent clinical investigators, contract research and manufacturing organizations and other third-party service providers in the conduct of our non-clinical and clinical studies for our product candidates. We rely heavily on these parties for execution of our non-clinical and clinical studies, and control only certain aspects of their activities. Nevertheless, we are responsible for ensuring that our clinical studies are conducted in accordance with good clinical, laboratory and manufacturing practices (“GXPs”) and other regulations as required by the FDA and foreign regulatory authorities, and the applicable protocol. Failure by these parties to comply with applicable regulations and practices in conducting studies of our product candidates can result in a delay in our development programs or non-approval of our product candidates by regulatory authorities. Furthermore, to the extent the operations of these third parties are disrupted as result of the COVID-19 pandemic or otherwise, our development programs could be delayed.
The FDA, and equivalent authorities in third countries, enforces GXPs and other regulations through periodic inspections of trial sponsors, clinical research organizations (“CROs”), principal investigators and trial sites. If we or any of the third parties on which we have relied to conduct our clinical studies are determined to have failed to comply with GXPs (or other equivalent regulations outside the US), the study protocol or applicable regulations, the clinical data generated in our studies may be deemed unreliable. This could result in non-approval of our product candidates by the FDA, or equivalent authorities in other countries, or we, the FDA, or equivalent authorities in other countries may decide
to conduct additional audits or require additional clinical studies, which would delay our development programs, could result in significant additional costs and cause the price of our securities to fall.
There is a single source of supply for a number of our product candidates and for YUPELRI, and our business will be harmed if any of these single-source manufacturers are not able to satisfy demand and alternative sources are not available.
We have limited in-house production capabilities for preclinical and clinical study purposes and depend primarily on a number of third-party Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (“API”) and drug product manufacturers. We may not have long-term agreements with these third parties and our agreements with these parties may be terminable at will by either party at any time. In addition, there is a single supplier of YUPELRI API and a single supplier of YUPELRI drug product. If, for any reason, any of these third-party manufacturers are unable or unwilling to perform, or if their performance does not meet regulatory requirements, alternative manufacturers may not be available or may not be available on acceptable terms. Any inability to acquire sufficient quantities of API and drug product in a timely manner from these third parties could delay preclinical and clinical studies, prevent us from developing our product candidates in a cost-effective manner or on a timely basis or adversely impact the commercialization of YUPELRI. In addition, manufacturers of our API and drug product are subject to the FDA’s current Good Manufacturing Practice (“cGMP”) regulations and similar foreign standards and we do not have control over compliance with these regulations by our manufacturers.
Our manufacturing strategy presents the following additional risks:
|●||because of the complex nature of many of our compounds, our manufacturers may not be able to successfully manufacture our APIs and/or drug products in a cost-effective and/or timely manner and changing manufacturers for our APIs or drug products could involve lengthy technology transfer, validation and regulatory qualification activities for the new manufacturer;|
|●||the processes required to manufacture certain of our APIs and drug products are specialized and available only from a limited number of third-party manufacturers;|
|●||some of the manufacturing processes for our APIs and drug products have not been scaled to quantities needed for continued clinical studies or commercial sales, and delays in scale-up to higher quantities could delay clinical studies, regulatory submissions and commercialization of our product candidates; and|
|●||because some of the third-party manufacturers are located outside of the US, there may be difficulties in importing our APIs and drug products or their components into the US as a result of, among other things, FDA import inspections, incomplete or inaccurate import documentation or defective packaging.|
We have a significant amount of debt, including our Non-Recourse 2035 Notes and Convertible Senior 2023 Notes, that are senior in capital structure and cash flow, respectively, to holders of our ordinary shares. Satisfying the obligations relating to our debt could adversely affect the amount or timing of distributions to our shareholders.
As of December 31, 2021, we had $654.8 million in total long-term liabilities outstanding, comprised primarily of $375.7 million in net principal that remains outstanding under the Issuer II’s (defined below) Non-Recourse 2035 Notes and $230.0 million in principal that remains outstanding under our Convertible Senior 2023 Notes (together with the Non-Recourse 2035 Notes, the “Notes”).
The Convertible Senior 2023 Notes are unsecured debt and are not redeemable by us prior to the maturity date except for certain changes in tax law. Holders of the Convertible Senior 2023 Notes may require us to purchase all or any portion of their notes at 100% of their principal amount, plus any unpaid interest, upon a fundamental change such as a change of control of us or the termination of trading of our ordinary shares in accordance with the indenture governing the Convertible Senior 2023 Notes.
Until the Non-Recourse 2035 Notes are paid in full, holders of the Non-Recourse 2035 Notes have a perfected security interest in the Issuer II Class C Units that represent a 63.75% economic interest in any future payments that may be made by GSK to TRC under the strategic alliance agreement and under the portion of the collaboration agreement
assigned to TRC by Innoviva (net of TRC expenses paid and the amount of cash, if any, expected to be used by TRC pursuant to the TRC LLC Agreement over the next four fiscal quarters) relating to the GSK-Partnered Respiratory Programs, including the TRELEGY program.
Prior to and including the December 5, 2024 payment date, the terms of the Non-Recourse 2035 Notes provide that in the event that the distributions received by the Issuer II from TRC in a quarter is less than the interest accrued for that quarter, the principal amount of the Non-Recourse 2035 Notes will increase by the interest shortfall amount for that quarter. The terms of the Non-Recourse 2035 Notes also provide that Theravance Biopharma, at its option, may satisfy the quarterly interest payment obligations by making a capital contribution to the Issuer II.
Satisfying the obligations of these Notes could adversely affect the amount or timing of any distributions to our shareholders. In addition, the Non-Recourse 2035 Notes may be redeemed by Issuer II on and after February 28, 2022, in whole or in part, at specified redemption premiums. We may further choose to satisfy, repurchase, or refinance any Non-Recourse 2035 Notes, to the extent allowable, through public or private equity or debt financings if we deem such financings are available on favorable terms. If any or all of the Convertible Senior 2023 Notes are not converted into our ordinary shares before the maturity date, we will have to pay the holders the full aggregate principal amount of the Convertible Senior 2023 Notes then outstanding. If the Non-Recourse 2035 Notes are not refinanced or paid in full the holders of the Non-Recourse 2035 Notes will have the right to foreclose on the Issuer II Class C Units that represent a 63.75% economic interest in future royalties due on net sales of TRELEGY and related assets. If the Issuer II Class C Units are foreclosed upon, we will lose any right to receive 75% of the future royalty payments made by GSK in connection with the net sales of TRELEGY and related assets. Any of the above payments could have a material adverse effect on our cash position. Our failure to satisfy these obligations may result in a default under the applicable indenture governing these Notes, which could result in a default under certain of our other debt instruments, if any. Any such default would harm our business and the price of our securities could fall. For more information, see Part II—Item 7—Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity and Capital Resources.
Servicing our Convertible Senior 2023 Notes requires a significant amount of cash, and we may not have sufficient cash flow from our business to pay our debt. Additionally, holders may require us to repurchase our Convertible Senior 2023 Notes under certain circumstances, and we may not have sufficient cash to do so.
Our ability to make interest or principal payments when due or to refinance the Convertible Senior 2023 Notes depends on our future performance, which is subject to economic, financial, competitive and other factors beyond our control. Our business may not generate cash flow from operations sufficient to satisfy our obligations under the Convertible Senior 2023 Notes and any future indebtedness we may incur and to make necessary capital expenditures. In addition, the issuance of the Non-Recourse 2035 Notes reduced the cash available for us to make interest or principal payments on, or to refinance, the Convertible Senior 2023 Notes. We may be required to adopt one or more alternatives, such as reducing or delaying investments or capital expenditures, selling assets, refinancing or obtaining additional equity capital on terms that may be onerous or highly dilutive. Our ability to refinance the Convertible Senior 2023 Notes or future indebtedness will depend on the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. We may not be able to engage in any of these activities on desirable terms or at all, which could result in a default on the Convertible Senior 2023 Notes or future indebtedness.
The holders of the Convertible Senior 2023 Notes may have the right to require us to repurchase the Convertible Senior 2023 Notes upon the occurrence of a “fundamental change” such as a change of control of our Company or the termination of trading of our ordinary shares, as defined in the indenture governing the Convertible Senior 2023 Notes. We may not have sufficient funds to repurchase the Convertible Senior 2023 Notes in cash or have the ability to arrange necessary financing on acceptable terms. Our failure to repurchase the Convertible Senior 2023 Notes when required would result in an event of default with respect to the Convertible Senior 2023 Notes. In addition, any acceleration of the repayment of the Convertible Senior 2023 Notes or future indebtedness after any applicable notice or grace periods could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We may fail to achieve the expected cost savings and related benefits from our September 2021 Restructuring.
In September 2021, our Board approved a plan to restructure the Company’s business operations to drive long term sustainable revenue growth, better align resources, improve operational efficiencies and to increase profitability. Upon the completion of this Restructuring, our management and employees will be primarily focused on managing our most promising respiratory programs and the size of the Company will be reduced. As part of the Restructuring, we are eliminating approximately 270 positions, or 75% of our workforce. We expect to incur total estimated Restructuring expenses and related expenses of approximately $32.0 comprised of $17.0 million in cash expenses and $15.0 million in non-cash expenses. The Restructuring and related expenses are primarily comprised of severance, retention, and other costs relating to the Restructuring and are expected to be incurred through the third quarter of 2022. Affected employees have received notification and are eligible to receive severance payments based on their responsibilities within the organization and years of service, contingent upon effectiveness of an affected employee's a separation agreement, which includes a general release of claims against us.
Overall, we expect to realize estimated operating expense savings of approximately $170.0 million (excluding share-based compensation and any one-time restructuring, severance, and termination costs). These estimates are subject to a number of assumptions, and actual results may differ. We may also incur additional costs not currently contemplated due to events that may occur as a result of, or that are associated with, the Restructuring.
We may fail to effectively execute on our Restructuring or our plans may change as we continue to optimize our asset portfolio to maximize shareholder value. These actions may take more time than we currently estimate and we may not be able to drive long term sustainable revenue growth, better align resources, improve operational efficiencies and to increase profitability. Any failure to properly execute our Restructuring could cause us not to achieve the expected benefits of these actions, and adversely affect our financial condition.
If we lose key management or scientific personnel, or if we fail to attract and retain key employees, our ability to discover and develop our product candidates and commercialize our products, if any, will be impaired.
We are highly dependent on principal members of our management team and scientific staff, and in particular, our Chief Executive Officer, Rick E Winningham, to operate our business. Mr. Winningham has significant pharmaceutical industry experience. The loss of Mr. Winningham’s services could impair our ability to discover, develop and commercialize new medicines.
If we fail to retain our qualified personnel or replace them when they leave, we may be unable to continue our discovery, development and commercialization activities, which may cause the price of our securities to fall. The Restructuring announced in September 2021 may make retention of our current personnel both more important and more challenging.
In addition, our US operating subsidiary’s facility and most of its employees are located in northern California, headquarters to many other biotechnology and biopharmaceutical companies and many academic and research institutions. As a result, competition for certain skilled personnel in our market is intense. None of our employees have employment commitments for any fixed period of time and they all may leave our employment at will. If we fail to retain our qualified personnel or replace them when they leave, we may be unable to continue our development and commercialization activities and the price of our securities could fall.
Our business and operations would suffer in the event of significant disruptions of information technology systems or security breaches.
We rely extensively on computer systems to maintain information and manage our finances and business. In the ordinary course of business, we collect, store and transmit large amounts of confidential information (including but not limited to trade secrets or other intellectual property, proprietary business information and personal information) and it is critical that we maintain the confidentiality and integrity of such confidential information. Although we have security measures in place, our internal information technology systems and those of our CROs and other service providers, including cloud based and hosted applications, data and services, may be vulnerable to service interruptions and security breaches from inadvertent or intentional actions by our employees, service providers and/or business partners, from cyber attacks by malicious third parties, including but not limited to those involving malware and ransomware, which can disrupt operations significantly, and/or from, natural disasters, terrorism, war and telecommunication and electrical
failures. Cyber attacks are increasing in their frequency, sophistication, and intensity, and have become increasingly difficult to detect. Significant disruptions of information technology systems or security breaches could adversely affect our business operations and result in financial, legal, business and reputational harm to us, including significant liability and/or significant disruption to our business. If a disruption of information technology systems or security breach results in a loss of or damage to our data or regulatory applications, unauthorized access, use, or disclosure of, or the prevention of access to, confidential information, or other harm to our business, we could incur liability and reputational harm, we could be required to comply with federal and/or state breach notification laws and foreign law equivalents, we may incur legal expenses to protect our confidential information, the further development of our product candidates could be delayed and the price of our securities could fall. For example, the loss of clinical trial data from completed or ongoing clinical trials of our product candidates could result in delays in our regulatory approval efforts and significantly increase our costs to recover or reproduce the data. As another example, we may incur penalties imposed by the competent authorities in the EU Member States in case of breach of the EU rules governing the collection and processing of personal data, including unauthorized access to or disclosure of personal data. Although we have security and fraud prevention measures in place, we have been subject to immaterial payment fraud activity. In 2017, we filed a lawsuit (which has since been resolved) against a former employee for misappropriation of our confidential, proprietary and trade secret information. Moreover, there can be no assurance that our security measures will prevent service interruptions or security breaches that could adversely affect our business. These same risks also apply to our partners and vendors, who similarly hold sensitive and critical information related to our business in computer systems and are similarly potentially vulnerable to service interruptions and security breaches.
Global economic, political and social conditions may harm our ability to do business, increase our costs and negatively affect our stock price.
Worldwide economic conditions remain uncertain due to the United Kingdom’s (“UK”) recent withdrawal from the EU (often referred to as “Brexit”), current global economic challenges, the COVID-19 pandemic, and other disruptions to global and regional economies and markets.
Brexit has created significant uncertainty about the future relationship between the UK and the EU, including with respect to the laws and regulations that will apply as the UK determines which EU laws to replace or replicate after withdrawal. From a regulatory perspective, the UK’s withdrawal bears significant complexity and risks.
In light of the fact that a significant portion of the regulatory framework in the UK is derived from EU laws, Brexit could materially impact the regulatory regime governing development, manufacture, importation, approval and commercialization of our product candidates in the UK or the EU. For example, a marketing authorization for a medicinal product granted by the European Commission or by the competent authorities of EU member states will no longer encompass the UK. A separate authorization granted by the UK competent authorities will be required to place medicinal products on the UK market. In addition, the UK’s withdrawal from the EU affects manufacturing sites that hold an EU manufacturing authorization issued by the UK competent authorities which could impact our ability to rely on UK manufacturing sites to supply medicinal products intended for the EU market will depend on. All of these changes could increase our costs and otherwise adversely affect our business. In addition, currency exchange rates for the British Pound and the Euro with respect to each other and to the US dollar have already been, and may continue to be, negatively affected by Brexit, which could cause volatility in our quarterly financial results.
Further, development of our product candidates and/or regulatory approval may be delayed for other political events beyond our control. For example, a US federal government shutdown or budget sequestration, such as ones that occurred during 2013, 2018, and 2019, may result in significant reductions to the FDA’s budget, employees and operations, which may lead to slower response times and longer review periods, potentially affecting our ability to progress development of our product candidates or obtain regulatory approval for our product candidates. Further, future government shutdowns could impact our ability to access the public markets and obtain necessary capital in order to properly capitalize and continue our operations.
Our operations also depend upon favorable trade relations between the US and those foreign countries in which our materials suppliers have operations. A protectionist trade environment in either the US or those foreign countries in which we do business, such as a change in the current tariff structures, export compliance or other trade policies, may materially and adversely affect our operations.
External factors, such as potential terrorist attacks, acts of war, geopolitical and social turmoil or similar events in many parts of the world, could also prevent or hinder our ability to do business, increase our costs and negatively affect our stock price. These geopolitical, social and economic conditions could harm our business.
Our US operating subsidiary’s facility is located near known earthquake fault zones, and the occurrence of an earthquake, extremist attack or other catastrophic disaster could cause damage to our facilities and equipment, which could require us to cease or curtail operations.
Our US operating subsidiary’s facility is located in the San Francisco Bay Area near known earthquake fault zones and therefore will be vulnerable to damage from earthquakes. In October 1989, a major earthquake struck this area and caused significant property damage and a number of fatalities. We are also vulnerable to damage from other types of disasters, including power loss, attacks from extremist organizations, fire, floods, communications failures and similar events. If any disaster were to occur, our ability to operate our business could be seriously impaired. In addition, the unique nature of our research activities and of much of our equipment could make it difficult and costly for us to recover from this type of disaster. We may not have adequate insurance to cover our losses resulting from disasters or other similar significant business interruptions and we do not plan to purchase additional insurance to cover such losses due to the cost of obtaining such coverage. Any significant losses that are not recoverable under our insurance policies could seriously impair our business and financial condition, which could cause the price of our securities to fall.
If YUPELRI does not continue to be accepted by physicians, patients, third-party payors, or the medical community in general, we may not receive significant additional revenues from sales of this product.
The commercial success of YUPELRI depends upon its acceptance by physicians, patients, third-party payors and the medical community in general. YUPELRI may not continue to be accepted by these parties. YUPELRI competes predominantly with the nebulized LAMA Lonhala® Magnair® (glycopyrrolate) dosed two times per day and with short acting nebulized bronchodilators that are dosed three to four times per day. We have seen increased volatility in sales of YUPELRI coinciding with the suspension of in-person sales calls, having less access to physicians and other healthcare providers and the progression of the COVID-19 pandemic and, if physicians, patients, third-party payors, or the medical community in general believe that nebulized therapy presents a risk of further spreading COVID-19 or that YUPELRI is otherwise not a preferred treatment option for those with COPD, we may see long-term declines. Shifts to novel marketing tactics are being deployed in an effort to keep awareness levels and business generation positive, but these untested and unvalidated tactics may not be effective at maintaining YUPELRI brand growth. If YUPELRI’s acceptance does not continue to grow, or declines from previous levels, our business and financial results could be materially harmed.
In collaboration with Viatris, we are responsible for marketing and sales of YUPELRI in the US, which subjects us to certain risks.
We currently maintain a sales force in the US and plan to continue to augment our sales and marketing personnel to support our co-promotion obligations for YUPELRI under our agreement with Viatris. The risks of fulfilling our US co-promotion obligations to Viatris include:
|●||costs and expenses associated with maintaining an independent sales and marketing organization with appropriate technical expertise and supporting infrastructure, including third-party vendor logistics and consultant support, which costs and expenses could, depending on the scope and method of the marketing effort, exceed any product revenue for several years;|
|●||our ability to retain effective sales and marketing personnel and medical science liaisons in the US;|
|●||the ability of our sales and marketing personnel to obtain access to and educate adequate numbers of prescribers about prescribing YUPELRI, in appropriate clinical situations; and|
|●||the lack of complementary products to be offered by sales personnel, which may put us at a competitive disadvantage relative to companies with more extensive product lines.|
If we are not successful in maintaining a sales and marketing organization with appropriate experience, technical expertise, supporting infrastructure and the ability to obtain access to and educate adequate numbers of physicians about prescribing YUPELRI in appropriate clinical situations, we will have difficulty maintaining effective commercialization of YUPELRI in the hospital setting, which would adversely affect our business and financial results and the condition and the price of our securities could fall.
We are subject to extensive and ongoing regulation, oversight and other requirements by the FDA and failure to comply with these regulations and requirements may subject us to penalties that may adversely affect our financial condition or our ability to commercialize any approved products.
Prescription drug advertising and promotion are closely scrutinized by the FDA, including substantiation of promotional claims, disclosure of risks and safety information, and the use of themes and imagery in advertising and promotional materials. As with all companies selling and marketing products regulated by the FDA in the US, we are prohibited from promoting any uses of an approved product, such as YUPELRI, that are outside the scope of those uses that have been expressly approved by the FDA as safe and effective on the product’s label.
The manufacturing, labeling, packaging, adverse event reporting, advertising, promotion and recordkeeping for an approved product remain subject to extensive and ongoing regulatory requirements. If we become aware of previously unknown problems with an approved product in the US or overseas or at a contract manufacturer’s facilities, a regulatory authority may impose restrictions on the product, the contract manufacturers or on us, including requiring us to reformulate the product, conduct additional clinical studies, change the labeling of the product, withdraw the product from the market or require the contract manufacturer to implement changes to its facilities.
We are also subject to regulation by regional, national, state and local agencies, including the Department of Justice, the Federal Trade Commission, the Office of Inspector General of the US Department of Health and Human Services (“OIG”) and other regulatory bodies with respect to any approved product, such as YUPELRI, as well as governmental authorities in those foreign countries in which any product is approved for commercialization. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, the Public Health Service Act and other federal and state statutes and regulations govern to varying degrees the research, development, manufacturing and commercial activities relating to prescription pharmaceutical products, including non-clinical and clinical testing, approval, production, labeling, sale, distribution, import, export, post-market surveillance, advertising, dissemination of information and promotion. If we or any third parties that provide these services for us are unable to comply, we may be subject to regulatory or civil actions or penalties that could significantly and adversely affect our business.
Regulatory approval for our product candidates, if any, may include similar or other limitations on the indicated uses for which we can market our medicines or the patient population that may utilize our medicines, which may limit the market for our medicines or put us at a competitive disadvantage relative to alternative therapies.
Failure to satisfy required post-approval requirements and/or commitments may have implications for a product’s approval and may carry civil monetary penalties. Any failure to maintain regulatory approval will materially limit the ability to commercialize a product or any future product candidates and if we fail to comply with FDA regulations and requirements, the FDA could potentially take a number of enforcement actions against us, including the issuance of untitled letters, warning letters, preventing the introduction or delivery of the product into interstate commerce in the US, misbranding charges, product seizures, injunctions, and civil monetary penalties, which would materially and adversely affect our business and financial condition and may cause the price of our securities to fall.
The risks identified in this risk factor relating to regulatory actions and oversight by agencies in the US and throughout the world also apply to the commercialization of any partnered products by our collaboration partners and those commercializing products with respect to which we have an economic interest or right to receive royalties, including GSK, and such regulatory actions and oversight may limit those parties’ ability to commercialize such products, which could materially and adversely affect our business and financial condition, and which may cause the price of our securities to fall.
We and/or our collaboration partners and those commercializing products with respect to which we have an economic interest or right to receive royalties may face competition from companies seeking to market generic versions of any approved products in which we have an interest, such as TRELEGY or YUPELRI.
Under the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984, a company may submit an abbreviated new drug application (“ANDA”) under section 505(j) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act to market a generic version of an approved drug. Because a generic applicant does not conduct its own clinical studies, but instead relies on the FDA’s finding of safety and effectiveness for the approved drug, it is able to introduce a competing product into the market at a cost significantly below that of the original drug. Although we have multiple patents protecting YUPELRI until at least 2025 that are listed in the FDA’s Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations, commonly known as the Orange Book, and those commercializing products with respect to which we have an economic interest or right to receive royalties similarly have patents protecting their products, such as TRELEGY and VIBATIV, generic applicants could potentially submit “paragraph IV certifications” to FDA stating that such patents are invalid or will not be infringed by the applicant’s product. We have not received any such paragraph IV notifications nor are we aware of any with respect to products in which we have an economic interest or right to receive royalties, but if any competitors successfully challenge the patents related to these products, we and/or our collaboration partners and those commercializing products with respect to which we have an economic interest or right to receive royalties would face substantial competition. If we are not able to compete effectively against such future competition, our business will not grow, our financial condition and operations will suffer and the price of our securities could fall.
For additional discussion of the risk of generic competition to YUPELRI, please see the following risk factor below “If our efforts to protect the proprietary nature of the intellectual property related to our technologies are not adequate, we may not be able to compete effectively in our current or future markets.”
We may be treated as a US corporation for US federal income tax purposes.
For US federal income tax purposes, a corporation generally is considered tax resident in the place of its incorporation. Theravance Biopharma is incorporated under Cayman Islands law and established tax residency in Ireland effective July 1, 2015. Therefore, it should be a non-US corporation under this general rule. However, Section 7874 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), contains rules that may result in a foreign corporation being treated as a US corporation for US federal income tax purposes. The application of these rules is complex and there is little guidance regarding certain aspects of their application.
Under Section 7874 of the Code, a corporation created or organized outside the US will be treated as a US corporation for US federal tax purposes if (i) the foreign corporation directly or indirectly acquires substantially all of the properties held directly or indirectly by a US corporation, (ii) the former shareholders of the acquired US corporation hold at least 80% of the vote or value of the shares of the foreign acquiring corporation by reason of holding stock in the US acquired corporation, and (iii) the foreign corporation’s “expanded affiliated group” does not have “substantial business activities” in the foreign corporation’s country of incorporation relative to its expanded affiliated group’s worldwide activities. For this purpose, “expanded affiliated group” generally means the foreign corporation and all subsidiaries in which the foreign corporation, directly or indirectly, owns more than 50% of the stock by vote and value, and “substantial business activities” generally means at least 25% of employees (by number and compensation), assets and gross income of our expanded affiliated group are based, located and derived, respectively, in the country of incorporation.
We do not expect to be treated as a US corporation under Section 7874 of the Code, because we do not believe that the assets contributed to us by Innoviva constituted “substantially all” of the properties of Innoviva (as determined on both a gross and net fair market value basis). However, the Internal Revenue Service may disagree with our conclusion on this point and assert that, in its view, the assets contributed to us by Innoviva did constitute “substantially all” of the properties of Innoviva. In addition, there could be legislative proposals to expand the scope of US corporate tax residence and there could be changes to Section 7874 of the Code or the Treasury Regulations promulgated thereunder that could apply retroactively and could result in Theravance Biopharma being treated as a US corporation.
If it were determined that we should be treated as a US corporation for US federal income tax purposes, we could be liable for substantial additional US federal income tax on our post-Spin-Off taxable income. In addition, though
we have no current plans to pay any dividends, payments of any dividends to non-US holders may be subject to US withholding tax.
Future tax reform, including changes in tax rates and imposition of new taxes, could impact our results of operations and financial condition.
We are incorporated in the Cayman Islands, maintain subsidiaries in the Cayman Islands (until December 2020), the US, the UK and Ireland, and effective July 1, 2015, we migrated our tax residency from the Cayman Islands to Ireland. We are subject to new, evolving or revised tax laws and regulations in such jurisdictions, and the enactment of or increases in taxes, or other changes in the application of existing taxes, in such jurisdictions may have an adverse effect on our business or on our results of operations. Due to economic and political conditions, tax rates in various jurisdictions may be subject to significant change. Our future effective tax rate could be affected by changes in our mix of earnings in countries with differing statutory tax rates, changes in valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities, or changes in tax laws or their interpretation, including possible US tax reform and contemplated changes in other countries of long-standing tax principles. These and other similar changes, if finalized and adopted, could have a material impact on our income tax expense and deferred tax balances.
Taxing authorities may challenge our structure and transfer pricing arrangements.
We are incorporated in the Cayman Islands, maintain subsidiaries in the Cayman Islands (until December 2020), the US, the UK and Ireland, and effective July 1, 2015, we migrated our tax residency from the Cayman Islands to Ireland. Due to economic and political conditions, various countries are actively considering changes to existing tax laws. We cannot predict the form or timing of potential legislative changes that could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations. We are aware that Ireland has implemented certain tax law changes, and is expected to implement additional tax law changes, some of which are to comply with the European Union Anti-Tax Avoidance Directives. We are aware that Ireland will implement further tax law changes to comply with the Anti-Tax Avoidance Directives to include reverse-hybrid mismatch and interest limitation rules. We will evaluate and monitor the applicability of these rules to our operations as and when they are enacted.
In April 2020, we became aware of a withholding tax regulation that could be interpreted to apply to certain of our previous intra-group transactions. Additional draft guidance on this withholding tax regime was released in late 2020 and early 2021, and based on our analysis of this guidance, we do not believe the exposure to be material. We continue to monitor the evolving legislation relating to this matter and will consider its impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In addition, significant judgment is required in determining our worldwide provision for income taxes. Various factors may have favorable or unfavorable effects on our income tax rate including, but not limited to the performance of certain functions and ownership of certain assets in tax-efficient jurisdictions such as the Cayman Islands and Ireland, together with intra-group transfer pricing agreements. Taxing authorities may challenge our structure and transfer pricing arrangements through an audit or lawsuit. Responding to or defending such a challenge could be expensive and consume time and other resources, and divert management’s time and focus from operating our business. We cannot predict whether taxing authorities will conduct an audit or file a lawsuit challenging this structure, the cost involved in responding to any such audit or lawsuit, or the outcome. We may be required to pay taxes for prior periods, interest, fines or penalties, and may be obligated to pay increased taxes in the future which could result in reduced cash flows and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and growth prospects.
We were a passive foreign investment company, or “PFIC,” for 2014, but we were not a PFIC from 2015 through 2021, and we do not expect to be a PFIC for the foreseeable future.
For US federal income tax purposes, we generally would be classified as a PFIC for any taxable year if either (i) 75% or more of our gross income (including gross income of certain 25% or more owned corporate subsidiaries) is “passive income” (as defined for such purposes) or (ii) the average percentage of our assets (including the assets of certain 25% or more owned corporate subsidiaries) that produce passive income or that are held for the production of passive income is at least 50%. In addition, whether our Company will be a PFIC for any taxable year depends on our assets and income over the course of each such taxable year and, as a result, cannot be predicted with certainty until after the end of the year.
Based upon our assets and income during the course of 2014, we believe that our Company and one of our Company’s wholly-owned subsidiaries, Theravance Biopharma R&D, Inc. was a PFIC for 2014. Based upon our assets and income from 2015 through 2021, we do not believe that our Company is a PFIC since 2015. Based on existing tax law, we do not expect to be a PFIC for the foreseeable future based on our current business plans and current business model. For any taxable year (or portion thereof) in which our Company is a PFIC that is included in the holding period of a US holder, the US holder is generally subject to additional US federal income taxes plus an interest charge with respect to certain distributions from Theravance Biopharma or gain recognized on a sale of Theravance Biopharma shares. Similar rules would apply with respect to distributions from or gain recognized on an indirect sale of Theravance Biopharma Ireland Limited. US holders of our ordinary shares may have filed an election with respect to Company shares held at any time during 2014 to be treated as owning an interest in a “qualified electing fund” (“QEF”) or to “mark to market” their ordinary shares to avoid the otherwise applicable interest charge consequences of PFIC treatment with respect to our ordinary shares. A foreign corporation will not be treated as a QEF for any taxable year in which such foreign corporation is not treated as a PFIC. QEF and mark to market elections generally apply to the taxable year for which the election is made and all subsequent taxable years unless the election is revoked with consent of the Secretary of Treasury. US holders of our ordinary shares should consult their tax advisers regarding the tax reporting implications with respect to any QEF and mark to market elections made with respect to our Company and with respect to their indirect interests in Theravance Biopharma R&D, Inc.
If we are unable to maintain effective internal controls, our business, financial position and results of operations could be adversely affected.
If we are unable to maintain effective internal controls, our business, financial position and results of operations could be adversely affected. We are subject to the reporting and other obligations under the Exchange Act, including the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, which require annual management assessments of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting as defined in Rules 13a-15(f) under the Exchange Act. Our internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the US. Any failure to achieve and maintain effective internal controls could have an adverse effect on our business, financial position and results of operations. In addition, our independent registered public accounting firm is required to attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting annually. If our independent registered public accounting firm is unable to attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, investor confidence in our reported results will be harmed and the price of our securities may fall. These reporting and other obligations place significant demands on our management and administrative and operational resources, including accounting resources.
Agreements entered into with or for the benefit of GSK in connection with the Spin-Off may significantly restrict our business and affairs.
On March 3, 2014, in connection with the Spin-Off, we, Innoviva and GSK entered into a number of agreements that may significantly restrict our business and affairs. In particular, we, Innoviva and GSK entered into the Master Agreement which, among other things, requires GSK’s consent to make any changes to (i) a Separation and Distribution Agreement and ancillary agreements that would, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to adversely affect GSK in any material respect or (ii) the TRC LLC Agreement, which consent is not to be unreasonably withheld, conditioned or delayed, provided that GSK may withhold, condition or delay such consent in its sole discretion with respect to certain sections of the TRC LLC Agreement and any changes to the governance structure of TRC, the confidentiality restrictions, the consent rights, and the transfer restrictions in the TRC LLC Agreement. We and GSK also entered into (i) the Governance Agreement that expired on December 31, 2017, (ii) a registration rights agreement that gives GSK certain registration rights with respect to our ordinary shares held by GSK and (iii) an extension agreement that extends to us certain restrictive covenants similar to those applicable to Innoviva under the GSK Agreements. There can be no assurance that these restrictions will not materially harm our business, particularly given that GSK’s interests may not be aligned with the interests of our business or our other shareholders.
Certain of our directors and officers may have actual or potential conflicts of interest because of their equity ownership in Innoviva, which actual or potential conflicts may harm our business, prospects and financial condition and result in the diversion of corporate opportunities to Innoviva.
Certain of our directors and officers hold shares of Innoviva’s common stock or rights to acquire such shares, and these holdings may be significant for some of these individuals compared to their total assets. This ownership of Innoviva common stock by certain of our directors and officers may create, or may create the appearance of, conflicts of interest when these directors and officers are faced with decisions that could have different implications for Innoviva and for us. For example, potential or actual conflicts could arise relating to: our relationship with Innoviva, including Innoviva’s and our respective rights and obligations under agreements entered into in connection with the Spin-Off; Innoviva’s management of TRC, particularly given that we and Innoviva have different economic interests in TRC; and corporate opportunities that may be available to both companies in the future. Although we and Innoviva have implemented policies and procedures to identify and properly address such potential and actual conflicts of interest, there can be no assurance that, when such conflicts are resolved in accordance with applicable laws, such conflicts of interest will not harm our business, prospects and financial condition and result in the diversion of corporate opportunities to Innoviva.
If we are required to indemnify Innoviva or Cumberland, or if we are not able to enforce our indemnification rights against Innoviva or Cumberland, our business prospects and financial condition may be harmed.
We agreed to indemnify Innoviva from and after the Spin-Off with respect to (i) all debts, liabilities and obligations transferred to us in connection with the Spin-Off (including our failure to pay, perform or otherwise promptly discharge any such debts, liabilities or obligations after the Spin-Off), (ii) any misstatement or omission of a material fact resulting in a misleading statement in our Information Statement distributed to Innoviva stockholders in connection with the Spin-Off and (iii) any breach by us of certain agreements entered into with Innoviva in connection with the Spin-Off (namely, the Separation and Distribution Agreement, a Transition Services Agreement, an Employee Matters Agreement, a Tax Matters Agreement, and a Facility Sublease Agreement). We are not aware of any existing indemnification obligations at this time, but any such indemnification obligations that may arise could be significant. Under the terms of the Separation and Distribution Agreement, Innoviva agreed to indemnify us from and after the Spin-Off with respect to (i) all debts, liabilities and obligations retained by Innoviva after the Spin-Off (including its failure to pay, perform or otherwise promptly discharge any such debts, liabilities or obligations after the Spin-Off) and (ii) any breach by Innoviva of the Separation and Distribution Agreement, the Transition Services Agreement, the Employee Matters Agreement, the Tax Matters Agreement, and the Facility Sublease Agreement. Our and Innoviva’s ability to satisfy these indemnities, if called upon to do so, will depend upon our and Innoviva’s future financial strength. If we are required to indemnify Innoviva, or if we are not able to enforce our indemnification rights against Innoviva, our business prospects and financial condition may be harmed.
In addition, the agreement relating to the sale of VIBATIV to Cumberland Pharmaceuticals Inc. (“Cumberland”) contains indemnification obligations of both us and Cumberland. If we are required to indemnify Cumberland or if we are unable to enforce our indemnification rights against Cumberland for any reason, our business and financial condition may be harmed.
RISKS RELATED TO LEGAL AND REGULATORY UNCERTAINTY
If our efforts to protect the proprietary nature of the intellectual property related to our technologies are not adequate, we may not be able to compete effectively in our current or future markets.
We rely upon a combination of patents, patent applications, trade secret protection and confidentiality agreements to protect the intellectual property related to our technologies. Any involuntary disclosure to or misappropriation by third parties of this proprietary information could enable competitors to quickly duplicate or surpass our technological achievements, thus eroding our competitive position in our market. The status of patents in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical field involves complex legal and scientific questions and is very uncertain. As of December 31, 2021, we owned 285 issued US patents and 1,968 granted foreign patents, as well as additional pending US and foreign patent applications. Our patent applications may be challenged or fail to result in issued patents and our existing or future patents may be invalidated or be too narrow to prevent third parties from developing or designing around these patents. If the sufficiency of the breadth or strength of protection provided by our patents with respect to a
product candidate is threatened, it could dissuade companies from collaborating with us to develop product candidates and threaten our ability to commercialize products. Further, if we encounter delays in our clinical trials or in obtaining regulatory approval of our product candidates, the patent lives of the related product candidates would be reduced.
In addition, we rely on trade secret protection and confidentiality agreements to protect proprietary know-how that is not patentable, for processes for which patents are difficult to enforce and for any other elements of our drug discovery and development processes that involve proprietary know-how, information and technology that is not covered by patent applications. Although we require our employees, consultants, advisors and any third parties who have access to our proprietary know-how, information and technology to enter into confidentiality agreements, we cannot be certain that this know-how, information and technology will not be misappropriated, disclosed or used for unauthorized purposes or that competitors will not otherwise gain access to our trade secrets or independently develop substantially equivalent information and techniques. Further, the laws of some foreign countries do not protect proprietary rights to the same extent as the laws of the US. As a result, we may encounter significant problems in protecting and defending our intellectual property both in the US and abroad. If we are unable to prevent material disclosure of the intellectual property related to our technologies to third parties, we will not be able to establish or, if established, maintain a competitive advantage in our market, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations, which could cause the price of our securities to fall.
Litigation to protect or defend our intellectual property or third-party claims of intellectual property infringement would require us to divert resources and may prevent or delay our drug discovery and development efforts.
Our commercial success depends in part on us and our partners not infringing the patents and proprietary rights of third parties. Third parties may assert that we or our partners are using their proprietary rights without authorization. There are third-party patents that may cover materials or methods for treatment related to our product candidates. At present, we are not aware of any patent infringement claims with merit that would adversely and materially affect our ability to develop our product candidates, but nevertheless the possibility of third-party allegations cannot be ruled out. In addition, third parties may obtain patents in the future and claim that use of our technologies infringes upon these patents. Furthermore, parties making claims against us or our partners may obtain injunctive or other equitable relief, which could effectively block our ability to further develop and commercialize one or more of our product candidates. Defense against these claims, regardless of their merit, would involve substantial litigation expense and would be a substantial diversion of employee resources from our business.
In the event of a successful claim of infringement against us, we may have to pay substantial damages, obtain one or more licenses from third parties or pay royalties. In addition, even in the absence of litigation, we may need to obtain licenses from third parties to advance our research or allow commercialization of our product candidates, and we have done so from time to time. We may fail to obtain any of these licenses at a reasonable cost or on reasonable terms, if at all. In that event, we would be unable to further develop and commercialize one or more of our product candidates, which could harm our business significantly.
In addition, in the future we could be required to initiate litigation to enforce our proprietary rights against infringement by third parties, prevent the unauthorized use or disclosure of our trade secrets and confidential information, or defend the validity of our patents. For example, in 2017, we filed a lawsuit against a former employee for misappropriation of certain of our confidential, proprietary and trade secret information. While this litigation has since been resolved, prosecution of claims to enforce or defend our rights against others involve substantial litigation expenses and divert substantial employee resources from our business but may not result in adequate remedy to us or sufficiently mitigate the harm to our business caused by any intellectual property infringement, unauthorized access, use or disclosure of trade secrets. If we fail to effectively enforce our proprietary rights against others, our business will be harmed and the price of our securities could fall.
If the efforts of our partners or future partners to protect the proprietary nature of the intellectual property related to collaboration assets are not adequate, the future commercialization of any medicines resulting from collaborations could be delayed or prevented, which would materially harm our business and could cause the price of our securities to fall.
The risks identified in the two preceding risk factors may also apply to the intellectual property protection efforts of our partners or future partners and to GSK with respect to the GSK-Partnered Respiratory Programs in which
we hold an economic interest. To the extent the intellectual property protection of any partnered assets is successfully challenged or encounters problems with the US Patent and Trademark Office or other comparable agencies throughout the world, the future commercialization of these potential medicines could be delayed or prevented. Any challenge to the intellectual property protection of a late-stage development asset, particularly those of the GSK-Partnered Respiratory Programs in which we hold an economic interest, could harm our business and cause the price of our securities to fall.
Product liability and other lawsuits could divert our resources, result in substantial liabilities and reduce the commercial potential of our medicines.
The risk that we may be sued on product liability claims is inherent in the development and commercialization of pharmaceutical products. Side effects of, or manufacturing defects in, products that we or our partners develop or commercialize could result in the deterioration of a patient’s condition, injury or even death. Once a product is approved for sale and commercialized, the likelihood of product liability lawsuits tends to increase. Claims may be brought by individuals seeking relief for themselves or by individuals or groups seeking to represent a class, asserting injuries based both on potential adverse effects described in the label as well as adverse events not yet observed. We also face an inherent risk of product liability exposure related to the testing of our product candidates in human clinical trials. In addition, changes in laws outside the US are expanding our potential liability for injuries that occur during clinical trials. Product liability claims could harm our reputation, regardless of the merit or ultimate success of the claim, which may adversely affect our and our partners’ ability to commercialize our products and cause the price of our securities to fall. These lawsuits may divert our management from pursuing our business strategy and may be costly to defend. In addition, if we are held liable in any of these lawsuits, we may incur substantial liabilities and may be forced to limit or forgo further commercialization of the applicable products.
Although we maintain general liability and product liability insurance, this insurance may not fully cover potential liabilities and we cannot be sure that our insurer will not disclaim coverage as to a future claim. In addition, inability to obtain or maintain sufficient insurance coverage at an acceptable cost or to otherwise protect against potential product liability claims could prevent or inhibit the commercial production and sale of our products, which could adversely affect our business.
We may also be required to prosecute or defend general commercial, intellectual property, securities and other lawsuits. Litigation typically involves substantial expenses and diverts substantial employee resources from our business. The cost of defending any product liability litigation or engaging in any other legal proceeding, even if resolved in our favor, could be substantial and uncertainties resulting from the initiation and continuation of the litigation or other proceedings could have a material adverse effect on our ability to compete in the marketplace and achieve our business goals.
If we fail to comply with data protection laws and regulations, we could be subject to government enforcement actions (which could include civil or criminal penalties), private litigation and/or adverse publicity, which could negatively affect our operating results and business.
We are subject to data protection laws and regulations (i.e., laws and regulations that address privacy and data security). In the US, numerous federal and state laws and regulations, including state data breach notification laws, state health information and/or genetic privacy laws, and federal and state consumer protection laws (e.g., Section 5 of the FTC Act), govern the collection, use, disclosure, and protection of health related and other personal information. In California, the California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”) took effect on January 1, 2020. The CCPA establishes certain requirements for data use and sharing transparency, and provides California residents certain rights concerning the use, disclosure, and retention of their personal data. In addition, in November 2020, California voters approved the California Privacy Rights Act (“CPRA”) ballot initiative which introduced significant amendments to the CCPA and established and funded a dedicated California privacy regulator, the California Privacy Protection Agency (“CPPA”). The amendments introduced by the CPRA go into effect on January 1, 2023, and new implementing regulations are expected to be introduced by the CPPA. And in 2021, Virginia and Colorado adopted laws, effective January 1, 2023, and July 1, 2023, respectively, introducing new privacy obligations for which we may need to take additional steps to comply. Similarly, there are a number of legislative proposals and enactments in the United States, at both the federal and state level, that could impose new obligations or limitations in areas affecting our business. These laws and regulations are evolving and subject to interpretation, and may impose limitations on our activities or otherwise adversely affect our business. The obligations to comply with the CCPA and evolving legislation involve, among other
things, updates to our notices and the development of new processes internally and with our partners. We may be subject to fines, penalties, or private actions in the event of non-compliance with such laws.
In addition, we may obtain health information from third parties (e.g., healthcare providers who prescribe our products) that are subject to privacy and security requirements under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, and their implementing regulations, (collectively, “HIPAA”). Although we are not directly subject to HIPAA we could be subject to criminal penalties if we knowingly obtain, use, or disclose individually identifiable health information maintained by a HIPAA covered entity in a manner that is not authorized or permitted by HIPAA. HIPAA generally requires that healthcare providers and other covered entities obtain written authorizations from patients prior to disclosing protected health information of the patient (unless an exception to the authorization requirement applies). If authorization is required and the patient fails to execute an authorization or the authorization fails to contain all required provisions, then we may not be allowed access to and use of the patient’s information and our research efforts could be impaired or delayed. Furthermore, use and disclosure of protected health information that is provided to us pursuant to a valid patient authorization is subject to the limits set forth in the authorization (e.g., for use in research and in submissions to regulatory authorities for product approvals). Moreover, patients about whom we or our partners obtain information, as well as the providers who share this information with us, may have contractual rights that limit our ability to use and disclose the information. In addition, HIPAA does not replace federal, state, international or other laws that may grant individuals even greater privacy protections.
EU Member States and other jurisdictions where we operate have adopted data protection laws and regulations, which impose significant compliance obligations. For example, the General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) which became applicable on May 25, 2018, replacing the EU Data Protection Directive, imposes strict obligations and restrictions on the ability to collect, analyze and transfer personal data, including health data from clinical trials and adverse event reporting.
Switzerland has adopted laws that impose restrictions and obligations similar to the GDPR. The obligations and restrictions under the GDPR and Switzerland’s laws concern, in particular, in some instances the consent of the individuals to whom the personal data relate, the information provided to the individuals, the transfer of personal data out of the European Economic Area (“EEA”) or Switzerland, security breach notifications, security and confidentiality of the personal data, as well as substantial potential fines, in some cases up to 4% of global revenues, for breaches of the data protection obligations. Data protection authorities from the different EU Member States and the EEA may interpret the GDPR and applicable related national laws differently which could effectively result in requirements additional to those currently understood to apply under the GDPR. In addition, guidance on implementation and compliance practices may be updated or otherwise revised, which adds to the complexity of processing personal data in the EU. When processing personal data of subjects in the EU, we have to comply with applicable data protection and electronic communications laws. In particular, as we rely on service providers processing personal data of subjects in the EU, we have to enter into suitable contract terms with such providers and receive sufficient guarantees that such providers meet the requirements of the applicable data protection laws, particularly the GDPR which imposes specific and relevant obligations.
Legal mechanisms to allow for the transfer of personal data from the EEA to the US have been challenged in the European Court of Justice, which generally increases uncertainty around compliance with EU privacy law requirements as these relate to transfer of data from the EU to the US. In 2016, the European Commission and the US Department of Commerce (“DOC”) put in place the EU US “Privacy Shield,” which has been relied on by some US companies since that time to transfer data to the US. However, on July 16, 2020, the European Court of Justice ruled that the Privacy Shield is invalid. As a result, from July 16, 2020 companies could no longer rely on the Privacy Shield as a basis on which to transfer personal data from the EU to the US. Data exporters and US-based companies are permitted to rely on other authorized means and procedures to transfer personal data subject to the GDPR to the US. Recent changes have been made to another commonly used authorized procedure to transfer personal data out of the EU, the European Commission’s Standard Contractual Clauses (SCCs). In June 2021, the European Commission published updated versions of the SCCs, which, if companies are relying on them as the mechanism to transfer personal information from the EEA to the US (or to other jurisdictions not recognized as adequate by the EU), must be incorporated into new and existing agreements within prescribed timeframes. The UK is expected to publish final versions of their own SCCs during 2022. Updating agreements to incorporate these new SCCs for the EEA and UK may require significant time and
resources to implement, including through adjusting our operations, conducting requisite data transfer assessments, and revising our contracts. Companies that have not taken steps to demonstrate that their SCCs and personal data recipients in the US or other non-adequate jurisdictions are suitable to receive the personal data may be subject to enforcement actions by competent authorities in the EU for failure to comply with related data privacy rules.
If we or our vendors fail to comply with applicable data privacy laws concerning, or if the legal mechanisms we or our vendors rely upon to allow, the transfer of personal data from the EEA or Switzerland to the US (or other countries not considered by the European Commission to provide an adequate level of data protection) are not considered adequate, we could be subject to government enforcement actions, including an order to stop transferring the personal data outside of the EEA and significant penalties against us. Moreover, our business could be adversely impacted if our ability to transfer personal data out of the EEA or Switzerland to the US is restricted, which could adversely impact our operating results.
Failure to comply with data protection laws and regulations could result in unfavorable outcomes, including increased compliance costs, delays or impediments in the development of new products, increased operating costs, diversion of management time and attention, government enforcement actions and create liability for us (which could include civil, administrative, and/or criminal penalties), private litigation and/or adverse publicity that could negatively affect our operating results and business.
Changes in healthcare law and implementing regulations, including government restrictions on pricing and reimbursement, as well as healthcare policy and other healthcare payor cost-containment initiatives, may negatively impact us, our collaboration partners, or those commercializing products with respect to which we have an economic interest or right to receive royalties.
The continuing efforts of the government, insurance companies, managed care organizations and other payors of health care costs to contain or reduce costs of health care may adversely affect us, our collaboration partners, or those commercializing products with respect to which we have an economic interest or right to receive royalties in regard to one or more of the following:
|●||the ability to set and collect a price believed to be reasonable for products;|
|●||the ability to generate revenues and achieve profitability; and|
|●||the availability of capital.|
The pricing and reimbursement environment for products may change in the future and become more challenging due to, among other reasons, policies advanced by the presidential administration, federal agencies, new healthcare legislation passed by Congress or fiscal challenges faced by all levels of government health administration authorities. Among policy makers and payors in the US and elsewhere, there is significant interest in promoting changes in healthcare systems with the stated goals of containing healthcare costs, improving quality and expanding access to healthcare. In the US, the pharmaceutical industry has been a particular focus of these efforts and has been and may in the future be significantly affected by major regulatory or legislative initiatives, including those related to pricing of or reimbursement for prescription drugs. We expect we, our collaboration partners or those commercializing products with respect to which we have an economic interest or right to receive royalties may experience pricing pressures in connection with the sale of drug products, due to the trend toward managed healthcare, the increasing influence of health maintenance organizations and additional legislative enactments and administrative policies.
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended (the “Healthcare Reform Act”), is a sweeping measure intended to expand healthcare coverage within the US, primarily through the imposition of health insurance mandates on employers and individuals (the latter of which since made non-enforceable), the provision of subsidies to eligible individuals enrolled in plans offered on the health insurance exchanges, and expansion of the Medicaid program. This law has substantially changed the way healthcare is financed by both governmental and private insurers and has significantly impacted the pharmaceutical industry. The Healthcare Reform Act contains a number of provisions that impact our business and operations, including those governing enrollment in federal healthcare programs, reimbursement changes, benefits for patients within a coverage gap in the Medicare Part D prescription drug program (commonly
known as the “donut hole”), rules regarding prescription drug benefits under the health insurance exchanges, changes to the Medicare Drug Rebate program, expansion of the Public Health Service Act’s 340B drug pricing program, fraud and abuse and enforcement. These changes have impacted previously existing government healthcare programs and have resulted in the development of new programs, including Medicare payment for performance initiatives and improvements to the physician quality reporting system and feedback program.
Congress could enact additional legislation that further increases Medicaid drug rebates or other costs and charges associated with participating in the Medicaid Drug Rebate program or other government programs. For example, Congress is considering Medicare Part B inflation rebate, under which manufacturers would owe additional rebates if the average sales price of a drug were to increase faster than the pace of inflation. Congress also could enact a drug price negotiation program under which the prices for certain high Medicare spend single source drugs would be capped by reference to the non-federal average manufacturer price. These or any other legislative changes could impact the market conditions for our products. We further expect continued scrutiny on government price reporting from Congress, agencies, and other bodies.
On December 21, 2020, CMS issued a final regulation that modified prior Medicaid Drug Rebate program regulations to permit reporting multiple best price figures with regard to value-based purchasing arrangements (beginning in 2022); provide definitions for “line extension,” “new formulation,” and related terms, with the practical effect of expanding the scope of drugs considered to be line extensions that are subject to an alternative rebate formula (beginning in 2022); and revise best price and average manufacturer price exclusions of manufacturer-sponsored patient benefit programs, specifically regarding applicability of such exclusions in the context of pharmacy benefit manager “accumulator” programs (beginning in 2023). The issuance of regulations and coverage expansion by various governmental agencies relating to the Medicaid Drug Rebate program has increased and will continue to increase the costs and the complexity of compliance, has been and will be time-consuming to implement, and could have a material adverse effect on results of operations for us, our collaboration partners, or those commercializing products with respect to which we have an economic interest or right to receive royalties, particularly if CMS challenges the approach taken in the implementation of the final regulations.
Certain provisions of the Healthcare Reform Act have been subject to judicial challenges as well as efforts to modify them or to alter their interpretation or implementation. For example, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act enacted on December 22, 2017 (the “Tax Act”), eliminated the shared responsibility payment for individuals who fail to maintain minimum essential coverage under section 5000A of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, commonly referred to as the individual mandate, effective January 1, 2019. Additional legislative changes to and regulatory changes under the Healthcare Reform Act remain possible, but the nature and extent of such potential additional changes are uncertain at this time. We expect that the Healthcare Reform Act, its implementation, efforts to modify, or invalidate the Healthcare Reform Act, or portions thereof, or its implementation, and other healthcare reform measures that may be adopted in the future, could have a material adverse effect on our industry generally and on the ability of us, our collaboration partners, or those commercializing products with respect to which we have an economic interest or right to receive royalties to maintain or increase sales of existing products or to successfully commercialize product candidates, if approved.
The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018, among other things, amended the Healthcare Reform Act to increase the point-of-sale discounts that manufacturers must agree to offer under the Medicare Part D coverage discount program from 50% to 70% off negotiated prices of applicable brand drugs to eligible beneficiaries during their coverage gap period, as a condition for the manufacturer’s outpatient drugs to be covered under Medicare Part D. Civil monetary penalties can be applied if a manufacturer fails to provide these discounts in the amount of 125 percent of the discount that was due. Congress could enact legislation that sunsets this discount program and replaces it with a new manufacturer discount program. Congress further could enact a Medicare Part D inflation rebate, under which manufacturers would owe additional rebates if the average manufacturer price of a drug were to increase faster than the pace of inflation.
Additionally, in November 2020, the US Department of Health and Human Services finalized a previously abandoned proposal to amend the discount safe harbor regulation of the federal anti-kickback statute in a purported effort to create incentives to manufacturers to lower their list prices, and to lower federal program beneficiary out-of-pocket costs. The rule, for which the effective date was delayed to 2026 in the 2021 Infrastructure Investment and Jobs
Act, revises the discount safe harbor to exclude manufacturer rebates to Medicare Part D plans, either directly or through pharmacy benefit managers (“PBMs”), creates a new safe harbor for point-of-sale price reductions that are set in advance and are available to the beneficiary at the point-of-sale, and creates a new safe harbor for service fees paid by manufacturers to PBMs for services rendered to the manufacturer. It is unclear whether the rule will be further delayed, rewritten, or allowed to go into effect, and if so, what the effect of the rule will be on negotiations of coverage for our products with Medicare Part D plans, or whether the rule will affect our coverage arrangements with commercial insurers. It is also unclear whether the rule will have the intended effect of reducing net prices and beneficiary out-of-pocket costs without also increasing Medicare Part D premiums, which may impact the willingness of Part D plans to cover our products and the price concessions or other terms the plans or their PBMs may seek from us. There have been other proposals to modify the Medicare Part D benefit, including by imposing federally mandated rebates on all drugs dispensed to Medicare Part D enrollees or on only those drugs dispensed to certain groups of lower income beneficiaries. If any of these proposals are adopted including any that result in additional rebates, this could have a negative impact on revenues for our collaboration partners, or those commercializing products with respect to which we have an economic interest or right to receive royalties, which could impact our revenues.
On August 2, 2011, the Budget Control Act of 2011, among other things, created the Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction to recommend to Congress proposals for spending reductions. The Joint Select Committee did not achieve a targeted deficit reduction, which triggered the legislation’s automatic reductions. In concert with subsequent legislation, this has resulted in aggregate reductions to Medicare payments to providers of, on average, 2% per fiscal year through 2030 (with the exception of a temporary suspension from May 1, 2020 through May 31, 2022, due to the COVID-19 pandemic). The law provides for 1% Medicare sequestration in the second quarter of 2022 and allows the full 2% sequestration thereafter until 2030. To offset the temporary suspension during the COVID-19 pandemic, in 2030, the sequestration will be 2.25% for the first half of the year, and 3% in the second half of the year. As long as these cuts remain in effect, they could adversely impact payment for any products that are reimbursed under Medicare.
Individual states in the United States have also increasingly passed legislation and implemented regulations designed to control pharmaceutical and biological product pricing, including price or patient reimbursement limitations, marketing cost disclosure and transparency measures, and, in some cases, measures designed to encourage importation from other countries and bulk purchasing. For example, California has enacted a prescription drug price transparency law requiring prescription drug manufacturers to provide advance notice and explanation for price increases of certain drugs with prices that exceed a specified threshold, and to report new prescription drugs introduced to the market at a wholesale acquisition cost exceeding the Medicare Part D specialty drug threshold.
We expect that additional state and federal healthcare reform measures will be adopted in the future, any of which could limit the amounts that federal and state governments will pay for healthcare products and services, which could result in reduced demand for product or additional pricing pressures for our collaboration partners, or those commercializing products with respect to which we have an economic interest or right to receive royalties, which could impact our revenues.
If we failed to comply with our reporting and payment obligations under the Medicaid Drug Rebate program or other governmental pricing programs, we could be subject to additional reimbursement requirements, penalties, sanctions and fines, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
Prior to the sale of VIBATIV to Cumberland, we had certain price reporting obligations to the Medicaid Drug Rebate program and other governmental pricing programs, and we had obligations to report average sales price under the Medicare program. Following the consummation of the transaction with Cumberland, our price reporting obligations related to VIBATIV have been transitioned to Cumberland, and price reporting obligations for YUPELRI reside with Viatris. We retain certain obligations with respect to record retention for these programs.
Under the Medicaid Drug Rebate program, a manufacturer is required to pay a rebate to each state Medicaid program for its covered outpatient drugs that are dispensed to Medicaid beneficiaries and paid for by a state Medicaid program as a condition of having federal funds being made available to the states for our drugs under Medicaid and Medicare Part B. Those rebates are based on pricing data reported by the manufacturer on a monthly and quarterly basis to CMS, the federal agency that administers the Medicaid Drug Rebate program. These data include the average
manufacturer price and, in the case of innovator products, the best price for each drug which, in general, represents the lowest price available from the manufacturer to any entity in the US in any pricing structure, calculated to include all sales and associated rebates, discounts and other price concessions. The amount of the rebate is adjusted upward if the average manufacturer price increases at a pace faster than inflation (measured by reference to the Consumer Price Index - Urban). Currently, the rebate is capped at 100 percent of the average manufacturer price, but, effective January 1, 2024, this cap on the rebate will be removed, and our rebate liability could increase accordingly.
Federal law requires that any company that participates in the Medicaid Drug Rebate program also participate in the Public Health Service’s 340B drug pricing program in order for federal funds to be available for the manufacturer’s drugs under Medicaid and Medicare Part B. The 340B program requires participating manufacturers to agree to charge no more than the 340B “ceiling price” for the manufacturer’s covered outpatient drugs to a variety of community health clinics and other entities that receive health services grants from the Public Health Service, as well as hospitals that serve a disproportionate share of low-income patients. Manufacturers also are required to report their 340B ceiling prices to HRSA on a quarterly basis, and HRSA then publishes them to 340B covered entities. A final regulation regarding the calculation of the 340B ceiling price and the imposition of civil monetary penalties on manufacturers that knowingly and intentionally overcharge covered entities became effective on January 1, 2019. Moreover, under a final regulation effective January 13, 2021, HRSA newly established an administrative dispute resolution (“ADR”) process for claims by covered entities that a manufacturer has engaged in overcharging, and by manufacturers that a covered entity violated the prohibitions against diversion or duplicate discounts. Such claims are to be resolved through an ADR panel of government officials rendering a decision that could be appealed only in federal court. An ADR proceeding could subject us to onerous procedural requirements and could result in additional liability.
Federal law also requires that manufacturers report average sales price information for certain categories of drugs that are paid under the Medicare Part B program to CMS on a quarterly basis. Manufacturers calculate the average sales price based on a statutorily defined formula as well as regulations and interpretations of the statute by CMS. CMS uses these submissions to determine payment rates for drugs under Medicare Part B. Effective January 1, 2023, manufacturers will be obligated to pay refunds to Medicare for single source drugs or biologicals, or biosimilar biological products, reimbursed under Medicare Part B and packaged in single-dose containers or single-use packages, for units of discarded drug reimbursed by Medicare Part B in excess of 10 percent of total allowed charges under Medicare Part B for that drug. Manufacturers that fail to pay refunds could be subject to civil monetary penalties of 125 percent of the refund amount.
Pricing and rebate calculations vary across products and programs, are complex, and are often subject to interpretation by the manufacturer, governmental or regulatory agencies and the courts. A manufacturer that becomes aware that its Medicaid reporting for a prior quarter was incorrect, or has changed as a result of recalculation of the pricing data, is obligated to resubmit the corrected data for up to three years after those data originally were due. Such restatements and recalculations increase the costs for complying with the laws and regulations governing the Medicaid Drug Rebate program and could result in an overage or underage in our rebate liability for past quarters. Price recalculations also may affect the 340B ceiling price.
We may be liable for errors associated with our submission of pricing data for VIBATIV for historic periods, and we may retain some liability for price reporting by Cumberland for VIBATIV sold under our labeler code. In addition to retroactive rebates and the potential for 340B program refunds, if we are found to have knowingly submitted any false price information to the government, we may be liable for significant civil monetary penalties per item of false information. If we are found to have made a misrepresentation in the reporting of our average sales price, the Medicare statute provides for significant civil monetary penalties for each misrepresentation for each day in which the misrepresentation was applied. If we are found to have charged 340B covered entities more than the statutorily mandated ceiling price, we could be subject to significant civil monetary penalties and/or such failure also could be grounds for HRSA to terminate a manufacturer’s agreement to participate in the 340B program, in which case covered outpatient drugs under our labeler code may no longer be eligible for federal payment under the Medicaid or Medicare Part B program. If we are found to have not submitted required price data on a timely basis, that could result in a significant civil monetary penalty per day for each day the information is late beyond the due date. Such failure also could be grounds for CMS to terminate our Medicaid drug rebate agreement, pursuant to which we participate in the Medicaid program. In the event that CMS terminates our rebate agreement, federal payments may not be available under Medicaid or Medicare Part B for covered outpatient drugs under our labeler code.
In order to be eligible to have its products paid for with federal funds under the Medicaid and Medicare Part B programs and purchased by the Department of Veterans Affairs (“VA”), Department of Defense (“DoD”), Public Health Service, and Coast Guard (the “Big Four agencies”) and certain federal grantees, a manufacturer is required to participate in the VA Federal Supply Schedule (“FSS”) pricing program, established under Section 603 of the Veterans Health Care Act of 1992. Under this program, the manufacturer is obligated to make its covered drugs available for procurement on an FSS contract and charge a price to the Big Four agencies that is no higher than the Federal Ceiling Price (“FCP”), which is a price calculated pursuant to a statutory formula. The FCP is derived from a calculated price point called the “non-federal average manufacturer price” (“Non-FAMP”), which the manufacturer calculates and reports to the VA on a quarterly and annual basis. Pursuant to applicable law, knowing provision of false information in connection with a Non-FAMP filing can subject a manufacturer to significant penalties for each item of false information. The FSS contract also contains extensive disclosure and certification requirements.
Under Section 703 of the National Defense Authorization Act for FY 2008, the manufacturer is required to pay quarterly rebates to DoD on utilization of its innovator products that are dispensed through DoD’s Tricare network pharmacies to Tricare beneficiaries. The rebates are calculated as the difference between the annual Non-FAMP and FCP for the calendar year that the product was dispensed. A manufacturer that overcharges the government in connection with the FSS contract or Tricare Retail Pharmacy Rebate Program, whether due to a misstated FCP or otherwise, is required to refund the difference to the government. Failure to make necessary disclosures and/or to identify contract overcharges can result in allegations against us under the False Claims Act and other laws and regulations.
Individual states in the United States, as noted, have also passed legislation and implemented regulations designed to control pharmaceutical and biological product pricing, including marketing cost disclosure and transparency measures. Some states require the submission of reports related to pricing information, including based on the introduction of new prescription drugs, certain increases in wholesale acquisition cost of prescription drugs, marketing of prescription drugs within the state, and sales of prescription drugs in or into the state. Some states may pursue available enforcement measures, including imposition of civil monetary penalties, for a manufacturer’s failure to report such information.
Our relationships with customers and third-party payors are subject to applicable anti-kickback, fraud and abuse, transparency and other healthcare laws and regulations, which could expose us to criminal sanctions, civil penalties, exclusion, contractual damages, reputational harm and diminished profits and future earnings.
Healthcare providers, physicians, distributors and third-party payors play a primary role in the distribution, recommendation and prescription of any pharmaceutical product for which we obtain marketing approval. Our arrangements with third-party payors and customers expose us to broadly applicable fraud and abuse and other healthcare laws and regulations that may constrain the business or financial arrangements through which we market, sell and distribute any products for which we have obtained or may obtain marketing approval. Restrictions under applicable federal and state healthcare laws and regulations include the following:
|●||The US federal healthcare Anti-Kickback Statute prohibits any person from, among other things, knowingly and willfully offering, paying, soliciting, or receiving remuneration, directly or indirectly, in cash or in kind, to induce or reward either the referral of an individual for, or the purchasing, leasing, ordering or arranging for or recommending of any good or service for which payment may be made, in whole or in part, under federal and state healthcare programs such as Medicare and Medicaid. The term “remuneration” has been broadly interpreted to include anything of value. The Anti-Kickback Statute is subject to evolving interpretation and has been applied by government enforcement officials to a number of common business arrangements in the pharmaceutical industry. The government can establish a violation of the Anti-Kickback Statute without proving that a person or entity had actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it. There are a number of statutory exemptions and regulatory safe harbors protecting some common activities from prosecution; however, those exceptions and safe harbors are drawn narrowly. Failure to meet all of the requirements of a particular statutory exception or regulatory safe harbor does not make the conduct per se illegal under the Anti-Kickback Statute, but the legality of the arrangement will be evaluated on a case-by-case basis based on the totality of the facts and circumstances. We seek to comply with the available statutory exemptions and safe harbors whenever possible, but our|
|practices may not in all cases meet all of the criteria for safe harbor protection from anti-kickback liability. Moreover, there are no safe harbors for many common practices, such as educational and research grants or patient or product assistance programs.|
|●||The federal civil False Claims Act prohibits, among other things, knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, claims for payment of government funds that are false or fraudulent, or knowingly making, or using or causing to be made or used, a false record or statement material to a false or fraudulent claim to avoid, decrease, or conceal an obligation to pay money to the federal government. Private individuals, commonly known as “whistleblowers,” can bring civil False Claims Act qui tam actions, on behalf of the government and such individuals and may share in amounts paid by the entity to the government in recovery or settlement. In recent years, several pharmaceutical and other healthcare companies have faced enforcement actions under the federal False Claims Act for, among other things, allegedly submitting false or misleading pricing information to government health care programs and providing free product to customers with the expectation that the customers would bill federal programs for the product. Federal enforcement agencies also have showed increased interest in pharmaceutical companies’ product and patient assistance programs, including reimbursement and co-pay support services, and a number of investigations into these programs have resulted in significant civil and criminal settlements. Other companies have faced enforcement actions for causing false claims to be submitted because of the companies’ marketing the product for unapproved, and thus non-reimbursable, uses. In addition, a claim including items or services resulting from a violation of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the federal civil False Claims Act. False Claims Act liability is potentially significant in the healthcare industry because the statute provides for treble damages and significant mandatory penalties per false claim or statement for violations. Because of the potential for large monetary exposure, healthcare and pharmaceutical companies often resolve allegations without admissions of liability for significant and material amounts to avoid the uncertainty of treble damages and per claim penalties that may be awarded in litigation proceedings. As part of these resolutions, Companies may enter into corporate integrity agreements with the government, which may impose substantial costs on companies to ensure compliance. Criminal penalties, including imprisonment and criminal fines, are also possible for making or presenting a false, fictitious or fraudulent claim to the federal government.|
|●||HIPAA, among other things, imposes criminal and civil liability for knowingly and willfully executing a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program, including private third-party payors, and also imposes obligations, including mandatory contractual terms, with respect to safeguarding the privacy, security and transmission of individually identifiable health information. HIPAA also prohibits knowingly and willfully falsifying, concealing or covering up a material fact or making any materially false, fictitious or fraudulent statement or representation, or making or using any false writing or document knowing the same to contain any materially false fictitious or fraudulent statement or entry in connection with the delivery of or payment for healthcare benefits, items or services. Similar to the federal healthcare Anti-Kickback Statute, a person or entity does not need to have actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it to have committed a violation.|
|●||The federal Physician Payment Sunshine Act, implemented as the Open Payments Program, requires certain manufacturers of drugs, devices, biologics, and medical supplies for which payment is available under Medicare, Medicaid or the Children’s Health Insurance Program (with certain exceptions) to report annually to the US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, information related to payments and other transfers of value, directly or indirectly, to physicians (defined to include doctors, dentists, optometrists, podiatrists, and chiropractors) and teaching hospitals, as well as ownership and investment interests held by physicians and their immediate family members. Beginning in 2022, applicable manufacturers also will be required to report information regarding payments and transfers of value provided to physician assistants, nurse practitioners, clinical nurse specialists, certified nurse anesthetists, and certified nurse-midwives. A manufacturer’s failure to submit timely, accurately and completely the required information for all payments, transfers of value or ownership or investment interests may result in civil monetary penalties.|
|●||Analogous state laws and regulations, such as state anti-kickback and false claims laws, may apply to sales or marketing arrangements and claims involving healthcare items or services reimbursed by any third-party payors, including private insurers or patients. Several states also require pharmaceutical companies to report expenses relating to the marketing and promotion of pharmaceutical products in those states and to report gifts and payments to individual health care providers in those states. Some of these states also prohibit certain marketing-related activities, including the provision of gifts, meals, or other items to certain health care providers, and restrict the ability of manufacturers to offer co-pay support to patients for certain prescription drugs. Some states require the posting of information relating to clinical studies and their outcomes. Some states and cities require identification or licensing of sales representatives. In addition, several states require pharmaceutical companies to implement compliance programs or marketing codes.|
|●||Similar restrictions are imposed on the promotion and marketing of medicinal products in the EU Member States and other countries, including restrictions prohibiting the promotion of a compound prior to its approval. Laws (including those governing promotion, marketing and anti-kickback provisions), industry regulations and professional codes of conduct often are strictly enforced. Even in those countries where we may decide not to directly promote or market our products, inappropriate activity by our international distribution partners could have implications for us.|
The shifting commercial compliance environment and the need to build and maintain robust and expandable systems to comply with different compliance or reporting requirements in multiple jurisdictions increase the possibility that we or our partners may fail to comply fully with one or more of these requirements. Efforts to ensure that our business arrangements with third parties will comply with applicable healthcare laws and regulations may involve substantial costs. It is possible that governmental authorities will conclude that our business practices may not comply with applicable fraud and abuse or other healthcare laws and regulations or guidance. If our operations are found to be in violation of any of these laws or any other governmental regulations that may apply to us, we may be subject to significant civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, fines, disgorgement, exclusion from government funded healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid in the US and similar programs outside the US, contractual damages, diminished profits and future earnings, and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations, any of which could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our financial results. If any of the physicians or other providers or entities with whom we do or expect to do business are found to not be in compliance with applicable laws, they may be subject to criminal, civil or administrative sanctions, including exclusions from government funded healthcare programs. Even if we are not determined to have violated these laws, government investigations into these issues typically require the expenditure of significant resources and generate negative publicity, which could harm our financial condition and divert resources and the attention of our management from operating our business.
Our business and operations, including the use of hazardous and biological materials may result in liabilities with respect to environmental, health and safety matters.
Our research and development activities involve the controlled use of potentially hazardous substances, including chemical, biological and radioactive materials. In addition, our operations produce hazardous waste products, including hazardous waste. Federal, state and local laws and regulations govern the use, manufacture, management, storage, handling and disposal of hazardous materials and wastes. We may incur significant additional costs or liabilities to comply with, or for violations of, these and other applicable laws in the future. Also, even if we are in compliance with applicable laws, we cannot completely eliminate the risk of contamination or injury resulting from hazardous materials and we may incur liability as a result of any such contamination or injury. Further, in the event of a release of or exposure to hazardous materials, including at the sites we currently or formerly operate or at sites such as landfills where we send wastes for disposal, we could be held liable for cleanup costs or damages or subject to other costs or penalties and such liability could exceed our resources. We do not have any insurance for liabilities arising from hazardous materials or under environmental laws. Compliance with or liability under applicable environmental laws and regulations or with respect to hazardous materials may be expensive, and current or future environmental regulations may impair our research, development and production efforts, which could harm our business, which could cause the price of our securities to fall.
RISKS RELATING TO OUR ORDINARY SHARES
The market price for our shares has and may continue to fluctuate widely and may result in substantial losses for purchasers of our ordinary shares.
The market price for our shares has and may continue to fluctuate widely and may result in substantial losses for purchasers of our ordinary shares. To the extent that low trading volumes for our ordinary shares continues, our stock price may fluctuate significantly more than the stock market as a whole or the stock prices of similar companies. Without a larger public float of actively traded shares, our ordinary shares are likely to be more sensitive to changes in sales volumes, market fluctuations and events or perceived events with respect to our business, than the shares of common stock of companies with broader public ownership, and as a result, the trading prices for our ordinary shares may be more volatile. Among other things, trading of a relatively small volume of ordinary shares may have a greater effect on the trading price than would be the case if our public float of actively traded shares were larger. In addition, as further described below under the risk factor entitled “—Concentration of ownership will limit your ability to influence corporate matters,” a number of shareholders hold large concentrations of our shares which, if sold within a relatively short timeframe, could cause the price of our shares to drop significantly. In addition, as a result of the exchangeable note offering by GSK, up to 9,644,792 ordinary shares held by GSK could become freely tradeable after September 1, 2020, if holders of the GSK Notes were to exchange their notes for our ordinary shares, although our current stock price is below the exchange price.
Market prices for securities of biotechnology and biopharmaceutical companies have been highly volatile, and we expect such volatility to continue for the foreseeable future, so that investment in our ordinary shares involves substantial risk. Additionally, the stock market from time to time has experienced significant price and volume fluctuations unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies.
The following are some of the factors that may have a significant effect on the market price of our ordinary shares:
|●||any adverse developments or results or perceived adverse developments or results with respect to YUPELRI, including without limitation, lower than expected sales of YUPELRI, difficulties or delays encountered with regard to the FDA or other regulatory authorities in this program or any indication from clinical or non-clinical studies that YUPELRI is not safe or efficacious;|
|●||any adverse developments or results or perceived adverse developments or results with respect to the GSK Partnered Respiratory Programs including, without limitation, lower than expected sales of TRELEGY, difficulties or delays encountered with regard to the FDA or other regulatory authorities in these programs or any indication from clinical or non-clinical studies that the compounds in such programs are not safe or efficacious;|
|●||any adverse developments or results or perceived adverse developments or results with respect to our key clinical development programs, including, without limitation, any delays in development in these programs, any halting of development in these programs, any difficulties or delays encountered with regard to the FDA or other regulatory authorities in these programs (including any class-based risks that emerge as a FDA or other regulatory agency focus), or any indication from clinical or non-clinical studies that the compounds in such programs are not safe or efficacious;|
|●||any announcements of developments with, or comments by, the FDA or other regulatory authorities with respect to products we or our partners have under development, are manufacturing or have commercialized;|
|●||any adverse developments or disagreements or perceived adverse developments or disagreements with respect to our relationship with Innoviva, such as our 2019 and 2021 arbitration proceedings with them concerning their use of TRC funds, or the relationship of Innoviva or TRC on the one hand and GSK on the other hand, including any such developments or disagreements resulting from or relating to the TRC LLC Agreement or to the Spin-Off;|
|●||any adverse developments or perceived adverse developments with respect to our relationship with any of our research, development or commercialization partners, including, without limitation, disagreements that may arise between us and any of those partners;|
|●||any adverse developments or perceived adverse developments in our programs with respect to partnering efforts or otherwise;|
|●||announcements of patent issuances or denials, technological innovations or new commercial products by us or our competitors;|
|●||publicity regarding actual or potential study results or the outcome of regulatory review relating to products under development by us, our partners or our competitors;|
|●||regulatory developments in the US and foreign countries;|
|●||announcements with respect to governmental or private insurer reimbursement policies;|
|●||announcements of equity or debt financings;|
|●||possible impairment charges on non-marketable equity securities;|
|●||economic and other external factors beyond our control, such as the COVID-19 pandemic and fluctuations in interest rates;|
|●||loss of key personnel;|
|●||likelihood of our ordinary shares to be more sensitive to changes in sales volume, market fluctuations and events or perceived events with respect to our business due to our small public float;|
|●||low public market trading volumes for our ordinary shares related in part to the concentration of ownership of our shares;|
|●||the sale of large concentrations of our shares, which may be more likely to occur due to the concentration of ownership of our shares, such as what we experienced when our largest shareholder, Woodford Investment Management Limited, divested its holdings in 2019 or which may occur as a result of the exchangeable note offering by GSK if holders of the GSK Notes were to exchange their notes for our ordinary shares;|
|●||developments or disputes as to patent or other proprietary rights;|
|●||approval or introduction of competing products and technologies;|
|●||results of clinical trials;|
|●||failures or unexpected delays in timelines for our potential products in development, including the obtaining of regulatory approvals;|
|●||delays in manufacturing adversely affecting clinical or commercial operations;|
|●||fluctuations in our operating results;|
|●||market reaction to announcements by other biotechnology or pharmaceutical companies;|
|●||initiation, termination or modification of agreements with our collaborators or disputes or disagreements with collaborators;|
|●||litigation or the threat of litigation;|
|●||public concern as to the safety of product candidates or medicines developed by us; and|
|●||comments and expectations of results made by securities analysts or investors.|
If any of these factors causes us to fail to meet the expectations of securities analysts or investors, or if adverse conditions prevail or are perceived to prevail with respect to our business, the price of the ordinary shares would likely drop significantly. For example, our stock price dropped significantly when we announced that izencitinib did not meet its primary endpoint in our Phase 2b/3 induction and maintenance study of izencitinib in ulcerative colitis. In addition, though none has been filed to our knowledge, a significant drop in the price of a company’s securities often leads to the filing of securities class action litigation against the company. This type of litigation against us could result in substantial costs and a diversion of management’s attention and resources.
Concentration of ownership will limit your ability to influence corporate matters.
Based on our review of publicly available filings, as of December 31, 2021, our three largest shareholders collectively owned 39.2% of our outstanding ordinary shares. These shareholders could control the outcome of actions taken by us that require shareholder approval, including a transaction in which shareholders might receive a premium over the prevailing market price for their shares.
Certain provisions in our constitutional and other documents may discourage our acquisition by a third-party, which could limit your opportunity to sell shares at a premium.
Our constitutional documents include provisions that could limit the ability of others to acquire control of us, modify our structure or cause us to engage in change-of-control transactions, including, among other things, provisions that:
|●||require supermajority shareholder voting to effect certain amendments to our amended and restated memorandum and articles of association;|
|●||establish a classified board of directors;|
|●||restrict our shareholders from calling meetings or acting by written consent in lieu of a meeting;|
|●||limit the ability of our shareholders to propose actions at duly convened meetings; and|
|●||authorize our board of directors, without action by our shareholders, to issue preferred shares and additional ordinary shares.|
In addition, in May 2018, our shareholders approved a resolution authorizing our board of directors to adopt a shareholder rights plan in the future intended to deter any person from acquiring more than 19.9% of our outstanding ordinary shares without the approval of our board of directors.
These provisions could have the effect of depriving you of an opportunity to sell your ordinary shares at a premium over prevailing market prices by discouraging third parties from seeking to acquire control of us in a tender offer or similar transaction.
Our shareholders may face difficulties in protecting their interests because we are incorporated under Cayman Islands law.
Our corporate affairs are governed by our amended and restated memorandum and articles of association, by the Companies Law (2020 Revision) of the Cayman Islands and by the common law of the Cayman Islands. The rights
of our shareholders and the fiduciary responsibilities of our directors under the laws of the Cayman Islands are different from those under statutes or judicial precedent in existence in jurisdictions in the US. Therefore, you may have more difficulty in protecting your interests than would shareholders of a corporation incorporated in a jurisdiction in the US, due to the different nature of Cayman Islands law in this area.
Shareholders of Cayman Islands exempted companies such as our company have no general rights under Cayman Islands law to inspect corporate records and accounts or to obtain copies of lists of shareholders. Our directors have discretion under our amended and restated memorandum and articles of association to determine whether or not, and under what conditions, our corporate records may be inspected by our shareholders, but are not obliged to make them available to our shareholders. This may make it more difficult for you to obtain the information needed to establish any facts necessary for a shareholder motion or to solicit proxies from other shareholders in connection with a proxy contest.
Our Cayman Islands counsel, Maples and Calder, is not aware of any reported class action having been brought in a Cayman Islands court. Derivative actions have been brought in the Cayman Islands courts, and the Cayman Islands courts have confirmed the availability for such actions. In most cases, the Company will be the proper plaintiff in any claim based on a breach of duty owed to it, and a claim against (for example) our officers or directors usually may not be brought by a shareholder. However, based on English authorities, which would in all likelihood be of persuasive authority and be applied by a court in the Cayman Islands, exceptions to the foregoing principle apply in circumstances in which:
|●||a company is acting, or proposing to act, illegally or beyond the scope of its authority;|
|●||the act complained of, although not beyond the scope of the authority, could be effected if duly authorized by more than the number of votes which have actually been obtained; or|
|●||those who control the company are perpetrating a “fraud on the minority.”|
A shareholder may have a direct right of action against the company where the individual rights of that shareholder have been infringed or are about to be infringed.
There is uncertainty as to shareholders’ ability to enforce certain foreign civil liabilities in the Cayman Islands.
We are incorporated as an exempted company limited by shares with limited liability under the laws of the Cayman Islands. A material portion of our assets are located outside of the US. As a result, it may be difficult for our shareholders to enforce judgments against us or judgments obtained in US courts predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the federal securities laws of the US or any state of the US.
We understand that the courts of the Cayman Islands are unlikely (i) to recognize or enforce against Theravance Biopharma judgments of courts of the US predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the US or any State; and (ii) in original actions brought in the Cayman Islands, to impose liabilities against Theravance Biopharma predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the US or any State, on the grounds that such provisions are penal in nature. However, in the case of laws that are not penal in nature, although there is no statutory enforcement in the Cayman Islands of judgments obtained in the US, the courts of the Cayman Islands will recognize and enforce a foreign money judgment of a foreign court of competent jurisdiction without retrial on the merits based on the principle that a judgment of a competent foreign court imposes upon the judgment debtor an obligation to pay the sum for which judgment has been given provided certain conditions are met. For a foreign judgment to be enforced in the Cayman Islands, such judgment must be final and conclusive and for a liquidated sum, and must not be in respect of taxes or a fine or penalty, inconsistent with a Cayman Islands’ judgment in respect of the same matter, impeachable on the grounds of fraud or obtained in a manner, and or be of a kind the enforcement of which is, contrary to natural justice or the public policy of the Cayman Islands (awards of punitive or multiple damages may well be held to be contrary to public policy). A Cayman Islands court, including the Grand Court of the Cayman Islands, may stay proceedings if concurrent proceedings are being brought elsewhere, which would delay proceedings and make it more difficult for our shareholders to bring action against us.
If securities or industry analysts cease coverage of us or do not publish research, or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research, about our business, the price of our ordinary shares and trading volume could decline.
The trading market for our ordinary shares depends in part on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. If few securities analysts commence coverage of us, or if industry analysts cease coverage of us, the trading price for our ordinary shares could be negatively affected. If one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our ordinary shares or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business or if our results fail to meet the expectations of these analysts, the price of our ordinary shares would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of us or fail to publish reports on us regularly, demand for our ordinary shares could decrease, which might cause our share price and trading volume to decline.
We do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our capital shares in the foreseeable future; as a result, capital appreciation, if any, of our ordinary shares will be your sole source of gain for the foreseeable future.
We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our capital shares. We do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our capital shares in the foreseeable future. We currently intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings to fund the development and growth of our business. In addition, the terms of any future debt financing arrangement may contain terms prohibiting or limiting the amount of dividends that may be declared or paid on our ordinary shares. As a result, capital appreciation, if any, of our ordinary shares will be your sole source of gain for the foreseeable future.
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
Our principal physical properties in the US consist of approximately 162,000 square feet of office and laboratory space leased in two buildings in South San Francisco, California. The South San Francisco lease expires in May 2030. Our Irish subsidiary operates from approximately 6,100 square feet of leased office space in Dublin, Ireland, and the lease expires in April 2027. As a result of our corporate restructuring announced in September 2021, we are evaluating options to reduce our leased space to meet our current and future needs.
ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR THE REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Our ordinary shares have traded on The Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “TBPH” since June 3, 2014. As of February 21, 2022, there were 54 shareholders of record of our ordinary shares. As many of our ordinary shares are held by brokers and other institutions on behalf of shareholders, we are unable to estimate the total number of underlying shareholders represented by these shareholders of record.
We currently intend to retain any future earnings to finance our research and development efforts. We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our ordinary shares and do not intend to declare or pay cash dividends on our ordinary shares in the foreseeable future.
Equity Compensation Plans
The following table provides certain information with respect to all of our equity compensation plans in effect as of December 31, 2021:
Number of Securities
Number of Securities
for Future Issuance
to be Issued Upon
Exercise Price of
Warrants and Rights (a)
Warrants and Rights
reflected in column (a))
Employee share purchase plan
Equity compensation plans approved by security holders
Equity compensation plans not approved by security holders
We have three equity compensation plans — our 2013 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2013 EIP”), our 2013 Employee Share Purchase Plan (the “2013 ESPP”), and our 2014 New Employee Equity Incentive Plan (the “2014 NEEIP”). At inception of the plans, we were authorized to issue 5,428,571 ordinary shares under the 2013 EIP and 857,142 ordinary shares under the 2013 ESPP, and 750,000 ordinary shares under the 2014 NEEIP.
The 2013 EIP provides for the issuance of share-based awards, including restricted shares, restricted share units, options, share appreciation rights (“SARs”) and other equity-based awards, to our employees, officers, directors and consultants. As of January 1 of each year, commencing on January 1, 2015 and ending on (and including) January 1, 2023, the aggregate number of ordinary shares that may be issued under the 2013 EIP shall automatically increase by a number equal to the least of (i) 5% of the total number of ordinary shares outstanding on December 31 of the prior year; (ii) 3,428,571 ordinary shares; or (iii) a number of ordinary shares determined by our board of directors. Options may be granted with an exercise price not less than the fair market value of the ordinary shares on the grant date. Under the terms of our 2013 EIP, options granted to employees generally have a maximum term of 10 years and vest over a four-year period from the date of grant; 25% vest at the end of one year, and 75% vest monthly over the remaining three years. We may grant options with different vesting terms from time to time. Unless an employee’s termination of service is due to disability or death, upon termination of service, any unexercised vested options will generally be forfeited at the end of three months or the expiration of the option, whichever is earlier.
Under the 2013 ESPP, our officers and employees may purchase ordinary shares through payroll deductions at a price equal to 85% of the lower of the fair market value of the ordinary share at the beginning of the offering period or at the end of each applicable purchase period. As of January 1 of each year, commencing on January 1, 2015 and ending on (and including) January 1, 2033, the aggregate number of ordinary shares that may be issued under the 2013 ESPP shall automatically increase by a number equal to the least of (i) 1% of the total number of ordinary shares outstanding on December 31 of the prior year; (ii) 857,142 ordinary shares; or (iii) a number of ordinary shares determined by our board of directors. The ESPP generally provides for consecutive and overlapping offering periods of 24 months in duration, with each offering period generally composed of four consecutive six-month purchase periods. The purchase periods end on either May 15 or November 15. ESPP contributions are limited to a maximum of 15% of an employee’s eligible compensation. Our 2013 ESPP also includes a feature that provides for the existing offering period to terminate and for participants in that offering period to automatically be enrolled in a new offering period when the fair market value of an ordinary share at the beginning of a subsequent offering period falls below the fair market value of an ordinary share on the first day of such offering period.
The 2014 NEEIP provides for the issuance of share-based awards, including restricted shares, restricted share units, non-qualified options and SARs, to our employees. Options may be granted with an exercise price not less than the fair market value of the ordinary shares on the grant date. Under the terms of our 2014 NEEIP, options granted to employees generally have a maximum term of 10 years and vest over a four-year period from the date of grant; 25% vest at the end of one year, and 75% vest monthly over the remaining three years. We may grant options with different vesting terms from time to time. Unless an employee’s termination of service is due to disability or death, upon termination of service, any unexercised vested options will generally be forfeited at the end of three months or the expiration of the option, whichever is earlier.
Additional information regarding share-based compensation is included in “Item 8, Note 1. Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies,” and “Item 8, Note 10. Share-Based Compensation,” to the consolidated financial statements appearing in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Share Performance Graph
The graph set forth below compares the cumulative total shareholder return on our ordinary shares from December 31, 2016 through December 31, 2021, with the cumulative total return of (i) the Nasdaq Composite Index, (ii) the NYSE Arca Pharmaceutical Index (previously labeled as the Nasdaq Pharmaceutical Index) and (iii) the Nasdaq Biotechnology Index over the same period. This graph assumes the investment of $100 on December 31, 2016 in each of (1) our ordinary shares, (2) the Nasdaq Composite Index, (3) the NYSE Arca Pharmaceutical Index and (4) the Nasdaq Biotechnology Index, and assumes the reinvestment of dividends, if any, although dividends have never been declared on our ordinary shares.
The comparisons shown in the graph below are based upon historical data. We caution that the price performance shown in the graph below is not necessarily indicative of, nor is it intended to forecast, the potential future performance of our ordinary shares.
Notwithstanding anything to the contrary set forth in any of our previous or future filings under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act that might incorporate this Annual Report on Form 10-K or future filings made by us under those statutes, this Performance Graph section shall not be deemed filed with the SEC and shall not be deemed incorporated by reference into any of those prior filings or into any future filings made by us under those statutes.
$100 Investment in TBPH Shares or Index
NASDAQ Composite Index
NYSE Arca Pharmaceutical Index
NASDAQ Biotechnology Index
December 31, 2016
December 31, 2017
December 31, 2018
December 31, 2019
December 31, 2020
December 31, 2021
ITEM 6. [RESERVED]
ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Our Management’s Discussion and Analysis (“MD&A”) is intended to facilitate an understanding of our results of operations, as well as our liquidity and capital resources. Additionally, it describes accounting policies and estimates that management has deemed as “critical accounting policies and estimates.” This MD&A should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and notes included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The information contained in this MD&A or set forth elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including information with respect to our plans and strategy for our business, our operating expenses, and future payments under our collaboration agreements, includes forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”). Such statements are based upon current expectations that involve risks and uncertainties. You should review the section entitled “Risk Factors” in Item 1A of Part I above for a discussion of important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the results described in or implied by the forward-looking statements contained in the following discussion and analysis. See the section entitled “Special Note regarding Forward-Looking Statements” on page 3 for more information.
Theravance Biopharma is a biopharmaceutical company primarily focused on the discovery, development and commercialization of respiratory medicines. Our core purpose is to create medicines that make a difference® in people’s lives.
In pursuit of our purpose, we leverage decades of respiratory expertise to discover and develop transformational medicines that make a difference. These efforts have led to the development of the US FDA approved YUPELRI® (revefenacin) inhalation solution indicated for the maintenance treatment of patients with COPD. Our respiratory pipeline of internally discovered programs is targeted to address significant patient respiratory needs.
We have an economic interest in potential future payments from GSK pursuant to our agreements with Innoviva” relating to certain programs, including TRELEGY.
Strategic Actions to Focus on Respiratory Diseases
Given clinical results from our late-stage development programs, in September 2021, our board of directors approved a plan to focus our resources on our most promising respiratory programs and reduce the size of the Company in order to maximize shareholder value. At completion, the corporate restructuring (the “Restructuring”) will result in us reducing headcount by approximately 75%, an estimated 270 positions, through a reduction in our workforce. Approximately 75% of the total reduction in workforce occurred at the end November 2021, and the remainder will be completed at the end of February 2022.
As a result of the Restructuring, we expect to realize estimated operating expense savings (excluding share-based compensation and any one-time restructuring, severance, and termination costs) of approximately $170.0 million. We estimate that we will incur total Restructuring and related expenses of approximately $32.0 million comprised of $17.0 million in cash expenses and $15.0 million in non-cash expenses. These expenses are primarily comprised of severance and other related costs. In 2021, we recognized $20.1 million of the Restructuring expenses comprised of $11.5 million in cash-related expenses and $8.6 million in non-cash expenses.
We expect to recognize the majority of the remaining approximate $12.0 million in Restructuring expenses, comprised of $5.0 million in cash-related expenses and $7.0 million in non-cash expenses, in the first quarter of 2022 and the balance by the third quarter of 2022. The remaining Restructuring expense estimates are subject to a number of assumptions, and actual final amounts may differ. We may also incur additional costs not currently contemplated due to events that may occur as a result of, or that are associated with, the Restructuring.
The go-forward organization leverages our expertise in developing and commercializing respiratory therapeutics. We intend to significantly narrow our R&D focus on our core respiratory assets, including a clinical study
with Viatris Inc. (“Viatris”) intended to provide data to support a possible label update for YUPELRI, which would capture more of YUPELRI’s addressable market and further strengthen its competitive advantage, and investment in our inhaled Janus kinase inhibitor portfolio, with focus on our most advanced clinical candidate, nezulcitinib, initially targeting acute lung injury. We will also continue to explore strategic partnerships for both core and non-core assets to unlock value. All of these actions drive towards our goal to maximize shareholder value.
After implementing these strategic actions, we plan to become sustainably cash flow positive beginning in the second half of 2022, and we will work to optimize our capital structure in order to maximize total shareholder returns.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Our discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations is based on our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (“GAAP”). The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses, assets, liabilities, and other related disclosures. Our estimates are based on our historical experience and on various other factors that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying value of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic will continue to directly or indirectly impact our business, results of operations and financial condition, including these estimates, will depend on future developments that are highly uncertain and may be impacted by the emergence of new information concerning the COVID-19 pandemic, ongoing spread of the disease across the US and the globe, and the actions taken to contain or treat the disease, including vaccine availability, distribution, acceptance and effectiveness. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions. We believe that the accounting policies and estimates discussed below are essential to understanding our operating results and financial condition, as these policies and estimates relate to the more significant areas involving management’s judgments.
We recognize revenue under Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”), Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASC 606”). Under ASC 606, an entity recognizes revenue when its customer obtains control of promised goods or services, in an amount that reflects the consideration which the entity expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. To determine revenue recognition for arrangements that an entity determines are within the scope of ASC 606, an entity performs the following five steps: (i) identify the contract(s) with a customer; (ii) identify the performance obligations in the contract; (iii) determine the transaction price; (iv) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (v) recognize revenue when (or as) the entity satisfies a performance obligation.
At contract inception, once the contract is determined to be within the scope of ASC 606, we identify the performance obligations in the contract by assessing whether the goods or services promised within each contract are distinct. We then recognize revenue for the amount of the transaction price that is allocated to the respective performance obligation when (or as) the performance obligation is satisfied.
Collaborative Arrangements under ASC 606
We enter into collaborative arrangements with partners that fall under the scope of Accounting Standards Codification, Topic 808, Collaborative Arrangements (“ASC 808”). While these arrangements are in the scope of ASC 808, we may analogize to ASC 606 for some aspects of these arrangements. We analogize to ASC 606 for certain activities within collaborative arrangements for the delivery of a good or service (i.e., a unit of account) that is part of our ongoing major or central operations. Revenue recognized by analogizing to ASC 606 is recorded as “collaboration revenue” or “licensing revenue” whereas, revenue recognized in accordance with ASC 808 is recorded on a separate collaboration revenue line on the consolidated statements of operations.
The terms of our collaborative arrangements typically include one or more of the following: (i) up-front fees; (ii) milestone payments related to the achievement of development, regulatory, or commercial goals; (iii) royalties on net sales of licensed products; (iv) reimbursements or cost-sharing of research and development expenses; and (v) profit/loss sharing arising from co-promotion arrangements. Each of these payments results in collaboration revenues or an offset
against research and development expense. Where a portion of non-refundable up-front fees or other payments received is allocated to continuing performance obligations under the terms of a collaborative arrangement, they are recorded as deferred revenue and recognized as collaboration revenue when (or as) the underlying performance obligation is satisfied.
As part of the accounting for these arrangements, we must develop estimates and assumptions that require judgment to determine the underlying stand-alone selling price for each performance obligation which determines how the transaction price is allocated among the performance obligations. The estimation of the stand-alone selling price may include such estimates as, forecasted revenues or costs, development timelines, discount rates and probabilities of technical and regulatory success. We evaluate each performance obligation to determine if they can be satisfied at a point in time or over time, and we measure the services delivered to our collaborative partner which are periodically reviewed based on the progress of the related program. The effect of any change made to an estimated input component and, therefore revenue or expense recognized, would be recorded as a change in estimate. In addition, variable consideration (e.g., milestone payments) must be evaluated to determine if it is constrained and, therefore, excluded from the transaction price.
Up-front Fees: If a license to our intellectual property is determined to be distinct from the other performance obligations identified in the arrangement, we recognize collaboration revenues from the transaction price allocated to the license when the license is transferred to the licensee and the licensee is able to use and benefit from the license. For licenses that are bundled with other promises, we utilize judgment to assess the nature of the combined performance obligation to determine whether the combined performance obligation is satisfied over time or at a point in time and, if over time, the appropriate method of measuring progress for purposes of recognizing collaboration revenue from the allocated transaction price. For example, when we receive up-front fees for the performance of research and development services, or when research and development services are not considered to be distinct from a license, we recognize collaboration revenue for those units of account over time using a measure of progress. We evaluate the measure of progress each reporting period and, if necessary, adjust the measure of performance and related revenue or expense recognition as a change in estimate.
Milestone Payments: At the inception of each arrangement that includes milestone payments (variable consideration), we evaluate whether the milestones are considered probable of being reached and estimate the amount to be included in the transaction price using the most likely amount method. If it is probable that a significant revenue reversal would not occur, the associated milestone value is included in the transaction price. Milestone payments that are not within our or the collaborative partner’s control, such as non-operational developmental and regulatory approvals, are generally not considered probable of being achieved until those approvals are received. At the end of each reporting period, we re-evaluate the probability of achievement of milestones that are within our or the collaborative partner’s control, such as operational developmental milestones and any related constraint, and if necessary, adjust our estimate of the overall transaction price. Any such adjustments are recorded on a cumulative catch-up basis, which would affect collaboration revenues and earnings in the period of adjustment. Revisions to our estimate of the transaction price may also result in negative collaboration revenues and earnings in the period of adjustment.
Royalties: For arrangements that include sales-based royalties, including commercial milestone payments based on the level of sales, and the license is deemed to be the predominant item to which the royalties relate, we recognize revenue at the later of (i) when the related sales occur, or (ii) when the performance obligation to which some or all of the royalty has been allocated has been satisfied (or partially satisfied). Our income earned related to TRELEGY sales is included within “income from our investment in TRC, LLC” on the consolidated statements of operations.
Reimbursement, cost-sharing and profit-sharing payments: Under certain collaborative arrangements, we have been reimbursed for a portion of our research and development expenses or participate in the cost-sharing of such research and development expenses. Such reimbursements and cost-sharing arrangements have been reflected as a reduction of research and development expense in our consolidated statements of operations, as we do not consider performing research and development services for reimbursement to be a part of our ongoing major or central operations.
Research and Development Expenses
We incur substantial expenses associated with our clinical trials. Accounting for clinical trials relating to activities performed by clinical research organizations (“CROs”), contract manufacturing organizations (“CMOs”) and other external vendors requires management to exercise significant estimates in regard to the timing and accounting for these expenses. We estimate costs of research and development activities conducted by service providers, which include, the conduct of sponsored research, preclinical studies, and contract manufacturing activities. The diverse nature of services being provided under CRO and other arrangements, the different compensation arrangements that exist for each type of service and the lack of timely information related to certain clinical activities complicates the estimation of accruals for services rendered by CROs, CMOs and other vendors in connection with clinical trials.
Research and development (“R&D”) expenses are recorded in the period that services are rendered or goods are received. R&D expenses consist of salaries and benefits, laboratory supplies and facility costs, as well as fees paid to third parties that conduct certain R&D activities on our behalf, net of certain external R&D expenses reimbursed under our collaborative arrangements.
As part of the process of preparing our consolidated financial statements, we are required to estimate and accrue certain R&D expenses. This process involves the following:
identifying services that have been performed on our behalf and estimating the level of service performed and the associated cost incurred for the service when we have not yet been invoiced or otherwise notified of actual cost;
estimating and accruing expenses in our consolidated financial statements as of each balance sheet date based on facts and circumstances known to us at the time; and
periodically confirming the accuracy of our estimates with selected service providers and making adjustments, if necessary.
Examples of estimated R&D expenses that we accrue include:
fees paid to CROs in connection with preclinical and toxicology studies and clinical studies;
fees paid to investigative sites in connection with clinical studies;
fees paid to CMOs in connection with the production of product and clinical study materials; and
professional service fees for consulting and related services.
We base our expense accruals related to clinical studies on our estimates of the services received and efforts expended pursuant to contracts with multiple research institutions and CROs that conduct and manage clinical studies on our behalf. The financial terms of these agreements vary from contract to contract and may result in uneven payment flows. Payments under some of these contracts depend on factors, such as the successful enrollment of patients and the completion of clinical study milestones. Our service providers typically invoice us monthly in arrears for services performed. In accruing service fees, we estimate the time period over which services will be performed and the level of effort to be expended in each period. If we do not identify costs that we have begun to incur or if we underestimate or overestimate the level of services performed or the costs of these services, our actual expenses could differ from our estimates.
To date, we have not experienced significant changes in our estimates of accrued R&D expenses after a reporting period. However, due to the nature of estimates, there is no assurance that we will not make changes to our estimates in the future as we become aware of additional information about the status or conduct of our clinical studies and other R&D activities. Such changes in estimates will be recognized as R&D expenses in the period that the change in estimate occurs.
Theravance Respiratory Company, LLC (“TRC”)
Through our 85% equity interest in TRC, we are entitled to receive an 85% economic interest in any future payments made by GSK under the strategic alliance agreement and under the portion of the collaboration agreement assigned to TRC (net of TRC expenses paid and the amount of cash, if any, expected to be used by TRC pursuant to the TRC LLC Agreement over the next four fiscal quarters). The primary drug program assigned to TRC is TRELEGY.
We analyzed our ownership, contractual and other interests in TRC to determine if TRC is a variable-interest entity (“VIE”), whether we have a variable interest in TRC and the nature and extent of that interest. We determined that TRC is a VIE. The party with the controlling financial interest, the primary beneficiary, is required to consolidate the entity determined to be a VIE. Therefore, we also assessed whether we are the primary beneficiary of TRC based on the power to direct its activities that most significantly impact its economic performance and our obligation to absorb its losses or the right to receive benefits from it that could potentially be significant to TRC. Based on our assessment, we determined that we are not the primary beneficiary of TRC, and, as a result, we do not consolidate TRC in our consolidated financial statements. TRC is recognized in our consolidated financial statements under the equity method of accounting.
Income related to our equity ownership of TRC is reflected within our consolidated statements of operations and is classified as non-operating income. Amounts due from TRC that we believe to be collectable within one year and our equity in the net assets of TRC are reflected on our consolidated balance sheets as a current asset and a non-current asset, respectively. The portion of the Non-Recourse 2035 Notes classified as a current liability, if any, is based on the amount of royalties received, or receivable, as of December 31, 2021, that are expected to be collected from TRC and used to make a principal repayment on the Non-Recourse 2035 Notes within the next twelve months. The determination of the amounts likely to be received from TRC within the next twelve months requires significant judgement due to the significant variability of the amounts paid to the Company, as compared to the royalties due. Consequently, the actual amount paid to the holders of the 2035 Notes within twelve months of the reporting date may differ significantly from that recorded in the consolidated balance sheets.
We utilize the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on differences between financial reporting and tax basis of assets and liabilities and are measured using enacted tax rates and laws that are anticipated to be in effect when the differences are expected to reverse. A valuation allowance is provided when it is more likely than not that some portion or all of a deferred tax asset will not be realized.
Our total unrecognized tax benefits of $75.0 million and $63.4 million, as of December 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively, may reduce the effective tax rate in the period of recognition. We currently have a full valuation allowance against our deferred tax assets, which would impact the timing of the effective tax rate benefit should any of our uncertain positions be favorably settled in the future.
We assess all material positions, including all significant uncertain positions, in all tax years that are still subject to assessment or challenge by relevant taxing authorities. Assessing an uncertain tax position begins with the initial determination of the position’s sustainability and is measured at the largest amount of benefit that is greater than 50% likely to be realized upon ultimate settlement. As of each balance sheet date, unresolved uncertain tax positions must be reassessed, and we will determine whether the factors underlying the sustainability assertion have changed and whether the amount of the recognized tax benefit is still appropriate.
The recognition and measurement of tax benefits requires significant judgment. We have taken certain positions where we believe that our position is greater than 50% likely to be realized upon ultimate settlement and for which no reserve for uncertain tax positions has been recorded. If we do not ultimately realize the expected benefit of these positions, we will record additional income tax expenses in future periods. Judgments concerning the recognition and measurement of a tax benefit might change as new information becomes available.
Any tax levied or credited by a governmental taxing authority that is not based on our income is outside the scope of accounting for income taxes. Therefore, we record such items as a component in our loss before income taxes.
Results of Operations
The following tables set forth our results of operations for the periods presented. Management’s commentary for the 2021 results compared to 2020 results are presented in the paragraphs below, and management’s commentary for the 2020 results compared to the 2019 results are included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, filed with the SEC on February 26, 2021.
Revenue, as compared to the prior years, was as follows:
Year Ended December 31,
Viatris collaboration agreement
NM: Not Meaningful
Collaboration revenue was $11.5 million in 2021, which represented a $15.0 million decrease from 2020. Collaboration revenue was primarily comprised of revenue recognized related to the $100.0 million upfront payment received in 2018 pursuant to the Janssen collaboration agreement that was entered into in February 2018. Janssen collaboration revenue is recognized for the R&D services we performed during the period based on a measure of our efforts toward satisfying the performance obligation relative to the total expected efforts or inputs to satisfy the performance obligation (e.g., costs incurred compared to total budgeted costs). The $15.0 million decrease in collaboration revenue compared to 2020 reflects the reduction of costs incurred to satisfy the remaining performance obligation related to the recently completed izencitinib Phase 2 study in ulcerative colitis and the closeout of the izencitinib Phase 2 study in Crohn’s disease. As of December 31, 2021, we have recognized all of the revenue associated with the Janssen $100.0 million upfront payment.
Licensing revenue was $1.5 million in 2020 and was attributable to the achievement of a milestone related to the acceptance of a clinical trial application associated with our agreement with Viatris to develop and commercialize nebulized revefenacin in China and adjacent territories. We did not recognize any licensing revenue in 2021.
We are entitled to a share of US profits and losses (65% to Viatris; 35% to Theravance Biopharma) received in connection with commercialization of YUPELRI. In accordance with the applicable accounting guidance, amounts receivable from Viatris in connection with the commercialization of YUPELRI are recorded within the consolidated statements of operations as revenue from “Viatris collaboration agreement” irrespective of whether the overall collaboration is profitable. Amounts payable to Viatris in connection with the commercialization of YUPELRI, if any, are recorded within the consolidated statements of operations as a collaboration loss within selling, general and administrative expenses. Any reimbursement from Viatris attributed to the 65% cost-sharing of our R&D expenses is characterized as a reduction of R&D expense, as we do not consider performing R&D services for reimbursement to be a part of our ordinary operations.
In 2021 and 2020, we recognized $43.8 million and $43.9 million, respectively, in revenue from the Viatris collaboration agreement, which represented the receivables due from Viatris related to YUPELRI. While Viatris records the total net sales of YUPELRI within its own financial statements, Viatris collaboration agreement revenue in our financial statements includes our implied 35% share of net sales of YUPELRI for 2021 and 2020 of $56.7 million and $50.0 million, respectively. While institutions in some parts of the country are allowing more in-person access, in-person engagements remain below pre-pandemic levels. Total 2021 prescription volumes continue to grow across most specialties with volumes heading toward parity with 2020. However, prescription volumes in pulmonology remain
below pre-pandemic levels. Despite the challenges of the respiratory pandemic, dose demand for YUPELRI increased 25% in 2021 compared to 2020.
Research and Development
Our R&D expenses consist primarily of employee-related costs, external costs, and various allocable expenses. We budget total R&D expenses on an internal department level basis, and we manage and report our R&D activities across the following four cost categories:
|1)||Employee-related costs, which include salaries, wages and benefits;|
|2)||Share-based compensation, which includes expenses associated with our equity plans;|
|3)||External-related costs, which include clinical trial related expenses, other contract research fees, consulting fees, and contract manufacturing fees; and|
|4)||Facilities and other, which include laboratory and office supplies, depreciation and other allocated expenses, which include general and administrative support functions, insurance and general supplies.|
The following table summarizes our R&D expenses incurred, net of any reimbursements from collaboration partners, as compared to the prior years:
Year Ended December 31,
Facilities, depreciation and other allocated expenses
Total research & development
R&D expenses decreased by $67.3 million in 2021 compared to 2020, and the decrease was across all R&D categories. External-related expenses decreased by $44.9 million and was the largest contributor to the total R&D expense decrease. The decrease in external-related expenses was primarily due to the completion, or-near completion, of our late-stage clinical programs, primarily izencitinib and ampreloxetine. The decreases across the remaining R&D categories were primarily due to the Restructuring announced in September 2021 which resulted in significant reductions in employee-related expenses, share-based compensation expenses, and other allocated expenses of $11.9 million, $5.7 million, and $4.8 million, respectively. The reduction in employee-related expenses was primarily due to the reversal of the annual corporate bonus, and the reduction in share-based compensation was primarily due to a reduction in employee headcount. The reduction in other allocated expenses was primarily due to the decrease in allocated overhead costs from selling, general, and administrative expenses due to the Restructuring. Expenses that were directly attributed to the Restructuring are included in the Restructuring and Related Expenses section below.
Under certain of our collaborative arrangements, we receive partial reimbursement of employee-related costs and external costs, which have been reflected as a reduction of R&D expenses of $7.9 million, $10.1 million and $5.6 million for 2021, 2020, and 2019, respectively.
As a result of the Restructuring and our focus on our respiratory programs, we expect R&D expenses to continue to decrease over the next 12 months.
Selling, General and Administrative
Selling, general and administrative expenses, as compared to the prior years, were as follows:
Year Ended December 31,
Selling, general and administrative
Selling, general and administrative expenses decreased by $9.4 million in 2021 compared to 2020. The $9.4 million decrease was primarily attributed to the Restructuring and resulted in reductions in employee-related expenses, share-based compensation expenses, and external-related services. The decrease in employee-related expenses was primarily due to the reversal of the annual corporate bonus, and the reduction in share-based compensation was primarily due to a reduction in employee headcount. The decrease in external-related expenses was primarily due to a reduction in expenses related to the Restructuring. Expenses that were directly attributed to the Restructuring are included in the Restructuring and Related Expenses section below.
Share-based compensation expense related to selling, general and administrative expenses was $28.1 million, $31.7 million, and $31.5 million, in 2021, 2020, and 2019, respectively.
Through June 2021, we leased approximately 170,000 square feet of office and laboratory space in two buildings in South San Francisco, California, under a non-cancelable operating lease that ends in May 2030. In July 2021, we terminated approximately 8,000 square feet of office space in one of the buildings and returned the space to the building’s landlord for their use. We determined that the termination would be accounted for as a lease modification under the applicable accounting guidance. As a result of the modification, we adjusted the value of our operating lease assets and liabilities in our consolidated balance sheets that resulted in a gain of $1.9 million in 2021. The $1.9 million gain was offset against facility expenses within selling, general and administrative expenses and then partially allocated to R&D expenses above.
Effective October 2021, we also subleased approximately 21,000 square feet of our South San Francisco office and laboratory space. Under the terms of the sublease agreement, the Company will receive an initial monthly base rent of $0.1 million, with annual base rent increases of 3%, and the subtenant’s proportionate share of the building’s operating expenses. In October 2021, we began recognizing the sublease income on a straight-line basis over the term of the sublease which ends in September 2028. The sublease income was be reflected as a reduction facility expenses within selling, general and administrative expenses and then partially allocated to R&D expenses above.
As a result of the Restructuring, we expect our selling, general and administrative expenses to significantly decrease over the next 12 months.
Restructuring and Related Expenses
Restructuring and related expenses, as compared to the prior years, were as follows:
Year Ended December 31,
Restructuring and related expenses
Share-based compensation expense (Non-cash)
Total restructuring and related expenses
NM: Not Meaningful
Of the total $20.1 million in Restructuring and related expenses recognized in 2021, $10.5 million was related to R&D expenses and $9.6 million was related to selling, general and administrative expenses. The Restructuring and related expenses were primarily comprised of one-time severance payments, employee-related separation costs, retention costs, and other Restructuring-related expenses. The $20.1 million also included non-cash charges of $8.6 million
primarily related to the modification of equity awards for employees affected by the Restructuring and certain related awards for other employees.
We estimate that we will incur total Restructuring and related expenses of approximately $32.0 million comprised of $17.0 million in cash expenses associated with employee termination benefits and related costs and $15.0 million in non-cash expenses relating to the acceleration of equity-awards for employees affected by the Restructuring. We expect to recognize the majority of the remaining approximate $12.0 million in Restructuring and related expenses, comprised of $5.0 million in cash-related expenses and $7.0 million in non-cash expenses, in the first quarter of 2022 and the balance by the third quarter of 2022. The remaining Restructuring expense estimates are subject to a number of assumptions, and actual final amounts may differ. We may also incur additional costs not currently contemplated due to events that may occur as a result of, or that are associated with, the Restructuring.
We are also evaluated the impact of the Restructuring on the carrying value of our long-lived assets, such as property and equipment and operating lease assets. This process included evaluating the estimated remaining lives, significant changes in the use, and potential impairment charges related to our long-lived assets. Based on our evaluation, we determined that our long-lived assets were not impaired as of December 31, 2021, and we did not recognize any impairment charges related to the long-lived assets in 2021. However, we may incur additional costs not currently contemplated due to events that may occur because of, or that are associated with, the Restructuring.
Income from Investment in TRC, LLC
Income from investment in TRC, as compared to the prior years, was as follows:
Year Ended December 31,
Income from investment in TRC, LLC
The income from investment in TRC, LLC represented our share of the royalty payments from GSK to TRC on the net sales of TRELEGY (net of our share of TRC expenses paid and the amount of cash, if any, expected to be used by TRC pursuant to the TRC LLC Agreement over the next four fiscal quarters).
Income from investment in TRC, LLC increased by $35.5 million in 2021 compared to 2020 which included $8.5 million representing our share of the one-time fee that GSK paid to TRC upon termination of the MABA program in June 2020. The $104.0 million and $68.4 million in TRC income for 2021 and 2020, respectively, were recorded net of our share of TRC expenses of $3.4 million and $2.2 million, respectively. Our share of TRC expenses for both years were primarily comprised of TRC’s legal and related expenses associated with the arbitration between Innoviva and TRC and us.