SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from to
Commission File No.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code:
SECURITIES REGISTERED PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OF THE ACT:
Title of Each Class
Name of Each Exchange On Which Registered
SECURITIES REGISTERED PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(g) OF THE ACT: NONE
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§ 229.405) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Accelerated Filer ☐
Non-accelerated Filer ☐
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant based upon the closing price on the NASDAQ Global Market on June 30, 2019 was $
On February 19, 2020, there were
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Specified portions of the registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement to be issued in conjunction with the registrant’s 2020 Annual Meeting of Shareholders, which is expected to be filed not later than 120 days after the registrant’s fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report. Except as expressly incorporated by reference, the registrant’s Proxy Statement shall not be deemed to be a part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
THERAVANCE BIOPHARMA, INC.
2019 Form 10-K Annual Report
Table of Contents
Special Note regarding Forward-Looking Statements
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). Such forward-looking statements involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions. All statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, other than statements of historical facts, including statements regarding our strategy, future operations, future financial position, future revenues, projected costs, prospects, plans, intentions, designs, expectations and objectives are forward-looking statements. The words “aim,” “anticipate,” “assume,” “believe,” “contemplate,” “continue,” “could,” “designed,” “developed,” “drive,” “estimate,” “expect,” “forecast,” “goal,” “indicate,” “intend,” “may,” “mission,” “opportunities,” “plan,” “possible,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “pursue,” “represent,” “seek,” “suggest,” “should,” “target,” “will,” “would,” and similar expressions (including the negatives thereof) are intended to identify forward looking statements, although not all forward looking statements contain these identifying words. These statements reflect our current views with respect to future events or our future financial performance, are based on assumptions, and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors which may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions, expectations or objectives disclosed in our forward-looking statements and the assumptions underlying our forward-looking statements may prove incorrect. Therefore, you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Actual results or events could differ materially from the plans, intentions, expectations and objectives disclosed in the forward-looking statements that we make. Factors that we believe could cause actual results or events to differ materially from our forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, those discussed in “Risk Factors,” in Item 1A, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in Item 7 and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Our forward-looking statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are based on current expectations and we do not assume any obligation to update any forward-looking statements for any reason, even if new information becomes available in the future. When used in this report, all references to “Theravance Biopharma”, the “Company”, or “we” and other similar pronouns refer to Theravance Biopharma, Inc. collectively with its subsidiaries.
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
Theravance Biopharma, Inc. ("Theravance Biopharma") is a diversified biopharmaceutical company primarily focused on the discovery, development and commercialization of organ-selective medicines. Our purpose is to create transformational medicines to improve the lives of patients suffering from serious illnesses. Our research is focused in the areas of inflammation and immunology.
In pursuit of our purpose, we apply insights and innovation at each stage of our business and utilize our internal capabilities and those of partners around the world. We apply organ-selective expertise to biologically compelling targets to discover and develop medicines designed to treat underserved localized diseases and to limit systemic exposure, in order to maximize patient benefit and minimize risk. These efforts leverage years of experience in developing lung-selective medicines to treat respiratory disease, including the United States (“US”) Food and Drug Administration (the “FDA”) approved YUPELRI® (revefenacin) inhalation solution indicated for the maintenance treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (“COPD”). Our pipeline of internally discovered programs is targeted to address significant patient needs.
We have an economic interest in potential future payments from Glaxo Group or one of its affiliates (“GSK”) pursuant to its agreements with Innoviva, Inc. (“Innoviva”) relating to certain programs, including TRELEGY ELLIPTA.
2019 was a critical year of progress as our key programs advanced towards important milestones, and we continued to advance our strategic objective to transform the treatment of serious diseases through the discovery, development and commercialization of organ-selective medicines designed to maximize patient benefit while minimizing patient risk.
Commercial Launch of YUPELRI
In the first quarter of 2019, we formally launched our commercial sales and marketing efforts for YUPELRI with our partner Mylan N.V. (“Mylan”). YUPELRI is the first and only once-daily, nebulized maintenance medicine for COPD. Theravance Biopharma and Mylan copromote in the US, with our combined sales infrastructures targeting health care professionals that treat the universe of COPD patients suitable for YUPELRI. Theravance Biopharma focuses on the hospital segment whereas Mylan focuses on the outpatient segment. We are pleased and highly encouraged by market feedback and early performance indicators accumulated over the last 12 months, including hospital formulary reviews and wins, patient uptake, and market access.
Complementing our progress in the US, in the second quarter of 2019, we announced the expansion of our strategic collaboration with Mylan for YUPELRI to include development and commercialization in China and adjacent territories where COPD (i) affects a significant portion of the population; (ii) is one of the top three causes of mortality; and (iii) presents a major financial burden to the healthcare system.
Progression of Late-Stage Studies of TD-1473 and Ampreloxetine
In the first quarter of 2019, we announced the initiation of the Phase 2b/3 clinical study of TD-1473 in ulcerative colitis. TD-1473, our oral gut-selective pan-JAK inhibitor for inflammatory intestinal diseases, partnered with Janssen Biotech, Inc. (“Janssen”), is progressing in a Phase 2b/3 study in ulcerative colitis and a Phase 2 study in Crohn’s disease. TD-1473 is designed to treat inflammatory intestinal disease directly at the site of inflammation in an organ-selective manner, with minimal systemic exposure or corresponding immunosuppressive effects. Both studies are actively enrolling patients. We anticipate results from the Phase 2b portion of the ulcerative colitis study and Phase 2 Crohn’s disease study in late 2020. Data from the Phase 2b portion of the ulcerative colitis study and the Phase 2
Crohn’s disease study would inform an opt-in decision by Janssen and potentially trigger a significant payment to Theravance Biopharma.
Also in the first quarter of 2019, we announced the initiation of a Phase 3 clinical study of ampreloxetine in symptomatic neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (“nOH”). Ampreloxetine, our norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, wholly-owned by Theravance Biopharma, previously demonstrated in a small exploratory Phase 2 in nOH, clinically meaningful effect and durability of effect out to 20 weeks of ampreloxetine treatment. The ongoing Phase 3 registrational program includes two studies, one designed to assess treatment benefit over four weeks and the other to assess durability of response. Given limitations of existing nOH treatments, ampreloxetine may represent an important treatment option for patients and a meaningful commercial opportunity in the US.
Positive Phase 1 Data and Clinical Progression of TD-8236
In the third quarter of 2019, we announced positive data from a Phase 1 study of TD-8236, our wholly-owned inhaled lung-selective pan-JAK inhibitor for inflammatory lung diseases including steroid resistant asthma. Data from the Phase 1 study showed TD-8236 to be generally well-tolerated as a single dose in healthy subjects and as a once-daily dose given for seven consecutive days in patients with mild asthma. The study also demonstrated minimal systemic exposure in study subjects in addition to evidence of biological activity in mild asthmatics. Based on encouraging initial results, we extended the Phase 1 study to include assessment of a range of additional biomarkers in patients with more severe asthma, and, in the fourth quarter of 2019, we announced the initiation of a Phase 2 allergen challenge study of TD-8236. Our organ-selective approach with TD-8236 presents an opportunity to develop a broad-based anti-inflammatory to treat moderate to severe asthma regardless of T2 phenotype.
Advancement of TD-5202 into the Clinic
In the third quarter of 2019, we announced the initiation of a Phase 1 clinical study of TD-5202, our oral gut-selective irreversible JAK3 inhibitor for inflammatory intestinal diseases, partnered with Janssen. The Phase 1 single ascending dose and multiple ascending dose study is primarily designed to evaluate the safety and tolerability of TD-5202 in healthy subjects. In February 2020, we announced that data from the Phase 1 study indicated that TD-5202 was generally well tolerated as a single oral dose up to 2000 milligrams and as a twice-daily oral dose up 2000 milligrams total per day given for ten consecutive days in healthy subjects. We and our partner Janssen believe TD-5202 represents a promising additional therapeutic approach for addressing a range of inflammatory intestinal diseases.
Global License Agreement with Pfizer Inc. for Skin-Selective Pan-JAK Inhibitors
In the fourth quarter of 2019, we entered into a global license agreement with Pfizer Inc. (“Pfizer”) for our preclinical skin-selective, locally-acting pan-JAK inhibitor program. The compounds in this program are designed to target validated pro-inflammatory pathways and are specifically designed to possess skin-selective activity with minimal systemic exposure.
Under this agreement, Pfizer has an exclusive license to develop, manufacture and commercialize certain compounds for all use other than gastrointestinal, ophthalmic and respiratory applications. We received an upfront cash payment of $10.0 million and are eligible to receive up to an additional $240.0 million in development and sales milestone payments from Pfizer. In addition, we will be eligible to receive a tiered royalty on worldwide net sales of any potential products under the license at percentage royalty rates ranging from middle single-digits to low double-digits.
The table below summarizes the status of our approved product and our other product candidates in development. The table also includes the status of the respiratory programs in which we have an economic interest and for which GSK is responsible pursuant to agreements between Innoviva and GSK (“GSK-Partnered Respiratory Programs”). These programs consist primarily of the Trelegy Ellipta program. We have an economic interest in these programs through our interest in Theravance Respiratory Company, LLC, a limited liability company managed by Innoviva. The status of all GSK-Partnered Respiratory Programs referenced in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are based solely upon publicly available information and may not reflect the most recent developments under the programs.
|(1)||Theravance Biopharma holds an 85% economic interest in an upward-tiering royalty stream of 6.5% – 10% payable by GSK (net of Theravance Respiratory Company, LLC (“TRC”) expenses paid and the amount of cash, if any, expected to be used by TRC pursuant to the TRC LLC Agreement over the next four fiscal quarters). 75% of the royalties received are pledged to service PhaRMASM notes and 25% of the royalties received retained by Theravance Biopharma.|
Glossary of Defined Terms used in Table Above:
COPD: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease;
CD: Crohn’s Disease;
cSSSI: Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections;
FF: Fluticasone Furoate;
HABP/VABP: Hospital-Acquired and Ventilator-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia;
JAKi: Janus Kinase Inhibitor;
LAMA: Long-Acting Muscarinic Antagonist;
nOH: Neurogenic Orthostatic Hypotension;
NRI: Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor;
POGD: Post-Operative Gastrointestinal Dysfunction;
UC: Ulcerative Colitis;
UMEC: Umeclidinium; and
YUPELRI (revefenacin) Inhalation Solution
YUPELRI (revefenacin) inhalation solution is a once-daily, nebulized long-acting muscarinic antagonist (“LAMA”) approved for the maintenance treatment of COPD in the US. LAMAs are recognized by international COPD treatment guidelines as a cornerstone of maintenance therapy for COPD, regardless of severity of disease. Our market research indicates there is an enduring population of COPD patients in the US that either need or prefer nebulized delivery for maintenance therapy. The stability of revefenacin in both metered dose inhaler and dry powder inhaler (“MDI/DPI”) formulations suggests that revefenacin could also serve as a foundation for novel handheld combination products.
In November 2018, YUPELRI was approved by the FDA for the maintenance treatment of patients with COPD. Following shipments into commercial channel in late 2018, we and Mylan formally launched our sales and marketing efforts in early 2019. We are tracking several key performance metrics to gauge success in building early market acceptance, including formulary reviews, formulary wins and market access. Since launch, YUPELRI has been accepted on 85 formularies that account for a total of 220 institutional accounts. With respect to market access, we have confirmed commercial coverage of approximately 50% and Medicare Part B coverage for patients with supplement insurance of 100%. In May 2019, we announced that YUPELRI had been assigned a permanent unique Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System (“J-CODE”) ahead of schedule. The permanent J-CODE allows for full automation of prescription adjudication, simplifying the process for pharmacists and patients.
In January 2015, Mylan and we established a strategic collaboration for the development and commercialization of revefenacin. Partnering with a world leader in nebulized respiratory therapies enables us to expand the breadth of our revefenacin development program and extend our commercial reach beyond the acute care setting. Mylan funded the Phase 3 development program of YUPELRI, enabling us to advance other high value pipeline assets alongside YUPELRI.
Under the terms of the Mylan Development and Commercialization Agreement (the “Mylan Agreement”), Mylan and we co-develop revefenacin for COPD and other respiratory diseases. We led the US Phase 3 development program for YUPELRI in COPD, and Mylan was responsible for reimbursement of our costs related to the registrational program up until the approval of the first new drug application (“NDA”), after which costs are shared. With YUPELRI approved in the US, Mylan is leading commercialization, and we co-promote the product in the US under a profit and loss sharing arrangement (65% to Mylan; 35% to Theravance Biopharma). Outside the US, Mylan will be responsible for development and commercialization and will pay us a tiered royalty on net sales at percentage royalty rates ranging from low double-digits to mid-teens.
Under the Mylan Agreement, Mylan paid us an initial payment of $15.0 million in cash in 2015. Also, pursuant to an agreement to purchase ordinary shares entered into on January 30, 2015, Mylan Inc., the indirect parent corporation of Mylan, made a $30.0 million equity investment in us, buying 1,585,790 ordinary shares from us in February 2015. These shares were subsequently sold by Mylan in 2018.
In February 2016, we earned a $15.0 million development milestone payment for achieving 50% enrollment in the Phase 3 twelve-month safety study, and in June 2019, we announced the expansion of the Mylan Agreement to grant Mylan exclusive development and commercialization rights to nebulized revefenacin in China and adjacent territories, which include Hong Kong SAR, the Macau SAR, and Taiwan. In exchange, we received an upfront payment of $18.5 million (before a required tax withholding) and will be eligible to receive additional potential development and sales milestones totaling $54.0 million and low double-digit tiered royalties on net sales of nebulized revefenacin, if approved. Mylan will be responsible for all aspects of development and commercialization in the partnered regions, including pre- and post-launch activities and product registration and all associated costs.
We retain worldwide rights to revefenacin delivered through other dosage forms, such as a MDI/DPI, while Mylan has certain rights of first negotiation with respect to our development and commercialization of revefenacin delivered other than via a nebulized inhalation product.
Under the Mylan Agreement, as of December 31, 2019, we are eligible to receive from Mylan potential global development, regulatory and sales milestone payments totaling up to $259.0 million in the aggregate, with $206.5 million associated with YUPELRI monotherapy, and $52.5 million associated with future potential combination products. Of the $206.5 million associated with monotherapy, $187.5 million relates to sales milestones based on achieving certain levels of net sales and $19.0 million relates to global development and regulatory actions. The $52.5 million associated with future potential combination products relates solely to global development and regulatory actions. We do not expect to earn any sales milestone payments from Mylan in 2020.
Gut-selective Pan-Janus Kinase (JAK) Inhibitor Program (TD-1473)
JAK inhibitors function by inhibiting the activity of one or more of the Janus kinase family of enzymes (JAK1, JAK2, JAK3, TYK2) that play a key role in cytokine signaling. Inhibiting these JAK enzymes interferes with the JAK/STAT signaling pathway and, in turn, modulates the activity of a wide range of pro-inflammatory cytokines. JAK inhibitors are currently approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, myelofibrosis, and ulcerative colitis and have demonstrated therapeutic benefit for patients with Crohn’s disease. However, these products are known to have side effects based on their systemic exposure. In TD-1473, our program goal is to develop an orally administered, gut-selective pan-JAK inhibitor specifically designed to distribute adequately and predominantly to the tissues of the intestinal tract, treating inflammation in those tissues while minimizing systemic exposure. TD-1473 is in development as a potential treatment for a range of inflammatory intestinal diseases, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease.
Based on positive results from a Phase 1b exploratory study in ulcerative colitis and following dialogues with the FDA and European Medicines Agency (“EMA”) regarding study design, we advanced TD-1473 into two clinical studies in inflammatory intestinal diseases. The Phase 2 (DIONE) study is a twelve-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of patients with Crohn’s disease, which began dosing patients in late 2018. The Phase 2b/3 (RHEA) study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of eight weeks induction and 44 weeks maintenance therapy in patients with ulcerative colitis, which began dosing patients in early 2019. We anticipate results from the Phase 2b portion of the ulcerative colitis study and Phase 2 Crohn’s disease study in late 2020.
Irreversible JAK3 Inhibitor (TD-5202)
TD-5202 is an investigational, orally administered, gut-selective, irreversible JAK3 inhibitor that has demonstrated a high affinity for the JAK3 enzyme. Through the selective inhibition of JAK3, TD-5202 interferes with the JAK/STAT signaling pathway and, in turn, modulates the activity of select pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-2, IL-15, and IL-21 which play a central role in the pathogenesis of T-cell mediated disease, including inflammatory intestinal disease, such as celiac disease. Importantly, TD-5202 is specifically designed to act locally within the intestinal wall thereby limiting systemic exposure.
In September 2019, we announced the initiation of a Phase 1 single ascending dose and multiple ascending dose trial designed to evaluate the safety and tolerability of TD-5202 in healthy subjects, plus assess plasma pharmacokinetics of TD-5202 to confirm circulating levels are low, consistent with a gut-selective approach. In February 2020, we announced that data from the Phase 1 study indicated that TD-5202 was generally well tolerated as a single oral dose up to 2000 milligrams and as a twice-daily oral dose up 2000 milligrams total per day given for ten consecutive days in healthy subjects.
We are developing TD-1473 and TD-5202 in collaboration with Janssen as part of the companies’ global co-development and commercialization agreement for novel, gut-selective JAK inhibitors.
Janssen Biotech Collaboration
In February 2018, we announced a global co-development and commercialization agreement with Janssen for TD-1473 and related back-up compounds for inflammatory intestinal diseases, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's
disease. Under the terms of the agreement, we received an upfront payment of $100.0 million and will be eligible to receive up to an additional $900.0 million in potential payments, inclusive of a potential opt-in payment following completion of the Phase 2 Crohn’s study and the Phase 2b induction portion of the ulcerative colitis study. At that time, Janssen can elect to obtain an exclusive license to develop and commercialize TD-1473 and certain related compounds by paying us a fee of $200.0 million. Upon such election, we and Janssen will jointly develop and commercialize TD-1473 in inflammatory intestinal diseases, and we and Janssen will share profits and losses in the US and expenses related to a potential Phase 3 program (67% to Janssen; 33% to Theravance Biopharma). In addition, we would receive royalties on ex-US sales at double-digit tiered percentage royalty rates.
The closing of the opt-in portion of the transaction is subject to clearance under the Hart-Scott-Rodino Antitrust Improvements Act (“HSR Act”). After Phase 2, Janssen would lead subsequent development of TD-1473 in Crohn’s disease if it makes such an election. We will lead development of TD-1473 in ulcerative colitis through completion of the Phase 2b/3 study. If TD-1473 is commercialized, we have the option to co-commercialize in the US, and Janssen would have sole commercialization responsibilities outside the US.
Ampreloxetine is an investigational, once-daily norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (“NRI”) being developed for the treatment of patients with symptomatic neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (“nOH”). nOH is caused by primary autonomic failure conditions, including multiple system atrophy, Parkinson’s disease and pure autonomic failure. The compound has high affinity for binding to norepinephrine transporters. By blocking the action of these transporters, ampreloxetine causes an increase in extracellular concentrations of norepinephrine.
Based on positive top-line four-week results from a small exploratory Phase 2 study in nOH and discussions with the FDA, we advanced ampreloxetine into a Phase 3 program. The Phase 3 program includes two studies. The first study (SEQUOIA) is a four-week, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ampreloxetine in patients with symptomatic nOH. The second study (REDWOOD) is a four-month open label study followed by a six-week randomized withdrawal phase to evaluate the durability of patient response of ampreloxetine. We announced the initiation of patient dosing in each Phase 3 study in early 2019. We anticipate results from the Phase 3 four-week efficacy study (SEQUOIA) in late 2020.
Lung-selective Pan-JAK Inhibitor Program (TD-8236)
TD-8236 is an investigational, inhaled lung-selective pan-JAK inhibitor that has demonstrated a high affinity for each of the JAK family of enzymes (JAK1, JAK2, JAK3 and TYK2) that play a key role in cytokine signaling. Inhibiting these JAK enzymes interferes with the JAK/STAT signaling pathway and, in turn, modulates the activity of a wide range of pro-inflammatory cytokines. While orally-administered JAK inhibitors are currently approved for the treatment of a range of inflammatory diseases, no inhaled JAK inhibitor is approved for the treatment of airway disease, including asthma. The pan-JAK activity of TD-8236 suggests that it may impact a broad range of cytokines that have been associated both T2-high and T2-low asthma. Many moderate to severe asthma patients comprising both T2 phenotypes remain symptomatic despite being compliant on high doses of inhaled steroids. Importantly, TD-8236 is designed to distribute and exert its anti-inflammatory effect within the lungs following dry powder inhalation, with the potential to treat inflammation within that organ while minimizing systemic exposure. In pre-clinical assessments, TD-8236 has shown to potently inhibit targeted mediators of T2-high and T2-low asthma in human cells.
In September 2019, we announced positive results from a Phase 1 single-ascending dose and multiple-ascending dose clinical trial of TD-8236. Data from the study demonstrated TD-8236 to be generally well tolerated as a single dose (up to 4500 mcg) in healthy volunteers and as a once-daily dose (up to 4000 mcg) given for seven consecutive days in patients with mild asthma. There were no severe or serious adverse events reported and no subject discontinued due to adverse events. Pharmacokinetic results from the trial showed that plasma levels of TD-8236 in study subjects were several orders of magnitude below the levels predicted to cause systemic pharmacological activity, which is consistent with data from preclinical studies and the organ-selective design of the compound. Additionally, evidence of the biological activity of TD-8236 in the lung was demonstrated in the repeat dose portion of the study, which recruited patients with mild asthma who had elevated levels of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (“FeNO”). FeNO is an established disease activity biomarker in asthma, and reductions in FeNO are associated with a decrease in airway
inflammation. Over the seven days of TD-8236 administration once daily by inhalation, patients experienced reductions in both pre-dose and six-hour post-dose FeNO compared to placebo at all doses above 150mcg. Importantly, this included >10ppb reduction in pre-dose FeNO on Day 7 for all doses above 150mcg. The Phase 1 clinical trial also includes a biomarker cohort designed to evaluate multiple doses of TD-8236 in patients with moderate-to-severe asthma, including patients with T2-high and T2-low disease. Data from the biomarker cohort is expected in mid-2020. In December 2019, we announced the initiation of a Phase 2 allergen challenge study of TD-8236 in asthma patients, and we expect data from the study in mid-2020.
Economic Interest in GSK-Partnered Respiratory Programs
We hold an 85% economic interest in any future payments that may be made by GSK to Theravance Respiratory Company, LLC (“TRC”) pursuant to its agreements with Innoviva (net of TRC expenses paid and the amount of cash, if any, expected to be used by TRC pursuant to the TRC LLC Agreement over the next four fiscal quarters) relating to the GSK-Partnered Respiratory Programs, which Innoviva partnered with GSK and assigned to TRC in connection with Innoviva’s separation of its biopharmaceutical operations into its then wholly-owned subsidiary Theravance Biopharma in June 2014. The GSK-Partnered Respiratory Programs consist primarily of the TRELEGY ELLIPTA program, which is described in more detail below. We are entitled to this economic interest through our equity ownership in TRC. Our economic interest does not include any payments associated with RELVAR® ELLIPTA®/BREO® ELLIPTA®, ANORO® ELLIPTA® or vilanterol monotherapy.
The following information regarding the TRELEGY ELLIPTA program is based solely upon publicly available information and may not reflect the most recent developments under the programs.
TRELEGY ELLIPTA (the combination of fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium bromide/vilanterol)
TRELEGY ELLIPTA provides the activity of an inhaled corticosteroid (FF) plus two bronchodilators (UMEC, a LAMA, and VI, a long-acting beta2 agonist, or LABA) in a single delivery device administered once-daily. TRELEGY ELLIPTA is approved for use in the US and European Union (“EU”) for the long-term, once-daily, maintenance treatment of patients with COPD. We hold an 85% economic interest in the royalties payable by GSK to TRC on worldwide net sales (net of TRC expenses paid and the amount of cash, if any, expected to be used by TRC pursuant to the TRC LLC Agreement over the next four fiscal quarters) through our interest in TRC. Those royalties are upward-tiering from 6.5% to 10%, resulting in cash flows to us of approximately 5.5% to 8.5% of worldwide net sales of TRELEGY ELLIPTA (net of TRC expenses paid and the amount of cash, if any, expected to be used by TRC pursuant to the TRC LLC Agreement over the next four fiscal quarters). Theravance Biopharma is not responsible for any of GSK’s costs related to the development or commercialization of TRELEGY ELLIPTA.
GSK and Innoviva conducted two global pivotal Phase 3 studies of TRELEGY ELLIPTA in COPD, the IMPACT study and the FULFIL study. In September 2017, GSK and Innoviva announced that the FDA approved TRELEGY ELLIPTA for the long-term, once-daily, maintenance treatment of appropriate patients with COPD. TRELEGY ELLIPTA is currently approved in 44 markets, including China and Japan, with additional approvals expected in 2020. In August 2019, GSK announced that it had filed a supplemental new drug application (“sNDA”) to the FDA supporting revised labelling for TRELEGY ELLIPTA on reduction in risk of all-cause mortality compared with ANORO ELLIPTA in patients with COPD. There is an FDA Advisory Committee meeting scheduled for April 21, 2020 related to this sNDA.
Additionally, GSK and Innoviva conducted a Phase 3 (CAPTAIN) study of TRELEGY ELLIPTA in patients with asthma. In May 2019, GSK and Innoviva announced that the study had met its primary endpoint and in October 2019, GSK announced it had filed a sNDA with the FDA seeking an additional indication for the use of once-daily, single-inhaler triple therapy, TRELEGY ELLIPTA, for the treatment of asthma in adults. The FDA’s decision on the asthma application is expected by the second half of 2020.
Theravance Respiratory Company, LLC
Our equity interest in TRC is the mechanism by which we are entitled to the 85% economic interest in any future payments made by GSK under the strategic alliance agreement and under the portion of the collaboration agreement assigned to TRC by Innoviva (net of TRC expenses paid and the amount of cash, if any, expected to be used
by TRC pursuant to the TRC LLC Agreement over the next four fiscal quarters). The royalty payments from GSK to TRC arising from the net sales of Trelegy Ellipta are presented on our consolidated statements of operations within “Income from investment in TRC, LLC” and is classified as non-operating income. Seventy-five percent of the “Income from investment in TRC, LLC,” as evidenced by the Issuer Class C Units (defined below), is available only for payment of the $250.0 million aggregate amount of 9.0% fixed-rate non-recourse term notes due 2033 (the “Non-Recourse 2033 Notes”) and is not available to pay our other obligations or the claims of our other creditors.
Our special purpose subsidiary Triple Royalty Sub LLC (the “Issuer”) issued the Non-Recourse 2033 Notes in November 2018, which are secured by all of the Issuer’s rights, title and interest as a holder of certain membership interests (the “Issuer Class C Units”) in TRC. The Issuer Class C Units entitle the Issuer to receive 63.75% of the economic interest that TRC receives in any future payments made by GSK under the agreements described above, or 75% of the income from our ownership interest in TRC. The primary source of funds to make payments on the Non-Recourse 2033 Notes will be 75% of the income from our ownership interest in TRC, as evidenced by the Issuer Class C Units. Since the principal and interest payments on the Non-Recourse 2033 Notes are ultimately based on royalties from TRELEGY ELLIPTA product sales, which will vary from quarter to quarter, the Non-Recourse 2033 Notes may be repaid prior to the final maturity date in 2033. In order to comply with Regulation RR – Credit Risk Retention (17 C.F.R. Part 246), 5.0% of the original principal amount (equal to $12.5 million) of the Non-Recourse 2033 Notes were retained by Theravance Biopharma R&D, Inc., our wholly-owned subsidiary, and is eliminated in our consolidated financial statements.
Through October 15, 2020, the terms of the Non-Recourse 2033 Notes provide that to the extent there are insufficient funds to satisfy the Issuer’s scheduled quarterly interest obligations, the shortfall shall be added to the principal amount of the Non-Recourse 2033 Notes without a default or event of default occurring. The terms of the Non-Recourse 2033 Notes also provide that, at Theravance Biopharma’s option, the quarterly interest payment obligations can be satisfied by making a capital contribution to the Issuer, but not for more than four (4) consecutive quarterly interest payment dates or for more than six (6) quarterly interest payment dates during the term of the notes. For the April 15, 2019 and July 15, 2019 interest payment dates, Theravance Biopharma R&D, Inc. (parent entity of Issuer) made a capital contribution to satisfy the interest payment obligations for these two scheduled payments while we arbitrated a dispute with Innoviva, discussed below. As discussed in “Item 8, Note 15. Subsequent Events,” subject to certain conditions, Company subsidiaries have agreed to issue Non-Recourse 2035 Notes, the proceeds from which would be used in part to repay the outstanding balance of Non-Recourse 2033 Notes.
In May 2019, we announced that we had initiated an arbitration against Innoviva and TRC because Innoviva, as manager of TRC, had caused TRC to withhold certain distributions owed to us with respect to the Company’s 85% economic interest in TRC since the quarter ended December 31, 2018, and Innoviva’s previous statement to us that it intended to prevent TRC from making cash distributions during 2019. The arbitration hearing commenced in July 2019.
As of June 30, 2019, we were owed, under the TRC LLC Agreement, $20.0 million in net royalty income payments for the period from the fourth quarter of 2018 through the second quarter of 2019. After initiation of the arbitration and prior to the final decision being issued in the third quarter of 2019, Innoviva caused TRC to make a partial distribution of funds to us in the amount of $10.6 million.
In September 2019, the arbitrator issued a final decision. The arbitrator ruled that, while Innoviva breached the TRC LLC Agreement by failing to provide quarterly financial plans to us as required, the withholding of funds by Innoviva with respect to certain TRELEGY ELLIPTA development and commercialization initiatives proposed by Innoviva was not in breach of the TRC LLC Agreement. The arbitrator also found that Innoviva had not breached its fiduciary duties to us. The arbitrator awarded injunctive relief to give more certainty to future dealings between the parties and to clarify certain terms of the TRC LLC Agreement, and imposed additional obligations on Innoviva to obtain the consent of GSK for any proposed investment of TRC funds that requires the consent of GSK under the collaboration agreement dated November 14, 2002, as amended. Under the arbitrator’s ruling, Innoviva was permitted to withhold $6.9 million of TRC funds due to us for certain TRELEGY ELLIPTA development and commercialization initiatives proposed by Innoviva. These initiatives were presented to GSK in the fourth quarter of 2019 and could not be implemented without GSK’s approval, which was required by no later than during the first quarter of 2020. The amount due to us as of September 30, 2019, under the TRC LLC Agreement, was $16.7 million.
In January 2020, we were informed by Innoviva that GSK had declined to adopt certain TRELEGY ELLIPTA development and commercialization initiatives proposed by Innoviva. As a result, Innoviva would not
continue to withhold any funds that had been reserved for those initiatives, and we subsequently received $15.8 million in a distribution from Innoviva representing our share of the net royalty income payments for the third quarter of 2019 plus the $6.9 million previously withheld, less estimated TRC expenses for the quarter ended December 31, 2019 and estimated expenses through 2020. The amount due to us from TRC, as of December 31, 2019, was $28.6 million. For more information, see the risk factor under the heading “We do not control the commercialization of TRELEGY ELLIPTA and we do not control TRC; accordingly the amount of royalties we receive will depend, among other factors, on GSK’s ability to further commercialize TRELEGY ELLIPTA and TRC’s decisions concerning use of cash in accordance with the TRC LLC Agreement” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Other Economic Interests
VIBATIV is an FDA-approved injectable antibiotic used in the treatment of certain serious bacterial infections including hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (“HABP”/”VABP”), as well as complicated skin and skin structure infections (“cSSSI”). This life-saving antibiotic was discovered and developed by Theravance Biopharma and is designed for difficult to treat Gram-positive bacterial infections, including those that are classified as methicillin-resistant (“MRSA”) or multidrug-resistant.
In November 2018, we sold VIBATIV to Cumberland Pharmaceuticals Inc. (“Cumberland”) pursuant to an Asset Purchase Agreement (the “Agreement”). Under the Agreement, Cumberland paid us $20.0 million at the closing of the transaction and $5.0 million in April 2019. In addition, Cumberland will pay us tiered royalties of up to 20% of US net sales of VIBATIV until such time as royalties cumulatively total $100.0 million.
Velusetrag is an oral, investigational medicine developed for gastrointestinal motility disorders. It is a highly selective agonist with high intrinsic activity at the human 5-HT4 receptor.
Alfasigma S.p.A. Collaboration
In 2012, we partnered with Alfasigma S.p.A. (“Alfasigma”) in the development of velusetrag and its commercialization in certain countries. In April 2018, Alfasigma exercised its option to develop and commercialize velusetrag, and we elected not to pursue further development. Global rights to develop, manufacture and commercialize velusetrag have been transferred to Alfasigma under the terms of the collaboration agreement. Also, under the terms of the collaboration with Alfasigma, we are entitled to receive future potential development, regulatory and commercial milestone payments of up to $26.8 million and tiered royalties on global net sales ranging from high single digits to the mid-teens.
Selective 5-HT4 Agonist (TD-8954)
TD-8954 is a selective 5-HT4 receptor agonist being developed for potential use in the treatment of gastrointestinal motility disorders.
Takeda Collaborative Arrangement
In June 2016, we entered into a License and Collaboration Agreement (the “Takeda Agreement”) with Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (“Millennium”), in order to establish a collaboration for the development and commercialization of TD-8954 (TAK-954). Millennium is an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited (“Takeda”). TD-8954 is currently in a Phase 2 study as a potential treatment for post-operative gastrointestinal dysfunction. Under the terms of the Takeda Agreement, Takeda is responsible for worldwide development and commercialization of TD-8954. We received an upfront cash payment of $15.0 million and will be eligible to receive success-based development, regulatory and sales milestone payments from Takeda. We will also be
eligible to receive a tiered royalty on worldwide net sales by Takeda at percentage royalty rates ranging from low double-digits to mid-teens.
Skin-selective Pan-JAK inhibitor program
In December 2019, we entered into a global license agreement with Pfizer for our preclinical skin-selective, locally-acting pan-JAK inhibitor program (the “Pfizer Agreement”). The compounds in this program are designed to target validated pro-inflammatory pathways and are specifically designed to possess skin-selective activity with minimal systemic exposure.
Under the Pfizer Agreement, Pfizer has an exclusive license to develop, manufacture and commercialize certain compounds for all uses other than gastrointestinal, ophthalmic and respiratory applications. We received an upfront cash payment of $10.0 million and are eligible to receive up to an additional $240.0 million in development and sales milestone payments from Pfizer. In addition, we will be eligible to receive a tiered royalty on worldwide net sales of any potential products under the license at percentage royalty rates ranging from middle single-digits to low double-digits.
Our research goal is to design organ-selective medicines that target diseased tissues, without systemic exposure, in order to maximize patient benefit and minimize risk. The intention is to expand the therapeutic index of our potential medicines compared to conventional systemic therapies. Our efforts leverage years of experience in developing lung-selective medicines, such as YUPELRI, to treat respiratory diseases, and have led to the discovery of the gut-selective pan-JAK inhibitor TD-1473 and irreversible JAK3 inhibitor TD-5202 for inflammatory intestinal diseases and the lung-selective inhaled JAK inhibitor TD-8236 in serious respiratory disease. We plan to advance towards the clinic other research projects with various mechanisms of action, each specifically tailored for the organ of interest, as we identify and validate potentially appropriate compounds. Our research is focused in the areas of inflammation and immunology, and our pipeline of internally discovered programs is targeted to address significant patient needs.
Our core purpose is to create transformational medicines to improve the lives of patients suffering from serious illnesses. We strive to apply insight and innovation at each stage of our business, including research, development and commercialization. Our principle strategic objective is to transform the treatment of serious diseases through the discovery, development, and commercialization of organ-selective medicines designed to maximize patient benefit while minimizing patient risk.
We follow these core guiding principles in our mission to drive value creation:
Focus on insight and innovation;
Outsource non-core activities;
Create and foster an integrated environment; and
Aggressively manage uncertainty.
We manage our pipeline with the goal of optimizing program value and allocation of resources. We employ multiple strategies for commercialization of our products. Our approach may involve retaining product rights and marketing a product independently in the US or we may partner a product to extend our commercial reach to expand our geographic reach, and/or to manage the financial risk associated with the program. Alternatively, we may monetize or divest an asset that we designate as outside our core business, where we believe the program is optimized by leveraging partner capabilities and removing or limiting our research and development costs.
We rely primarily on a network of third-party manufacturers, including contract manufacturing organizations, to produce the active pharmaceutical ingredients (“API”) and drug products required for our clinical trials. We believe that we have in-house expertise to manage this network of third-party manufacturers, and we believe that we will be able to continue to negotiate third-party manufacturing arrangements on commercially reasonable terms and that it will not be necessary for us to obtain internal manufacturing capacity in order to develop or, potentially, commercialize our products. However, if we are unable to obtain contract manufacturing or obtain such manufacturing on commercially reasonable terms, or if manufacturing is interrupted at one of our suppliers, whether due to regulatory or other reasons, we may not be able to develop our products as planned.
Any inability to acquire sufficient quantities of API or drug product in a timely manner from current or future sources could disrupt our research and development programs and the conduct of future clinical trials. For more information, see the risk factors under the heading “We rely on a single source of supply for a number of our product candidates, and our business will be harmed if any of these single-source manufacturers are not able to satisfy demand and alternative sources are not available” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
The development and commercialization of pharmaceutical products and our product candidates by us, our collaboration partners and licensees, GSK, and Cumberland and our ongoing research are subject to extensive regulation by governmental authorities in the US and other countries. Before marketing in the US, any medicine must undergo rigorous preclinical studies and clinical studies and an extensive regulatory approval process implemented by the FDA under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. Outside the US, the ability to market a product depends upon receiving a marketing authorization from the appropriate regulatory authorities which are subject to equally rigorous regulatory obligations. The requirements governing the conduct of clinical studies, marketing authorization, pricing and reimbursement vary widely from country to country. In any country, however, the commercialization of pharmaceutical products is permitted only if the appropriate regulatory authority is satisfied that we have presented adequate evidence of the safety, quality and efficacy of the product.
Before commencing clinical studies in humans in the US, we must submit to the FDA an investigational new drug application (“IND”) that includes, among other things, the general investigational plan and protocols for specific human studies and the results of preclinical studies. An IND will go into effect 30 days following its receipt by the FDA unless the FDA issues a clinical hold. Once clinical studies have begun under the IND, they are usually conducted in three phases and under FDA oversight. These phases generally include the following:
Phase 1. The product candidate is introduced into patients or healthy human volunteers and is tested for safety, dose tolerance and pharmacokinetics.
Phase 2. The product candidate is introduced into a limited patient population to assess the efficacy of the drug in specific, targeted indications, assess dosage tolerance and optimal dosage, and identify possible adverse effects and safety risks.
Phase 3. If a compound is found to be potentially effective and to have an acceptable safety profile in Phase 2 evaluations, the clinical study will be expanded to further demonstrate clinical efficacy, optimal dosage and safety within an expanded patient population.
The results of product development, preclinical studies and clinical studies must be submitted to the FDA as part of an NDA. The NDA also must contain extensive manufacturing information. The Prescription Drug User Fee Act (“PDUFA”) establishes timeframes for FDA review of NDAs, with a performance goal of reviewing and acting on 90 percent of priority new molecular entity (“NME”) NDA submissions within 6 months of the 60-day filing date, and to review and act on 90 percent of standard NME NDA submissions within 10 months of the 60-day filing date. The 2007 Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act gave the FDA authority to require implementation of a formal Risk Evaluation and Management Strategy to ensure that the benefits of a product outweigh its risks. At the end of the review period, the FDA communicates either approval of the NDA or a complete response listing the application’s deficiencies.
Once approved, the FDA may withdraw the product approval if compliance with post-marketing regulatory standards is not maintained or if safety or quality issues are identified after the product reaches the marketplace. In addition, the FDA may require post-marketing studies, sometimes referred to as Phase 4 studies, to monitor the safety and effectiveness of approved products, and may limit further marketing of the product based on the results of these post-marketing studies. The FDA has broad post-market regulatory and enforcement powers, including the ability to suspend or delay issuance of approvals, seize products, withdraw approvals, enjoin violations, and initiate criminal prosecution.
If regulatory approval for a medicine is obtained, the clearance to market the product will be limited to those diseases and conditions approved by FDA and for which the medicine was shown to be effective, as demonstrated through clinical studies and specified in the medicine’s labeling. Even if this regulatory approval is obtained, a marketed medicine, its manufacturer and its manufacturing facilities are subject to continual review and periodic inspections by the FDA. The FDA ensures the quality of approved medicines by carefully monitoring manufacturers’ compliance with its current Good Manufacturing Practice (“cGMP”) regulations. The cGMP regulations for drugs contain minimum requirements for the methods, facilities, and controls used in manufacturing, processing, and packaging of a medicine. The regulations are intended to make sure that a medicine is safe for use, and that it has the ingredients and strength it claims to have. Discovery of previously unknown problems with a medicine, manufacturer or facility may result in restrictions on the medicine or manufacturer, including costly recalls or withdrawal of the medicine from the market.
We, our collaboration partners and licensees are also subject to various laws and regulations regarding laboratory practices, the experimental use of animals and the use and disposal of hazardous or potentially hazardous substances in connection with our research. In each of these areas, as above, the FDA and other regulatory authorities have broad regulatory and enforcement powers, including the ability to suspend or delay issuance of approvals, seize products, withdraw approvals, enjoin violations, and initiate criminal prosecution, any one or more of which could have a material adverse effect upon our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Outside the US our, our collaboration partners’, licensees’, GSK’s and Cumberland’s ability to market products will also depend on receiving marketing authorizations from the appropriate regulatory authorities. Risks similar to those associated with FDA approval described above exist with the regulatory approval processes in other countries.
United States Healthcare Reform
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (together the “Healthcare Reform Act”), substantially changed the way healthcare is financed by both governmental and private insurers, and impacts pricing and reimbursement of YUPELRI and the marketed drugs with respect to which we are entitled to royalty or similar payments, and related commercial operations. Certain provisions of the Healthcare Reform Act have been subject to judicial challenges as well as efforts to repeal or replace them or to alter their interpretation or implementation. We expect that the Healthcare Reform Act, its implementation, efforts to repeal or replace, or invalidate, the Healthcare Reform Act or portions thereof, and other healthcare reform measures that may be adopted in the future, could have a material adverse effect on our industry generally and on the ability of us, our collaboration partners, or those commercializing products with respect to which we have an economic interest or right to receive royalties to maintain or increase sales of our existing products or to successfully commercialize our product candidates, if approved. For more information, see the risk factor under the heading “Changes in healthcare law and implementing regulations, including government restrictions on pricing and reimbursement, as well as healthcare policy and other healthcare payor cost-containment initiatives, may negatively impact us, our collaboration partners, or those commercializing products with respect to which we have an economic interest or right to receive royalties” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement
We participated in and had certain price reporting obligations under the Medicaid Drug Rebate program for VIBATIV for which we remain responsible, as described in greater detail under the risk factor “If we failed to comply with our reporting and payment obligations under the Medicaid Drug Rebate program or other governmental pricing programs, we could be subject to additional reimbursement requirements, penalties, sanctions and fines, which could
have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Our ability, and the ability of our collaboration partners, licensees, GSK and Cumberland to commercialize our products successfully, and our ability to attract commercialization partners for our products, depends in significant part on the availability of adequate financial coverage and reimbursement from third-party payors, including, in the US, governmental payors such as the Medicare and Medicaid programs, managed care organizations, and private health insurers. The reimbursement environment is described in greater detail under the risk factor “Changes in healthcare law and implementing regulations, including government restrictions on pricing and reimbursement, as well as healthcare policy and other healthcare payor cost-containment initiatives, may negatively impact us, our collaboration partners, or those commercializing products with respect to which we have an economic interest or right to receive royalties” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Fraud and Abuse Laws
Our interactions and arrangements with customers and third-party payors are subject to applicable US federal and state fraud and abuse laws and equivalent third country laws. These laws and the related risks are described in greater detail under the risk factor “Our relationships with customers and third-party payors are subject to applicable anti-kickback, fraud and abuse, transparency and other healthcare laws and regulations, which could expose us to criminal sanctions, civil penalties, exclusion, contractual damages, reputational harm and diminished profits and future earnings” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Data Privacy and Protection
We are subject to laws and regulations that address privacy and data security. In the US, numerous federal and state laws and regulations, including state data breach notification laws (e.g., California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018 (AB 375)), state health information privacy laws, and federal and state consumer protection laws (e.g., Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act (“FTC Act”)), govern the collection, use, disclosure, and protection of health-related and other personal information. Similar obligations apply in foreign countries. For example, the General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) which entered into force on May 25, 2018 amplified existing data protection obligations in the EU. These laws and related risks are described in greater detail under the risk factor “If we fail to comply with data protection laws and regulations, we could be subject to government enforcement actions (which could include civil or criminal penalties), private litigation and/or adverse publicity, which could negatively affect our operating results and business” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Patents and Proprietary Rights
We will be able to protect our technology from unauthorized use by third parties only to the extent that our technology is covered by valid and enforceable patents or is effectively maintained as trade secrets. Our success in the future will depend in part on obtaining patent protection for our product candidates. Accordingly, patents and other proprietary rights are essential elements of our business. Our policy is to seek in the US and selected foreign countries patent protection for novel technologies and compositions of matter that are commercially important to the development of our business. For proprietary know-how that is not patentable, processes for which patents are difficult to enforce and any other elements of our drug discovery process that involve proprietary know-how and technology that is not covered by patent applications, we rely on trade secret protection and confidentiality agreements to protect our interests. We require all of our employees, consultants and advisors to enter into confidentiality agreements. Where it is necessary to share our proprietary information or data with outside parties, our policy is to make available only that information and data required to accomplish the desired purpose and only pursuant to a duty of confidentiality on the part of those parties.
As of December 31, 2019, we owned 445 issued US patents and 1,590 granted foreign patents, as well as additional pending US patent applications and foreign patent applications. The claims in these various patents and patent applications are typically directed to compositions of matter, including claims covering product candidates, crystalline forms, lead compounds and key intermediates, pharmaceutical compositions, methods of use and/or processes for making our compounds. In particular, our wholly-owned subsidiary Theravance Biopharma R&D IP, LLC owns the following US patents which are listed in the FDA Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations
(Orange Book) for YUPELRI (revefenacin) inhalation solution: US Patent No. 7,288,657, expiring on December 23, 2025; US Patent No. 7,491,736, expiring March 10, 2025; US Patent No. 7,521,041, expiring March 10, 2025; US Patent No. 7,550,595, expiring March 10, 2025; US Patent No. 7,585,879, expiring March 10, 2025; US Patent No. 7,910,608, expiring March 10, 2025; US Patent No. 8,034,946, expiring March 10, 2025; US Patent No. 8,053,448, expiring March 10, 2025; US Patent No. 8,273,894, expiring March 10, 2025; US Patent No. 8,541,451, expiring August 25, 2031; US Patent No. 9,765,028, expiring July 14, 2030; US Patent No. 10,106,503, expiring March 10, 2025; US Patent No. 10,343,995, expiring March 10, 2025; and US Patent No. 10,550,081, expiring July 14, 2030 (each of the aforementioned expiration dates not including any patent term extensions that may be available under the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984). Thus, the last to expire patent currently listed in the Orange Book for YUPELRI (revefenacin) inhalation solution expires on August 25, 2031. On December 19, 2018, we filed patent term extension (“PTE”) applications in the US Patent and Trademark Office (“USPTO”) for US Patent Nos. 7,288,657 and 7,585,879. These PTE applications are currently pending and if granted, we will be permitted to extend the term of one of these patents for the period determined by the USPTO.
Issued US and foreign patents generally expire 20 years after their filing date. The patent rights relating to YUPELRI (revefenacin) inhalation solution currently consist of issued US patents, pending US patent applications and counterpart patents and patent applications in a number of jurisdictions, including Europe. Additionally, our patent rights relating to velusetrag, ampreloxetine and TD-1473 currently include issued US composition of matter patents that expire in 2025, 2030 and 2036, respectively (not including any patent term extensions that may be available under the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984), as well as additional issued US patents, pending US patent applications and/or counterpart patents and patent applications in a number of jurisdictions. Nevertheless, issued patents can be challenged, narrowed, invalidated or circumvented, which could limit our ability to stop competitors from marketing similar products and threaten our ability to commercialize our product candidates. Our patent position, similar to other companies in our industry, is generally uncertain and involves complex legal and factual questions. To maintain our proprietary position, we will need to obtain effective claims and enforce these claims once granted. It is possible that, before any of our products can be commercialized, any related patent may expire or remain in force only for a short period following commercialization, thereby reducing any advantage of the patent. Also, we do not know whether any of our patent applications will result in any issued patents or, if issued, whether the scope of the issued claims will be sufficient to protect our proprietary position.
Our development programs, and the marketed products to which we are entitled to profit share revenue, royalty or similar payments, target four therapeutic areas—infectious disease, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neurological. In research, we apply organ-selective expertise to biologically compelling targets to discover and develop medicines designed to treat underserved localized diseases and to limit systemic exposure, in order to maximize patient benefit and minimize risk. Our commercial infrastructure is focused primarily on the acute care setting. We expect that any medicines that we commercialize with our collaborative partners or on our own will compete with existing and future market-leading medicines.
Many of our competitors have substantially greater financial, technical and personnel resources than we have. In addition, many of these competitors have significantly greater commercial infrastructures than we have. Our ability to compete successfully will depend largely on our ability to leverage our experience in drug discovery, development and commercialization to:
discover and develop medicines that are superior to other products in the market;
attract and retain qualified scientific, clinical development and commercial personnel;
obtain patent and/or other proprietary protection for our medicines and technologies;
obtain required regulatory approvals;
commercialize approved products; and
successfully collaborate with pharmaceutical companies in the discovery, development and commercialization of new medicines.
YUPELRI (revefenacin) inhalation solution, a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA)
YUPELRI competes with the nebulized LAMA Lonhala® Magnair® (glycopyrrolate) dosed two times per day and with short acting nebulized bronchodilators that are dosed three to four times per day.
Trelegy Ellipta or FF/UMEC/VI (fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium bromide/vilanterol)
Trelegy Ellipta competes in Europe with Trimbow (beclometasone dipropionate/formoterol fumarate/glycopyrronium bromide, dosed twice per day) from Chiesi Farmaceutici and, in the future, may compete with other closed triple products that are currently under review by the EMA. AstraZeneca and Novartis both have closed triple products dosed twice per day. AstraZeneca’s Breztri Aerosphere (budesonide/glycopyrronium/formoterol fumarate), also known as PT-010, was approved for COPD during 2019 in Japan and China and is under review for COPD by both the FDA and the EMA. Novartis’s QVM-149 (mometasone/glycopyrronium/indacaterol) is under review by the EMA for asthma. TRELEGY ELLIPTA also competes with “open triple” therapy which can be accomplished by the concurrent use of two or three products. An example of such use includes a LABA/ICS combination such as AstraZeneca’s Symbicort and a LAMA such as Boehringer Ingelheim’s Spiriva.
Ampreloxetine (TD-9855) norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (“NRI”)
If successfully developed and approved, ampreloxetine would be expected to compete predominantly with Northera® (droxidopa) marketed by Lundbeck NA Ltd., and to a lesser extent, midodrine and fludrocortisone which are available as generics.
As of December 31, 2019, we had 316 employees, of which 177 were engaged in research and development activities. Of our 316 employees, 293 were located in the US, and 23 were located in Ireland. We consider our employee relations to be good.
Financial Information About Geographic Areas
Information on our total revenues attributed to geographic areas and customers who represented at least 10% of our total revenues is included in “Item 8, Note 4. Segment Information,” to our consolidated financial statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Theravance Biopharma was incorporated in the Cayman Islands in July 2013 under the name Theravance Biopharma, Inc. Theravance Biopharma began operating as an independent, publicly-traded company on June 2, 2014 following a spin-off from Innoviva, Inc. Our corporate address in the Cayman Islands and principal executive office is P.O. Box 309, Ugland House, Grand Cayman, KY1-1104, Cayman Islands and the address of our wholly-owned US operating subsidiary Theravance Biopharma US, Inc. is 901 Gateway Boulevard, South San Francisco, California 94080. While Theravance Biopharma is incorporated under Cayman Island law, the Company became an Irish tax resident effective July 1, 2015. The address of our wholly-owned Irish operating subsidiary, Theravance Biopharma Ireland Limited, is Connaught House, Burlington Road, Dublin 4, Ireland.
Our Internet address is www.theravance.com. Our investor relations website is located at http://investor.theravance.com. We make available free of charge on our investor relations website under “SEC Filings” our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, our directors’ and officers’ Section 16 Reports and any amendments to those reports as soon as reasonably practicable after filing or furnishing such materials to the US Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). Our current Code of Business Conduct, Corporate Governance Guidelines, Articles of Association, Board of Director Committee Charters, and other materials, including amendments thereto, may also be found on our investor relations website under “Corporate
Governance.” The information found on our website is not part of this or any other report that we file with or furnish to the SEC. Theravance Biopharma and the Theravance Biopharma logo are registered trademarks of the Theravance Biopharma group of companies. Trademarks, tradenames or service marks of other companies appearing in this report are the property of their respective owners.
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
RISKS RELATING TO THE COMPANY
The risks described below and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and in our other public filings with the SEC are not the only risks facing the Company. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial also may materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and/or operating results.
We anticipate that we will incur losses for the foreseeable future. We may never achieve or sustain profitability.
First as part of Innoviva, Inc., and since June 2, 2014 as Theravance Biopharma, we have been engaged in discovery and development of compounds and product candidates since mid-1997. We may never generate sufficient revenue from the sale of medicines, royalties on sales by our partners or from our interest in Theravance Respiratory Company, LLC (“TRC”) to achieve profitability. During the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018, and 2017, we recognized net losses of $236.5 million, $215.5 million and $285.4 million, respectively, which are reflected in the shareholders’ (deficit) equity on our consolidated balance sheets. We reflect cumulative net loss incurred after June 2, 2014, the effective date of our spin-off from Innoviva, Inc. (the “Spin-Off”), as accumulated deficit on our consolidated balance sheets, which was $1.2 billion as of December 31, 2019. We expect to continue to incur net losses at least over the next several years as we continue our drug discovery and development efforts and incur significant preclinical and clinical development costs related to our current product candidates and commercialization and development costs relating to YUPELRI. In particular, to the extent we continue to advance our product candidates into and through additional clinical studies, we will incur substantial expenses. For example: we initiated a Phase 2b/3 induction and maintenance study of TD-1473 in ulcerative colitis; we initiated a Phase 2 induction study of TD-1473 in Crohn’s disease; and we have progressed ampreloxetine (TD-9855) into a Phase 3 registrational program. The expenses associated with these clinical studies are substantial. We will incur costs and expenses associated with our co-promotion agreement with Mylan for commercialization of YUPELRI in the US, including the maintenance of an independent sales and marketing organization with appropriate technical expertise, a medical affairs presence and consultant support, and post-marketing studies. Our commitment of resources to the continued development of our existing product candidates, our discovery programs, and YUPELRI will require significant additional funding. Our operating expenses also will increase if, among other things:
our earlier stage potential products move into later-stage clinical development, which is generally more expensive than early stage development;
additional preclinical product candidates are selected for clinical development;
we pursue clinical development of our potential or current products in new indications;
we increase the number of patents we are prosecuting or otherwise expend additional resources on patent prosecution or defense; or
we acquire or in-license additional technologies, product candidates, products or businesses.
While we are generating revenues from (i) sales of YUPELRI, (ii) our economic interest in royalties from net sales of TRELEGY ELLIPTA paid to TRC (63.75% of which amounts are used to make payments on the Non-Recourse 2033 Notes), (iii) payments under collaboration agreements, and (iv) minor royalties from the net sales of VIBATIV, we do not expect to generate significant revenues or become profitable in the immediate future. Since we or our collaborators or licensees may not successfully develop additional products, obtain required regulatory approvals,
manufacture products at an acceptable cost or with appropriate quality, or successfully market and sell such products with desired margins, our expenses will continue to exceed any revenues we may receive for the foreseeable future.
In the absence of substantial licensing payments, contingent payments or other revenues from third-party collaborators, royalties on sales of products licensed under our intellectual property rights, future revenues from those product candidates in development that receive regulatory approval or other sources of revenues, we will continue to incur operating losses and will require additional capital to execute our business strategy. The likelihood of reaching, and the time required to reach, and then to sustain, profitability are highly uncertain. As a result, we expect to continue to incur substantial losses for the foreseeable future. We are uncertain when or if we will ever be able to achieve or sustain profitability. Failure to become and remain profitable would adversely affect the price of our securities and our ability to raise capital and continue operations.
Any delay in commencing or completing clinical studies for product candidates and any adverse results from clinical or non-clinical studies or regulatory obstacles product candidates may face, would harm our business and the price of our securities could fall.
Each of our product candidates must undergo extensive non-clinical and clinical studies as a condition to regulatory approval. Non-clinical and clinical studies are expensive, take many years to complete and study results may lead to delays in further studies, new requirements for conducting future studies or decisions to terminate programs. The commencement and completion of clinical studies for our product candidates may be delayed and programs may be terminated due to many factors, including, but not limited to:
lack of effectiveness of product candidates during clinical studies;
adverse events, safety issues or side effects (or perceived adverse developments or results) relating to the product candidates or their formulation into medicines;
inability to raise additional capital in sufficient amounts to continue our development programs, which are very expensive;
inability to enter into partnering arrangements relating to the development and commercialization of our programs and product candidates;
delays in patient enrollment and variability in the number and types of patients available for clinical studies;
the need to sequence clinical studies as opposed to conducting them concomitantly in order to conserve resources;
our inability or the inability of our collaborators or licensees to manufacture or obtain from third parties materials sufficient for use in non-clinical and clinical studies;
governmental or regulatory delays or suspensions of the conduct of the clinical trials and changes in regulatory requirements, policy and guidelines, including as a result of any class-based risks that emerge as an area of FDA or other regulatory agency focus;
failure of our partners to advance our product candidates through clinical development;
difficulty in maintaining contact with patients after treatment, resulting in incomplete data;
varying regulatory requirements or interpretations of data among the FDA and foreign regulatory authorities; and
a regional disturbance where we or our collaborative partners are enrolling patients in clinical trials, such as a pandemic, terrorist activities or war, political unrest or a natural disaster.
Any adverse developments or results or perceived adverse developments or results with respect to our clinical programs including, without limitation, any delays in development in our programs, any halting of development in our programs, any difficulties or delays encountered with regard to the FDA or other third country regulatory authorities with respect to our programs, or any indication from clinical or non-clinical studies that the compounds in our programs are not safe or efficacious, could have a material adverse effect on our business and cause the price of our securities to fall.
In July 2019, the FDA issued a Boxed Warning for a systemically active pan-JAK inhibitor, calling out an increased risk of pulmonary embolism and death following the results of a safety study in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. We are focused on developing pan-JAK inhibitors that are designed to remain organ-selective so that they do not become systemically active in order to minimize the risk of side effects. It is unknown at this time what, if any, additional requirements the FDA may put in place with respect to the development of JAK inhibitors generally or what other future FDA actions may have on the prospects for JAK inhibitors. Delays or adverse developments or results or perceived adverse developments or results relating to JAK inhibitors could harm our business and could cause the price of our securities to fall. Examples of such adverse developments include, but are not limited to:
the FDA and/or other regulatory authorities determining that additional non-clinical or clinical studies are required with respect to our JAK inhibitor programs;
safety, efficacy or other concerns relating to our JAK inhibitor programs or JAK inhibitors under development or commercialized by other companies;
the FDA determining that class-based warnings are required for JAK inhibitors generally; or
any change in FDA policy or guidance regarding JAK inhibitors.
If our product candidates are not approved by regulatory authorities, including the FDA, we will be unable to commercialize them.
The FDA must approve any new medicine before it can be marketed and sold in the US. We will not obtain this approval for a product candidate unless and until the FDA approves an NDA. We, or our collaborative partners, must provide the FDA and similar foreign regulatory authorities with data from preclinical and clinical studies that demonstrate that our product candidates comply with the regulatory requirements for the quality of medicinal products and are safe and effective for a defined indication before they can be approved for commercial distribution. FDA or foreign regulatory authorities may disagree with our trial design and our interpretation of data from preclinical studies and clinical trials. The processes by which regulatory approvals are obtained from the FDA and foreign regulatory authorities to market and sell a new product are complex, require a number of years, depend upon the type, complexity and novelty of the product candidate and involve the expenditure of substantial resources for research, development and testing. The FDA has substantial discretion in the drug approval process and may require us to conduct additional nonclinical and clinical testing or to perform post-marketing studies. Further, the implementation of new laws and regulations, and revisions to FDA clinical trial design guidance may lead to increased uncertainty regarding the approvability of new drugs. See the risk factor entitled “Any delay in commencing or completing clinical studies for product candidates and any adverse results from clinical or non-clinical studies or regulatory obstacles product candidates may face, would harm our business and the price of our securities could fall” above for additional information. In addition, the FDA has additional standards for approval of new drugs, including recommended advisory committee meetings for certain new molecular entities, and formal risk evaluation and mitigation requirements at the FDA’s discretion. Even if we receive regulatory approval of a product, the approval may limit the indicated uses for which the drug may be marketed or impose significant restrictions or limitations on the use and/or distribution of such product.
In addition, in order to market our medicines in foreign jurisdictions, we or our collaborative partners must obtain separate regulatory approvals in each country. The approval procedure varies among countries and can involve additional testing, and the time required to obtain approval may differ from that required to obtain FDA approval. Approval by the FDA does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities in other countries, and approval by one foreign regulatory authority does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities in other foreign countries or by the FDA. Conversely, failure to obtain approval in one or more jurisdictions may make approval in other jurisdictions more difficult. These laws, regulations, additional requirements and changes in interpretation could cause non-approval or further delays in the FDA’s or other regulatory authorities’ review and approval of our and our collaborative partner’s product candidates, which would materially harm our business and financial condition and could cause the price of our securities to fall.
If additional capital is not available, we may have to curtail operations or we could be forced to share our rights to commercialize our product candidates with third parties on terms that may not be favorable to us.
Based on our current operating plans and financial forecasts, we believe that our existing cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities will be sufficient to meet our anticipated operating needs for at least the next twelve months. However, our current operating plans or financial forecasts occasionally change. For example, in August 2017, we announced an increase in our anticipated operating loss for 2017, primarily driven by our decision to accelerate funding associated with the next phase of development of TD-1473 in our JAK inhibitor program. If our current operating plans or financial forecasts change, we may require or seek additional funding sooner in the form of public or private equity or equity-linked offerings, debt financings or additional collaborations and licensing arrangements.
We may need to raise additional capital in the future to, among other things:
fund our discovery efforts and research and development programs;
fund our commercialization strategies for any approved products and to prepare for potential product approvals;
support our independent sales and marketing organization and medical affairs team;
support our additional investments in YUPELRI, including potential post-marketing clinical studies;
progress any additional product candidates into later-stage development without funding from a collaboration partner;
progress mid-to-late stage product candidates into later-stage development, if warranted;
respond to competitive pressures; and
acquire complementary businesses or technologies.
Our future capital needs depend on many factors, including:
the scope, duration and expenditures associated with our discovery efforts and research and development programs;
continued scientific progress in these programs;
the extent to which we encounter technical obstacles in our research and development programs;
the outcome of potential licensing or partnering transactions, if any;
competing technological developments;
the extent of our proprietary patent position in any approved products and our product candidates;
our facilities expenses, which will vary depending on the time and terms of any facility lease or sublease we may enter into, and other operating expenses;
the scope and extent of the expansion of our sales and marketing efforts;
potential litigation and other contingencies; and
the regulatory approval process for our product candidates.
We intend to seek to raise additional capital or obtain future funding through public or private equity offerings, debt financings or additional collaborations and licensing arrangements to meet our capital needs or to take advantage of opportunistic market conditions. We may not be able to obtain additional financing on terms favorable to us, if at all. General market conditions may make it difficult for us to seek financing from the capital markets. We may be required to relinquish rights to our technologies, product candidates or territories, or grant licenses on terms that are not favorable to us, in order to raise additional funds through collaborations or licensing arrangements. We may sequence preclinical and clinical studies as opposed to conducting them concomitantly in order to conserve resources, or delay, reduce or eliminate one or more of our research or development programs and reduce overall overhead expenses. If we are unable to raise additional capital or obtain future funding in sufficient amounts or on terms acceptable to us, we may have to make reductions in our workforce and may be prevented from continuing our discovery, development and commercialization efforts and exploiting other corporate opportunities. This would likely harm our business, prospects and financial condition and cause the price of our securities to fall.
We may seek to obtain future financing through the issuance of debt or equity, which may have an adverse effect on our shareholders or may otherwise adversely affect our business.
If we raise funds through the issuance of additional debt, including convertible debt or debt secured by some or all of our assets, or equity, any debt securities or preferred shares issued will have rights, preferences and privileges senior to those of holders of our ordinary shares in the event of liquidation. Neither the terms of our $230.0 million of 3.25% convertible senior notes, due 2023 (the “Convertible Senior 2023 Notes”) nor the terms of the Issuer’s 9.0% non-recourse notes due in or before 2033 (“Non-Recourse 2033 Notes”) restrict our ability to issue additional debt. If additional debt is issued or we otherwise borrow additional funds, there is a possibility that once all senior claims are settled, there may be no assets remaining to pay out to the holders of ordinary shares. As referenced in “Item 8, Note 15. Subsequent Events” below, two Company subsidiaries entered into Note Purchase Agreements (defined below) relating to Non-Recourse 2035 Notes (defined below) that, if issued following satisfaction of customary conditions, would have the net effect of increasing our outstanding debt by $150 million. 75% of the income from our investment in TRC is currently available only for payment of the Non-Recourse 2033 Notes and is not available to pay our other obligations or the claims of our other creditors and, if the Non-Recourse 2035 Notes are issued and the Non-Recourse 2033 Notes redeemed, will only be available for payment of the Non-Recourse 2035 Notes. In addition, if we raise funds through the issuance of additional equity, whether through private placements or public offerings (including through the sales agreement we entered into in December 2019), such an issuance would dilute ownership of our current shareholders that do not participate in the issuance. For example, as further discussed in “Item 8, Note 15. Subsequent Events”, in February 2020, we closed a public offering of 5,500,000 ordinary shares. Since our Spin-Off in June 2014, we have raised an aggregate of $982.4 million in a combination of (i) the sale of approximately 23.0 million ordinary shares, and (ii) $630.0 million aggregate principal amount of notes. If we are unable to obtain any needed additional funding, we may be required to reduce the scope of, delay, or eliminate some or all of, our planned research, development and commercialization activities or to license to third parties the rights to develop and/or commercialize products or technologies that we would otherwise seek to develop and/or commercialize ourselves or on terms that are less attractive than they might otherwise be, any of which could materially harm our business.
Furthermore, the terms of any additional debt securities we may issue in the future may impose restrictions on our operations, which may include limiting our ability to incur additional indebtedness, pay dividends on or repurchase our share capital, or make certain acquisitions or investments. In addition, we may be subject to covenants requiring us
to satisfy certain financial tests and ratios, and our ability to satisfy such covenants may be affected by events outside of our control.
If our partners do not satisfy their obligations under our agreements with them, or if they terminate our partnerships with them, we may not be able to develop or commercialize our partnered product candidates as planned.
We have an exclusive development and commercialization agreement with Alfasigma for velusetrag, our internally discovered 5-HT4 agonist for the treatment of gastromotility disorders, under which we have transferred to Alfasigma global rights for velusetrag. In January 2015, we entered into a collaboration agreement with Mylan for the development and commercialization of a nebulized formulation of our LAMA revefenacin, including YUPELRI. Under the terms of the agreement, we and Mylan will co-develop nebulized revefenacin, including YUPELRI, for COPD and other respiratory diseases. In June 2016, we entered into a License and Collaboration Agreement with Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Inc., an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited (collectively with Millennium, “Takeda”) in order to establish a collaboration for the development and commercialization of TD-8954, a selective 5-HT4 receptor agonist in development for gastrointestinal motility disorders. Under the terms of the agreement, Takeda is responsible for worldwide development and commercialization of TD-8954. In February 2018, we announced a global co-development and commercialization agreement with Janssen for TD-1473 and related back-up compounds for inflammatory intestinal diseases, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. In December 2019, we entered into a License Agreement with Pfizer Inc. (“Pfizer”). Under the license agreement, we provide Pfizer with an exclusive global license to develop, manufacture and commercialize compounds from our preclinical program for skin-targeted, locally-acting pan-Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors that can be rapidly metabolized. In connection with these agreements, these parties have certain rights regarding the use of patents and technology with respect to the compounds in our development programs, including development and marketing rights.
Our partners have in the past and may in the future not fulfill all of their obligations under these agreements, and, in certain circumstances, they or we may terminate our partnership with them. In either event, we may be unable to assume the development and commercialization responsibilities covered by the agreements or enter into alternative arrangements with a third-party to develop and commercialize such product candidates. If a partner elected to promote alternative products and product candidates such as its own products and product candidates in preference to those licensed from us, does not devote an adequate amount of time and resources to our product candidates or is otherwise unsuccessful in its efforts with respect to our products or product candidates, the development and commercialization of product candidates covered by the agreements could be delayed or terminated, and future payments to us could be delayed, reduced or eliminated and our business and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected. Accordingly, our ability to receive any revenue from the product candidates covered by these agreements is dependent on the efforts of our partners. If a partner terminates or breaches its agreements with us, otherwise fails to complete its obligations in a timely manner or alleges that we have breached our contractual obligations under these agreements, the chances of successfully developing or commercializing product candidates under the collaboration could be materially and adversely affected. In addition, effective collaboration with a partner requires coordination to achieve complex and detail-intensive goals between entities that potentially have different priorities, capabilities and processes and successful navigation of the challenges such coordination entails. We could also become involved in disputes with a partner, which could lead to delays in or termination of our development and commercialization programs and time-consuming and expensive litigation or arbitration. Furthermore, termination of an agreement by a partner could have an adverse effect on the price of our ordinary shares or other securities even if not material to our business.
We do not control TRC and, in particular, have no control over the GSK-Partnered Respiratory Programs or access to non-public information regarding the development of the GSK-Partnered Respiratory Programs.
Innoviva has assigned to TRC its strategic alliance agreement with GSK and all of its rights and obligations under its LABA collaboration agreement other than with respect to RELVAR® ELLIPTA®/BREO® ELLIPTA®, ANORO® ELLIPTA® and vilanterol monotherapy. Our equity interest in TRC entitles us to an 85% economic interest in any future payments made by GSK under the strategic alliance agreement and under the portion of the collaboration agreement assigned to TRC (the “GSK Agreements”) (net of TRC expenses paid and the amount of cash, if any, expected to be used by TRC pursuant to the TRC LLC Agreement over the next four fiscal quarters), which agreements govern Innoviva’s and GSK’s respective interests in the GSK-Partnered Respiratory Programs. Our equity interest covers various drug programs including in particular all TRELEGY ELLIPTA (the combination of fluticasone furoate,
umeclidinium, and vilanterol in a single ELLIPTA® inhaler, previously referred to as the Closed Triple) products. Our economic interest does not include any payments by GSK associated with RELVAR® ELLIPTA®/BREO® ELLIPTA®, ANORO® ELLIPTA® or vilanterol monotherapy. Innoviva controls TRC and, except for certain limited consent rights, we have no right to participate in the business and affairs of TRC. Innoviva has the exclusive right to appoint TRC’s manager who, among other things, is responsible for the day-to-day management of the GSK-Partnered Respiratory Programs and exercises the rights relating to the GSK-Partnered Respiratory Programs. As a result, we have no rights to participate in, or access to non-public information about, the development and commercialization work GSK and Innoviva are undertaking with respect to the GSK-Partnered Respiratory Programs and no right to enforce rights under the GSK Agreements assigned to TRC. Moreover, we have many of the same risks with respect to our and TRC’s dependence on GSK as we have with respect to our dependence on our own partners.
If there are any adverse developments or perceived adverse developments with respect to the GSK-Partnered Respiratory Programs in which we have a substantial economic interest, including TRELEGY ELLIPTA, our business will be harmed, and the price of our securities could fall.
We have no access to non-public information regarding the development progress of, or plans for, the GSK-Partnered Respiratory Programs, including TRELEGY ELLIPTA, and we have little, if any, ability to influence the progress of those programs because our interest in these programs is only through our ownership interest in TRC, which is controlled by Innoviva. However, if any of the GSK-Partnered Respiratory Programs in which we have a substantial economic interest encounter delays, do not demonstrate required quality, safety and efficacy, are terminated, or if there are any adverse developments or perceived adverse developments with respect to such programs, our business will be harmed, and the price of our securities could fall. Examples of such adverse developments include, but are not limited to:
disappointing or lower than expected sales of TRELEGY ELLIPTA;
any regulatory difficulty in seeking approval of an asthma indication for TRELEGY ELLIPTA, which GSK is undertaking following its successful Phase 3 clinical program in asthma patients;
disputes between GSK and Innoviva or between us and Innoviva, such as our recent dispute with Innoviva concerning the withholding of royalty payments due to us under the TRC LLC Agreement;
the emergence of new closed triple or other alternative therapies or any developments regarding competitive therapies, including comparative price or efficacy of competitive therapies;
GSK deciding to delay or halt any of the GSK-Partnered Respiratory Programs in which we have a substantial economic interest;
the FDA and/or other national or foreign regulatory authorities determining that any of the studies under these programs do not demonstrate the required quality, safety or efficacy, or that additional non-clinical or clinical studies are required with respect to such programs;
any safety, efficacy or other concerns regarding any of the GSK-Partnered Respiratory Programs in which we have a substantial economic interest; or
any particular FDA requirements or changes in FDA policy or guidance regarding these programs or any particular regulatory requirements in other jurisdictions or changes in the policies or guidance adopted by foreign regulatory authorities.
Because GSK is a strategic partner of Innoviva, a strategic partner of TRC and a significant shareholder of us, it may take actions that in certain cases are materially harmful to our business and to our other shareholders.
Based on our review of publicly available filings, as of December 31, 2019, GSK beneficially owned 16.9% of our outstanding ordinary shares. GSK is also a strategic partner to Innoviva with rights and obligations under the GSK Agreements, which include the strategic alliance agreement and the collaboration agreement assigned to TRC, that may cause GSK’s interests to differ from our interests and those of our other shareholders. For example, GSK’s
commercialization efforts are guided by a portfolio approach across products in which we have an indirect interest through TRC and products in which we have no interest. Accordingly, GSK’s commercialization efforts may have the effect of reducing the value of our interest in TRC. Furthermore, GSK has a substantial respiratory product portfolio in addition to the products covered by the GSK Agreements. GSK may make respiratory product portfolio decisions or statements about its portfolio which may be, or may be perceived to be, harmful to the respiratory products partnered with Innoviva and TRC. For example, GSK could promote its own respiratory products and/or delay or terminate the development or commercialization of the respiratory programs covered by the GSK Agreements. Also, given the potential future royalty payments GSK may be obligated to pay under the GSK Agreements, GSK may seek to acquire us or acquire our interests in TRC in order to effectively reduce those payment obligations and the price at which GSK might seek to acquire us may not reflect our true value. As a result of these differing interests, GSK may take actions that it believes are in its best interest but which might not be in the best interests of either us or our other shareholders. In addition, GSK could also seek to challenge our or Innoviva’s post-Spin-Off operations as violating or allowing it to terminate the GSK Agreements, including by violating the confidentiality provisions of those agreements or the master agreement between GSK, Innoviva and us entered into in connection with the Spin-Off (the “Master Agreement”), or otherwise violating its legal rights. While we believe our operations fully comply with the GSK Agreements, the Master Agreement and applicable law, there can be no assurance that we or Innoviva will prevail against any such claims by GSK. Moreover, regardless of the merit of any claims by GSK, we may incur significant cost and diversion of resources in defending them. In addition, any other action or inaction by either GSK or Innoviva that results in a material dispute, allegation of breach, litigation, arbitration, or significant disagreement between those parties or between us and either of those parties may be interpreted negatively by the market or by our investors, could harm our business and cause the price of our securities to fall. Other examples of these kinds of issues include but are not limited to non-performance of other contractual obligations and allegations of non-performance, disagreements over the relative marketing and sales efforts for Innoviva’s partnered products and other GSK respiratory products, disputes over public statements, and similar matters. In general, any uncertainty about the respiratory programs partnered with GSK, the enforceability of the GSK Agreements or the relationship/partnership between Innoviva and GSK or between us and Innoviva could result in significant reduction in the market price of our securities and other material harm to our business.
We do not control the commercialization of TRELEGY ELLIPTA and we do not control TRC; accordingly the amount of royalties we receive will depend, among other factors, on GSK’s ability to further commercialize TRELEGY ELLIPTA and TRC’s decisions concerning use of cash in accordance with the TRC LLC Agreement.
We only receive revenues from TRELEGY ELLIPTA based on the amount of sales of this product by GSK in the form of our economic interest in the royalties paid by GSK to TRC, which is managed by Innoviva. There are no required minimum future payments associated with the product and any royalties we receive will depend on GSK’s ability to commercialize the product, the future payments, if any, made by GSK under the strategic alliance agreement and under the portion of the collaboration agreement assigned to TRC, TRC’s expenses, and the amount of cash, if any, expected to be used by TRC pursuant to the TRC LLC Agreement. Following our recent arbitration with Innoviva concerning its withholding of certain royalty distributions to the TRC members, the arbitrator ruled that in the future if Innoviva desires to invest TRC funds in any initiatives that require the consent of GSK under the collaboration agreement, Innoviva must first obtain the consent of GSK. The timeframe for seeking GSK’s consent for these initiatives and the associated dates by which GSK’s consent must be received means that royalty distributions could be delayed for several quarters (if GSK ultimately does not consent) or perhaps not made at all until the completion of the initiatives (to the extent that GSK does consent and agrees with TRC that TRC funding will be used for such initiatives). This involves a number of risks and uncertainties, including:
any future withholding by Innoviva or TRC of royalty distributions;
GSK’s ability to have an adequate supply of their respective product;
ongoing compliance by GSK or its suppliers with the FDA’s current Good Manufacturing Practice;
compliance with other applicable FDA and other regulatory requirements in the US or other foreign jurisdictions, including those described elsewhere in this report;
competition, whether from current competitors or new products developed by others in the future;
claims relating to intellectual property;
any future disruptions in GSK’s business which would affect its ability to commercialize the product;
the ability of TRELEGY ELLIPTA to achieve wider acceptance among physicians, patients, third-party payors, or the medical community in general;
the amount of cash associated with any additional future TRELEGY ELLIPTA commercialization initiatives that Innoviva proposes to GSK for TRC to pursue, the time it may take to present those initiatives to GSK for approval and the time it takes for GSK to consent or not consent;
global economic conditions; and
any of the other risks relating to commercialization of products described elsewhere in this section.
These risks and uncertainties could materially impact the amount and timing of future royalties or other revenues we may receive from sales of TRELEGY ELLIPTA, which could have a material adverse effect on our future revenues, other financial results and our financial position and cause the price of our securities to fall.
In the future, Innoviva may cause TRC to withhold funds from distribution to its members, including our affiliates, for additional TRELEGY ELLIPTA development or commercialization initiatives that may be proposed, which would need to be approved by GSK in order to be implemented, or for other purposes. To the extent any TRELEGY ELLIPTA development or commercialization initiatives are timely approved by GSK and implemented, such initiatives may require funding beyond the amount withheld by TRC, and TRC may withhold additional amounts in subsequent quarters with respect to these initiatives. Accordingly, we cannot predict the amount of the funds that our affiliates would otherwise expect to receive from TRC that TRC may withhold in the future, or the timing of any such withholding.
We may object to the withholding of funds for additional proposed TRELEGY ELLIPTA initiatives or other purposes on the basis that such withholding is in violation of the terms of the TRC LLC Agreement or otherwise, and such objection could result in additional legal proceedings between us, TRC and Innoviva. Any such legal proceedings could divert the attention of management and cause us to incur significant costs, regardless of the outcome, which we cannot predict. An adverse result could materially and adversely affect the funds that our affiliates would otherwise expect to receive from TRC in the future and thus have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Our ongoing drug discovery and development efforts might not generate additional successful product candidates or approvable drugs.
Our compounds in clinical trials and our future leads for potential drug compounds are subject to the risks and failures inherent in the development of pharmaceutical products. These risks include, but are not limited to, the inherent difficulty in selecting the right drug and drug target and avoiding unwanted side effects, as well as unanticipated problems relating to product development, testing, enrollment, obtaining regulatory approvals, maintaining regulatory compliance, manufacturing, competition and costs and expenses that may exceed current estimates.
Clinical studies involving our product candidates may reveal that those candidates are ineffective, inferior to existing approved medicines, unacceptably toxic, or that they have other unacceptable side effects. In addition, the results of preclinical studies do not necessarily predict clinical success, and larger and later-stage clinical studies may not produce the same results as earlier-stage clinical studies.
Frequently, product candidates that have shown promising results in early preclinical or clinical studies have subsequently suffered significant setbacks or failed in later non-clinical or clinical studies. In some instances, there can
be significant variability in safety and/or efficacy results between different trials of the same product candidate due to numerous factors, including changes in trial protocols, differences in size and type of the patient populations, varying levels of adherence to the dosing regimen and other trial protocols and the rate of dropout among clinical trial participants. Clinical and non-clinical studies of product candidates often reveal that it is not possible or practical to continue development efforts for these product candidates. In addition, the design of a clinical trial can determine whether its results will support regulatory approval and flaws in the design of a clinical trial may not become apparent until the clinical trial is well underway or completed. If our clinical studies for our current product candidates, such as the clinical studies for our JAK inhibitor programs or ampreloxetine in patients with nOH, are substantially delayed or suggest that any of our product candidates may not be efficacious or well tolerated, we could choose to cease development of these product candidates. In addition, our product candidates may have undesirable side effects or other unexpected characteristics that could cause us or regulatory authorities to interrupt, delay or halt clinical trials and could result in a more restricted label or the delay or denial of regulatory approval by regulatory authorities.
We face substantial competition from companies with more resources and experience than we have, which may result in others discovering, developing, receiving approval for or commercializing products before or more successfully than we do.
Our ability to succeed in the future depends on our ability to demonstrate and maintain a competitive advantage with respect to our approach to the discovery, development and commercialization of medicines. Our objective is to discover, develop and commercialize new small molecule medicines with superior efficacy, convenience, tolerability and/or safety using our proprietary insight in chemistry, biology and multivalency, where applicable. We expect that any medicines that we commercialize with or without our collaborative partners will compete with existing or future market-leading medicines.
Many of our current and potential competitors have substantially greater financial, technical and personnel resources than we have. In addition, many of these competitors have significantly greater commercial infrastructures than we have. Our ability to compete successfully will depend largely on our ability to leverage our experience in drug discovery and development, and, more recently, commercialization, to:
discover and develop medicines that are superior to other products in the market;
attract and retain qualified personnel;
obtain and enforce patent and/or other proprietary protection for our medicines and technologies;
conduct effective clinical trials and obtain required regulatory approvals;
develop and effectively implement commercialization strategies, with or without collaborative partners; and
successfully collaborate with pharmaceutical companies in the discovery, development and commercialization of new medicines.
Pharmaceutical companies, including companies with which we collaborate, may invest heavily to quickly discover and develop or in-license novel compounds that could make our product candidates obsolete. Accordingly, our competitors may succeed in obtaining patent protection, receiving FDA or equivalent regulatory approval outside the US or discovering, developing and commercializing medicines before we do. Other companies are engaged in the discovery of medicines that would compete with the product candidates that we are developing.
Any new medicine that competes with a generic or proprietary market leading medicine must demonstrate compelling advantages in efficacy, convenience, tolerability and/or safety in order to overcome severe price competition and be commercially successful. For example, YUPELRI competes predominantly with short-acting nebulized bronchodilators used three to four times per day and the nebulized LAMA LonhalaTM MagnairTM (SUN-101/eFlow®)
used twice per day. If we are not able to compete effectively against our current and future competitors, our business will not grow, our financial condition and operations will suffer and the price of our securities could fall.
If we are unable to enter into future collaboration arrangements or if any such collaborations with third parties are unsuccessful, we will be unable to fully develop and commercialize all of our product candidates and our business will be adversely affected.
We have collaborations with a number of third parties including Janssen for TD-1473 and related back-up compounds for inflammatory intestinal diseases, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease and Mylan for the development and commercialization of a nebulized formulation of revefenacin, our LAMA compound (including YUPELRI). Also, through our interest in TRC we may participate economically in Innoviva’s collaborations with GSK with respect to the GSK-Partnered Respiratory Programs. Additional collaborations will likely be needed to fund later-stage development of certain programs that have not been licensed to a collaborator, such as our NEP inhibitor program and to commercialize the product candidates in our programs if approved by the necessary regulatory authorities. We evaluate commercial strategy on a product by product basis either to engage pharmaceutical or other healthcare companies with an existing sales and marketing organization and distribution system to market, sell and distribute our products or to commercialize a product ourselves. However, we may not be able to establish these sales and distribution relationships on acceptable terms, or at all, or may encounter difficulties in commercializing a product ourselves. For any of our product candidates that receive regulatory approval in the future and are not covered by our current collaboration agreements, we will need a partner in order to commercialize such products unless we establish independent sales, marketing and distribution capabilities with appropriate technical expertise and supporting infrastructure.
Collaborations with third parties regarding our programs may require us to relinquish material rights, including revenue from commercialization of our medicines, or to assume material ongoing development obligations that we would have to fund. These collaboration arrangements are complex and time-consuming to negotiate, and if we are unable to reach agreements with third-party collaborators, we may fail to meet our business objectives and our financial condition may be adversely affected. We face significant competition in seeking third-party collaborators. We may be unable to find third parties to pursue product collaborations on a timely basis or on acceptable terms. Furthermore, for any collaboration, we may not be able to control the amount of time and resources that our partners devote to our product candidates and our partners may choose to prioritize alternative programs or otherwise be unsuccessful in their efforts with respect to our products or product candidates. In addition, effective collaboration with a partner requires coordination to achieve complex and detail-intensive goals between entities that potentially have different priorities, capabilities and processes and successful navigation of the challenges such coordination entails. For example, Mylan has a substantial existing product portfolio and other considerations that influence its resource allocation, and other priorities and internal organizational processes that differ from our own. As a result of these differing interests and processes, Mylan may take actions that it believes are in its best interest but which might not be in the best interests of either us or our other shareholders. Our inability to successfully collaborate with third parties would increase our development costs and may cause us to choose not to continue development of certain product candidates, would limit the likelihood of successful commercialization of some of our product candidates, may cause us not to continue commercialization of our authorized products and could cause the price of our securities to fall.
We depend on third parties in the conduct of our non-clinical and clinical studies for our product candidates.
We depend on independent clinical investigators, contract research and manufacturing organizations and other third-party service providers in the conduct of our non-clinical and clinical studies for our product candidates. We rely heavily on these parties for execution of our non-clinical and clinical studies, and control only certain aspects of their activities. Nevertheless, we are responsible for ensuring that our clinical studies are conducted in accordance with good clinical, laboratory and manufacturing practices (“GXPs”) and other regulations as required by the FDA and foreign regulatory authorities, and the applicable protocol. Failure by these parties to comply with applicable regulations and practices in conducting studies of our product candidates can result in a delay in our development programs or non-approval of our product candidates by regulatory authorities.
The FDA, and equivalent authorities in third countries, enforces GXPs and other regulations through periodic inspections of trial sponsors, clinical research organizations (“CROs”), principal investigators and trial sites. If we or any
of the third parties on which we have relied to conduct our clinical studies are determined to have failed to comply with GXPs (or other equivalent regulations outside the US), the study protocol or applicable regulations, the clinical data generated in our studies may be deemed unreliable. This could result in non-approval of our product candidates by the FDA, or equivalent authorities in other countries, or we, the FDA, or equivalent authorities in other countries may decide to conduct additional audits or require additional clinical studies, which would delay our development programs, could result in significant additional costs and cause the price of our securities to fall.
We rely on a single source of supply for a number of our product candidates, and our business will be harmed if any of these single-source manufacturers are not able to satisfy demand and alternative sources are not available.
We have limited in-house production capabilities for preclinical and clinical study purposes, and depend primarily on a number of third-party Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (“API”) and drug product manufacturers. We may not have long-term agreements with these third parties and our agreements with these parties may be terminable at will by either party at any time. If, for any reason, these third parties are unable or unwilling to perform, or if their performance does not meet regulatory requirements, we may not be able to locate alternative manufacturers or enter into acceptable agreements with them. Any inability to acquire sufficient quantities of API and drug product in a timely manner from these third parties could delay preclinical and clinical studies and prevent us from developing our product candidates in a cost-effective manner or on a timely basis. In addition, manufacturers of our API and drug product are subject to the FDA’s current Good Manufacturing Practice (“cGMP”) regulations and similar foreign standards and we do not have control over compliance with these regulations by our manufacturers.
Our manufacturing strategy presents the following additional risks:
because of the complex nature of many of our compounds, our manufacturers may not be able to successfully manufacture our APIs and/or drug products in a cost-effective and/or timely manner and changing manufacturers for our APIs or drug products could involve lengthy technology transfer, validation and regulatory qualification activities for the new manufacturer;
the processes required to manufacture certain of our APIs and drug products are specialized and available only from a limited number of third-party manufacturers;
some of the manufacturing processes for our APIs and drug products have not been scaled to quantities needed for continued clinical studies or commercial sales, and delays in scale-up to higher quantities could delay clinical studies, regulatory submissions and commercialization of our product candidates; and
because some of the third-party manufacturers are located outside of the US, there may be difficulties in importing our APIs and drug products or their components into the US as a result of, among other things, FDA import inspections, incomplete or inaccurate import documentation or defective packaging.
We have a significant amount of debt, including our Non-Recourse 2033 Notes and Convertible Senior 2023 Notes, that are senior in capital structure and cash flow, respectively, to holders of our ordinary shares. Satisfying the obligations relating to our debt could adversely affect the amount or timing of distributions to our shareholders.
As of December 31, 2019, we had $521.0 million in total long-term liabilities outstanding, comprised primarily of $235.3 million in net principal that remains outstanding under the Issuer’s Non-Recourse 2033 Notes and $230.0 million in principal that remains outstanding under our Convertible Senior 2023 Notes (together with the Non-Recourse 2033 Notes, the “Notes”).
The Convertible Senior 2023 Notes are unsecured debt and are not redeemable by us prior to the maturity date except for certain changes in tax law. Holders of the Convertible Senior 2023 Notes may require us to purchase all or any portion of their notes at 100% of their principal amount, plus any unpaid interest, upon a fundamental change such as a change of control of us or the termination of trading of our ordinary shares in accordance with the indenture governing the Convertible Senior 2023 Notes.
Until the Non-Recourse 2033 Notes are paid in full, holders of the Non-Recourse 2033 Notes have a perfected security interest in the Issuer Class C Units that represent a 63.75% economic interest in any future payments that may be made by GSK to TRC under the strategic alliance agreement and under the portion of the collaboration agreement assigned to TRC by Innoviva (net of TRC expenses paid and the amount of cash, if any, expected to be used by TRC pursuant to the TRC LLC Agreement over the next four fiscal quarters) relating to the GSK-Partnered Respiratory Programs, including the TRELEGY ELLIPTA program.
Through October 15, 2020, the terms of the Non-Recourse 2033 Notes provide that to the extent there are insufficient funds to satisfy the Issuer’s scheduled quarterly interest obligations, the shortfall shall be added to the principal amount of the Non-Recourse 2033 Notes without a default or event of default occurring. The terms of the Non-Recourse 2033 Notes also provide that, at Theravance Biopharma’s option, the quarterly interest payment obligations can be satisfied by making a capital contribution to the Issuer, but not for more than four (4) consecutive quarterly interest payment dates or for more than six (6) quarterly interest payment dates during the term of the notes. For the April 15, 2019 and July 15, 2019 interest payment dates, Theravance Biopharma R&D, Inc. (parent entity of Issuer) made a capital contribution to satisfy the interest payment obligations for these two scheduled payments while we arbitrated the dispute with Innoviva.
Satisfying the obligations of these Notes could adversely affect the amount or timing of any distributions to our shareholders. Two Company subsidiaries have entered into Note Purchase Agreements relating to the private placement of $400,000,000 aggregate principal amount of Non-Recourse 2035 Notes. The proceeds from the issuance would be used to repay in full the remaining outstanding balance of Non-Recourse 2033 Notes and/or for other general purposes. Issuance of the Non-Recourse 2035 Notes is subject to the satisfaction of certain customary conditions. See “Item 8, Note 15. Subsequent Events” below for more information. In addition, we may further choose to satisfy, repurchase, or refinance any Non-Recourse 2035 Notes, to the extent allowable, through public or private equity or debt financings if we deem such financings are available on favorable terms. If any or all of the Convertible Senior 2023 Notes are not converted into our ordinary shares before the maturity date, we will have to pay the holders the full aggregate principal amount of the Convertible Senior 2023 Notes then outstanding. If the Non-Recourse 2033 Notes are not refinanced or paid in full, or if the Non-Recourse 2035 Notes are issued and not refinanced or paid in full, the holders of the Non-Recourse 2033 Notes or Non-Recourse 2035 Notes, as applicable, will have the right to foreclose on the Issuer Class C Units that represent a 63.75% economic interest in future royalties due on net sales of TRELEGY ELLIPTA and related assets, or Issuer II Class C Units (defined below), as applicable. If the Issuer Class C Units are foreclosed upon, we will lose any right to receive 75% of the future royalty payments made by GSK in connection with the net sales of TRELEGY ELLIPTA and related assets. Any of the above payments could have a material adverse effect on our cash position. Our failure to satisfy these obligations may result in a default under the applicable indenture governing these Notes, which could result in a default under certain of our other debt instruments, if any. Any such default would harm our business and the price of our securities could fall.
Servicing our Convertible Senior 2023 Notes requires a significant amount of cash, and we may not have sufficient cash flow from our business to pay our debt. Additionally, holders may require us to repurchase our Convertible Senior 2023 Notes under certain circumstances, and we may not have sufficient cash to do so.
Our ability to make interest or principal payments when due or to refinance the Convertible Senior 2023 Notes depends on our future performance, which is subject to economic, financial, competitive and other factors beyond our control. Our business may not generate cash flow from operations sufficient to satisfy our obligations under the Convertible Senior 2023 Notes and any future indebtedness we may incur and to make necessary capital expenditures. In addition, the issuance of the Non-Recourse 2033 Notes reduced the cash available for us to make interest or principal payments on, or to refinance, the Convertible Senior 2023 Notes. We may be required to adopt one or more alternatives, such as reducing or delaying investments or capital expenditures, selling assets, refinancing or obtaining additional equity capital on terms that may be onerous or highly dilutive. Our ability to refinance the Convertible Senior 2023 Notes or future indebtedness will depend on the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. We may not be able to engage in any of these activities on desirable terms or at all, which could result in a default on the Convertible Senior 2023 Notes or future indebtedness.
The holders of the Convertible Senior 2023 Notes may have the right to require us to repurchase the Convertible Senior 2023 Notes upon the occurrence of a “fundamental change” such as a change of control of our
Company or the termination of trading of our ordinary shares, as defined in the indenture governing the Convertible Senior 2023 Notes. We may not have sufficient funds to repurchase the Convertible Senior 2023 Notes in cash or have the ability to arrange necessary financing on acceptable terms. Our failure to repurchase the Convertible Senior 2023 Notes when required would result in an event of default with respect to the Convertible Senior 2023 Notes. In addition, any acceleration of the repayment of the Convertible Senior 2023 Notes or future indebtedness after any applicable notice or grace periods could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our business and operations would suffer in the event of significant disruptions of information technology systems or security breaches.
We rely extensively on computer systems to maintain information and manage our finances and business. In the ordinary course of business, we collect, store and transmit large amounts of confidential information (including but not limited to trade secrets or other intellectual property, proprietary business information and personal information) and it is critical that we maintain the confidentiality and integrity of such confidential information. Although we have security measures in place, our internal information technology systems and those of our CROs and other service providers, including cloud-based and hosted applications, data and services, are vulnerable to service interruptions and security breaches from inadvertent or intentional actions by our employees, service providers and/or business partners, from cyber-attacks by malicious third parties, and/or from, natural disasters, terrorism, war and telecommunication and electrical failures. Cyber-attacks are increasing in their frequency, sophistication, and intensity, and have become increasingly difficult to detect. Significant disruptions of information technology systems or security breaches could adversely affect our business operations and result in financial, legal, business and reputational harm to us, including significant liability and/or significant disruption to our business. If a disruption of information technology systems or security breach results in a loss of or damage to our data or regulatory applications, unauthorized access, use, or disclosure of, or the prevention of access to, confidential information, or other harm to our business, we could incur liability and reputational harm, we could be required to comply with federal and/or state breach notification laws and foreign law equivalents, we may incur legal expenses to protect our confidential information, the further development of our product candidates could be delayed and the price of our securities could fall. For example, the loss of clinical trial data from completed or ongoing clinical trials of our product candidates could result in delays in our regulatory approval efforts and significantly increase our costs to recover or reproduce the data. As another example, we may incur penalties imposed by the competent authorities in the EU Member States in case of breach of the EU rules governing the collection and processing of personal data, including unauthorized access to or disclosure of personal data. Although we have security and fraud prevention measures in place, we have been subject to immaterial payment fraud activity. In 2017, we filed a lawsuit (which has since been resolved) against a former employee for misappropriation of our confidential, proprietary and trade secret information. Moreover, there can be no assurance that such security measures will prevent service interruptions or security breaches that could adversely affect our business.
If we lose key management or scientific personnel, or if we fail to attract and retain key employees, our ability to discover and develop our product candidates and commercialize our products, if any, will be impaired.
We are highly dependent on principal members of our management team and scientific staff, and in particular, our Chief Executive Officer, Rick E Winningham, to operate our business. Mr. Winningham has significant pharmaceutical industry experience. The loss of Mr. Winningham’s services could impair our ability to discover, develop and commercialize new medicines.
If we fail to retain our qualified personnel or replace them when they leave, we may be unable to continue our discovery, development and commercialization activities, which may cause the price of our securities to fall.
In addition, our US operating subsidiary’s facility and most of its employees are located in northern California, headquarters to many other biotechnology and biopharmaceutical companies and many academic and research institutions. As a result, competition for certain skilled personnel in our market is intense. None of our employees have employment commitments for any fixed period of time and they all may leave our employment at will. If we fail to retain our qualified personnel or replace them when they leave, we may be unable to continue our development and commercialization activities and the price of our securities could fall.
Global health and economic, political and social conditions may harm our ability to do business, increase our costs and negatively affect our stock price.
Worldwide economic conditions remain uncertain due to the decision by the United Kingdom (“UK”) to initiate the formal procedure of withdrawal from the EU (often referred to as “Brexit”), current economic challenges in Asia, the coronavirus in China, and other disruptions to global and regional economies and markets.
Brexit has created significant uncertainty about the future relationship between the UK and the EU, including with respect to the laws and regulations that will apply as the UK determines which EU laws to replace or replicate in the event of a withdrawal. From a regulatory perspective, the UK’s withdrawal could bear significant complexity and risks. In addition, the exact terms of the UK’s withdrawal and the laws and regulations that will apply after the UK withdraws from the EU would affect manufacturing sites that hold an EU manufacturing authorization issued by the UK competent authorities.
In light of the fact that a significant portion of the regulatory framework in the UK is derived from EU laws, Brexit could materially impact the EU regulatory regime governing development, manufacture, importation, approval and commercialization of our product candidates in the UK or the EU. For example, there is a risk that the scope of a marketing authorization for a medicinal product granted by the European Commission or by the competent authorities of EU member states will not encompass the UK. In these circumstances, a separate authorization granted by the UK competent authorities will be required to place medicinal products on the UK market. In addition, our ability to rely on UK manufacturing sites to supply medicinal products intended for the EU market will depend on the terms of the UK’s withdrawal from the EU and, potentially, on the ability to obtain relevant exemptions under EU law to supply the EU market with medicinal products manufactured at UK-certified sites. There is also a risk that if batch release and quality control testing sites for our products are located only in the UK, manufacturers will be required to use sites in other EU member states to manufacture products for supply to the EU market. All of these changes, if they occur, could increase our costs and otherwise adversely affect our business. In addition, currency exchange rates for the British Pound and the Euro with respect to each other and to the US dollar have already been, and may be continue to be, negatively affected by Brexit, which could cause volatility in our quarterly financial results.
Further, development of our product candidates and/or regulatory approval may be delayed for other political events beyond our control. For example, a US federal government shutdown or budget sequestration, such as ones that occurred during 2013, 2018, and 2019, may result in significant reductions to the FDA’s budget, employees and operations, which may lead to slower response times and longer review periods, potentially affecting our ability to progress development of our product candidates or obtain regulatory approval for our product candidates. Further, future government shutdowns could impact our ability to access the public markets and obtain necessary capital in order to properly capitalize and continue our operations.
Our operations also depend upon favorable trade relations between the US and those foreign countries in which our materials suppliers have operations. A protectionist trade environment in either the US or those foreign countries in which we do business, such as a change in the current tariff structures, export compliance or other trade policies, may materially and adversely affect our operations.
External factors, such as potential terrorist attacks, acts of war, geopolitical and social turmoil or epidemics and other similar outbreaks in many parts of the world, could also prevent or hinder our ability to do business, increase our costs and negatively affect our stock price. For example, concerns about the Coronavirus are having an adverse effect upon the Chinese and the global economy and could adversely affect our business operations or the operations of our suppliers. Concerns about the Coronavirus may, for example, negatively affect the reliability and cost of transportation, negatively affect the desire and ability of our employees to travel, delay the enrollment of patients in our clinical trials by clinical trial sites located in impacted jurisdictions, disrupt the production capabilities of our suppliers (and, in particular, suppliers of drug product we need for the conduct of our clinical trials) adversely affect our ability to obtain adequate insurance at reasonable rates, and require us to take extra security precautions for our operations. These geopolitical, social and economic conditions could harm our business.
Our US operating subsidiary’s facility is located near known earthquake fault zones, and the occurrence of an earthquake, extremist attack or other catastrophic disaster could cause damage to our facilities and equipment, which could require us to cease or curtail operations.
Our US operating subsidiary’s facility is located in the San Francisco Bay Area near known earthquake fault zones and therefore will be vulnerable to damage from earthquakes. In October 1989, a major earthquake struck this area and caused significant property damage and a number of fatalities. We are also vulnerable to damage from other types of disasters, including power loss, attacks from extremist organizations, fire, floods, communications failures and similar events. If any disaster were to occur, our ability to operate our business could be seriously impaired. In addition, the unique nature of our research activities and of much of our equipment could make it difficult and costly for us to recover from this type of disaster. We may not have adequate insurance to cover our losses resulting from disasters or other similar significant business interruptions and we do not plan to purchase additional insurance to cover such losses due to the cost of obtaining such coverage. Any significant losses that are not recoverable under our insurance policies could seriously impair our business and financial condition, which could cause the price of our securities to fall.
If YUPELRI does not continue to be accepted by physicians, patients, third-party payors, or the medical community in general, we may not receive significant additional revenues from sales of this product.
The commercial success of YUPELRI depends upon its acceptance by physicians, patients, third-party payors and the medical community in general. YUPELRI may not be sufficiently accepted by these parties. YUPELRI competes with predominantly with short-acting nebulized bronchodilators used three to four times per day and the nebulized LAMA LonhalaTM MagnairTM (SUN-101/eFlow®) used twice per day. If YUPELRI’s acceptance does not continue to grow, our business and financial results could be materially harmed.
In collaboration with Mylan, we are responsible for marketing and sales of YUPELRI in the US, which subjects us to certain risks.
We currently maintain a sales force in the US and plan to continue to augment our sales and marketing personnel to support our co-promotion obligations for YUPELRI under our agreement with Mylan. The risks of fulfilling our US co-promotion obligations to Mylan include:
costs and expenses associated with maintaining an independent sales and marketing organization with appropriate technical expertise and supporting infrastructure, including third-party vendor logistics and consultant support, which costs and expenses could, depending on the scope and method of the marketing effort, exceed any product revenue for several years;
our ability to retain effective sales and marketing personnel and medical science liaisons in the US;
the ability of our sales and marketing personnel to obtain access to and educate adequate numbers of physicians about prescribing YUPELRI, in appropriate clinical situations; and
the lack of complementary products to be offered by sales personnel, which may put us at a competitive disadvantage relative to companies with more extensive product lines.
If we are not successful in maintaining an internal sales and marketing organization with appropriate experience, technical expertise, supporting infrastructure and the ability to obtain access to and educate adequate numbers of physicians about prescribing YUPELRI in appropriate clinical situations, we will have difficulty commercializing YUPELRI, which would adversely affect our business and financial condition and the price of our securities could fall.
We are subject to extensive and ongoing regulation, oversight and other requirements by the FDA and failure to comply with these regulations and requirements may subject us to penalties that may adversely affect our financial condition or our ability to commercialize any approved products.
Prescription drug advertising and promotion are closely scrutinized by the FDA, including substantiation of promotional claims, disclosure of risks and safety information, and the use of themes and imagery in advertising and
promotional materials. As with all companies selling and marketing products regulated by the FDA in the US, we are prohibited from promoting any uses of an approved product, such as YUPELRI, that are outside the scope of those uses that have been expressly approved by the FDA as safe and effective on the product’s label.
The manufacturing, labeling, packaging, adverse event reporting, advertising, promotion and recordkeeping for an approved product remain subject to extensive and ongoing regulatory requirements. If we become aware of previously unknown problems with an approved product in the US or overseas or at a contract manufacturer’s facilities, a regulatory authority may impose restrictions on the product, the contract manufacturers or on us, including requiring us to reformulate the product, conduct additional clinical studies, change the labeling of the product, withdraw the product from the market or require the contract manufacturer to implement changes to its facilities.
We are also subject to regulation by regional, national, state and local agencies, including the Department of Justice, the Federal Trade Commission, the Office of Inspector General of the US Department of Health and Human Services (“OIG”) and other regulatory bodies with respect to any approved product, such as YUPELRI, as well as governmental authorities in those foreign countries in which any product is approved for commercialization. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, the Public Health Service Act and other federal and state statutes and regulations govern to varying degrees the research, development, manufacturing and commercial activities relating to prescription pharmaceutical products, including non-clinical and clinical testing, approval, production, labeling, sale, distribution, import, export, post-market surveillance, advertising, dissemination of information and promotion. If we or any third parties that provide these services for us are unable to comply, we may be subject to regulatory or civil actions or penalties that could significantly and adversely affect our business.
Regulatory approval for our product candidates, if any, may include similar or other limitations on the indicated uses for which we can market our medicines or the patient population that may utilize our medicines, which may limit the market for our medicines or put us at a competitive disadvantage relative to alternative therapies.
Failure to satisfy required post-approval requirements and/or commitments may have implications for a product’s approval and may carry civil monetary penalties. Any failure to maintain regulatory approval will materially limit the ability to commercialize a product or any future product candidates and if we fail to comply with FDA regulations and requirements, the FDA could potentially take a number of enforcement actions against us, including the issuance of untitled letters, warning letters, preventing the introduction or delivery of the product into interstate commerce in the US, misbranding charges, product seizures, injunctions, and civil monetary penalties, which would materially and adversely affect our business and financial condition and may cause the price of our securities to fall.
The risks identified in this risk factor relating to regulatory actions and oversight by agencies in the US and throughout the world also apply to the commercialization of any partnered products by our collaboration partners and those commercializing products with respect to which we have an economic interest or right to receive royalties, including GSK and Cumberland, and such regulatory actions and oversight may limit those parties’ ability to commercialize such products, which could materially and adversely affect our business and financial condition, and which may cause the price of our securities to fall.
We and/or our collaboration partners and those commercializing products with respect to which we have an economic interest or right to receive royalties may face competition from companies seeking to market generic versions of any approved products in which we have an interest, such as TRELEGY ELLIPTA or YUPELRI.
Under the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984, a company may submit an abbreviated new drug application (“ANDA”) under section 505(j) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act to market a generic version of an approved drug. Because a generic applicant does not conduct its own clinical studies, but instead relies on the FDA’s finding of safety and effectiveness for the approved drug, it is able to introduce a competing product into the market at a cost significantly below that of the original drug. Although we have multiple patents protecting YUPELRI until at least 2025 that are listed in the FDA’s Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations, commonly known as the Orange Book, and those commercializing products with respect to which we have an economic interest or right to receive royalties similarly have patents protecting their products, such as TRELEGY ELLIPTA and VIBATIV, generic applicants could potentially submit “paragraph IV certifications” to FDA
stating that such patents are invalid or will not be infringed by the applicant’s product. We have not received any such paragraph IV notifications nor are we aware of any with respect to products in which we have an economic interest or right to receive royalties, but if any competitors successfully challenge the patents related to these products, we and/or our collaboration partners and those commercializing products with respect to which we have an economic interest or right to receive royalties would face substantial competition. If we are not able to compete effectively against such future competition, our business will not grow, our financial condition and operations will suffer and the price of our securities could fall.
For additional discussion of the risk of generic competition to YUPELRI, please see the following risk factor below “If our efforts to protect the proprietary nature of the intellectual property related to our technologies are not adequate, we may not be able to compete effectively in our current or future markets.”
We may be treated as a US corporation for US federal income tax purposes.
For US federal income tax purposes, a corporation generally is considered tax resident in the place of its incorporation. Theravance Biopharma is incorporated under Cayman Islands law and established tax residency in Ireland effective July 1, 2015. Therefore, it should be a non-US corporation under this general rule. However, Section 7874 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), contains rules that may result in a foreign corporation being treated as a US corporation for US federal income tax purposes. The application of these rules is complex and there is little guidance regarding certain aspects of their application.
Under Section 7874 of the Code, a corporation created or organized outside the US will be treated as a US corporation for US federal tax purposes if (i) the foreign corporation directly or indirectly acquires substantially all of the properties held directly or indirectly by a US corporation, (ii) the former shareholders of the acquired US corporation hold at least 80% of the vote or value of the shares of the foreign acquiring corporation by reason of holding stock in the US acquired corporation, and (iii) the foreign corporation’s “expanded affiliated group” does not have “substantial business activities” in the foreign corporation’s country of incorporation relative to its expanded affiliated group’s worldwide activities. For this purpose, “expanded affiliated group” generally means the foreign corporation and all subsidiaries in which the foreign corporation, directly or indirectly, owns more than 50% of the stock by vote and value, and “substantial business activities” generally means at least 25% of employees (by number and compensation), assets and gross income of our expanded affiliated group are based, located and derived, respectively, in the country of incorporation.
We do not expect to be treated as a US corporation under Section 7874 of the Code, because we do not believe that the assets contributed to us by Innoviva constituted “substantially all” of the properties of Innoviva (as determined on both a gross and net fair market value basis). However, the Internal Revenue Service may disagree with our conclusion on this point and assert that, in its view, the assets contributed to us by Innoviva did constitute “substantially all” of the properties of Innoviva. In addition, there could be legislative proposals to expand the scope of US corporate tax residence and there could be changes to Section 7874 of the Code or the Treasury Regulations promulgated thereunder that could apply retroactively and could result in Theravance Biopharma being treated as a US corporation.
If it were determined that we should be treated as a US corporation for US federal income tax purposes, we could be liable for substantial additional US federal income tax on our post-Spin-Off taxable income. In addition, though we have no current plans to pay any dividends, payments of any dividends to non-US holders may be subject to US withholding tax.
Taxing authorities may challenge our structure and transfer pricing arrangements.
We are incorporated in the Cayman Islands, maintain subsidiaries in the Cayman Islands, the US, the UK and Ireland, and effective July 1, 2015, we migrated our tax residency from the Cayman Islands to Ireland. Due to economic and political conditions, various countries are actively considering changes to existing tax laws. We cannot predict the form or timing of potential legislative changes that could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations. We are aware that Ireland has implemented certain tax law changes and is expected to implement additional tax law changes to comply with the European Union Anti-Tax Avoidance Directives. These changes include the first ever Irish controlled foreign company (“CFC”) rules which came into effect on January 1, 2019. Due to provisions in Finance Bill 2019,
Ireland will also implement certain transfer pricing rule changes, with effect from 2020. We are continuing to evaluate and monitor the applicability of the CFC rules published in Finance Act 2018, but our current assessment, based on the rules and guidance published to date, is that the rules are unlikely to have a material impact on our operations. Proposed statutory language has been provided for transfer pricing rule changes, and we believe that the transfer pricing rules are unlikely to have a material impact on our operations. New UK tax legislation was introduced by the Finance Act 2019 (“FA 2019”) that imposes a tax related to offshore receipts in respect of intangible property held in low tax jurisdictions (“ORIP”) and became effective in April 2019. FA 2019 also included a power for amendments to the ORIP legislation to be made by regulation by December 31, 2019. On October 15, 2019, the UK published further guidance intended to facilitate the administration of the ORIP regime. However, a number of issues and areas of uncertainty remain. We have reviewed the original legislation in conjunction with the guidance and believe that the ORIP regime may apply to certain cash receipts. Based on this analysis, we believe that the ORIP charge on UK-derived cash receipts through 2019 is not material, and we will continue to refine our ORIP conclusions as guidance evolves.
In addition, significant judgment is required in determining our worldwide provision for income taxes. Various factors may have favorable or unfavorable effects on our income tax rate including, but not limited to the performance of certain functions and ownership of certain assets in tax-efficient jurisdictions such as the Cayman Islands and Ireland, together with intra-group transfer pricing agreements. Taxing authorities may challenge our structure and transfer pricing arrangements through an audit or lawsuit. Responding to or defending such a challenge could be expensive and consume time and other resources, and divert management’s time and focus from operating our business. We cannot predict whether taxing authorities will conduct an audit or file a lawsuit challenging this structure, the cost involved in responding to any such audit or lawsuit, or the outcome. We may be required to pay taxes for prior periods, interest, fines or penalties, and may be obligated to pay increased taxes in the future which could result in reduced cash flows and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and growth prospects.
We were a passive foreign investment company, or “PFIC,” for 2014, but we were not a PFIC from 2015 through 2019, and we do not expect to be a PFIC for the foreseeable future.
For US federal income tax purposes, we generally would be classified as a PFIC for any taxable year if either (i) 75% or more of our gross income (including gross income of certain 25% or more owned corporate subsidiaries) is “passive income” (as defined for such purposes) or (ii) the average percentage of our assets (including the assets of certain 25% or more owned corporate subsidiaries) that produce passive income or that are held for the production of passive income is at least 50%. In addition, whether our company will be a PFIC for any taxable year depends on our assets and income over the course of each such taxable year and, as a result, cannot be predicted with certainty until after the end of the year.
Based upon our assets and income during the course of 2014, we believe that our company and one of our company’s wholly-owned subsidiaries, Theravance Biopharma R&D, Inc. was a PFIC for 2014. Based upon our assets and income from 2015 through 2019, we do not believe that our company is a PFIC during these four years. We do not expect to be a PFIC for the foreseeable future based on our current business plans and current business model. For any taxable year (or portion thereof) in which our company is a PFIC that is included in the holding period of a US holder, the US holder is generally subject to additional US federal income taxes plus an interest charge with respect to certain distributions from Theravance Biopharma or gain recognized on a sale of Theravance Biopharma shares. Similar rules would apply with respect to distributions from or gain recognized on an indirect sale of Theravance Biopharma Ireland Limited. US holders of our ordinary shares may have filed an election with respect to Company shares held at any time during 2014 to be treated as owning an interest in a “qualified electing fund” (“QEF”) or to “mark to market” their ordinary shares to avoid the otherwise applicable interest charge consequences of PFIC treatment with respect to our ordinary shares. A foreign corporation will not be treated as a QEF for any taxable year in which such foreign corporation is not treated as a PFIC. QEF and mark to market elections generally apply to the taxable year for which the election is made and all subsequent taxable years unless the election is revoked with consent of the Secretary of Treasury. US holders of our ordinary shares should consult their tax advisers regarding the tax reporting implications with respect to any QEF and mark to market elections made with respect to our company and with respect to their indirect interests in Theravance Biopharma R&D, Inc.
If we are unable to maintain effective internal controls, our business, financial position and results of operations could be adversely affected.
If we are unable to maintain effective internal controls, our business, financial position and results of operations could be adversely affected. We are subject to the reporting and other obligations under the Exchange Act, including the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, which require annual management assessments of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting as defined in Rules 13a-15(f) under the Exchange Act. Our internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the US. Any failure to achieve and maintain effective internal controls could have an adverse effect on our business, financial position and results of operations. In addition, our independent registered public accounting firm is required to attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting annually. If our independent registered public accounting firm is unable to attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, investor confidence in our reported results will be harmed and the price of our securities may fall. These reporting and other obligations place significant demands on our management and administrative and operational resources, including accounting resources.
Agreements entered into with or for the benefit of GSK in connection with the Spin-Off may significantly restrict our business and affairs.
On March 3, 2014, in connection with the Spin-Off, we, Innoviva and GSK entered into a number of agreements that may significantly restrict our business and affairs. In particular, we, Innoviva and GSK entered into the Master Agreement which, among other things, requires GSK’s consent to make any changes to (i) a Separation and Distribution Agreement and ancillary agreements that would, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to adversely affect GSK in any material respect or (ii) the TRC LLC Agreement, which consent is not to be unreasonably withheld, conditioned or delayed, provided that GSK may withhold, condition or delay such consent in its sole discretion with respect to certain sections of the TRC LLC Agreement and any changes to the governance structure of TRC, the confidentiality restrictions, the consent rights, and the transfer restrictions in the TRC LLC Agreement. We and GSK also entered into (i) the Governance Agreement that expired on December 31, 2017, (ii) a registration rights agreement that gives GSK certain registration rights with respect to our ordinary shares held by GSK and (iii) an extension agreement that extends to us certain restrictive covenants similar to those applicable to Innoviva under the GSK Agreements. There can be no assurance that these restrictions will not materially harm our business, particularly given that GSK’s interests may not be aligned with the interests of our business or our other shareholders.
Certain of our directors and officers may have actual or potential conflicts of interest because of their equity ownership in Innoviva, which actual or potential conflicts may harm our business, prospects and financial condition and result in the diversion of corporate opportunities to Innoviva.
Certain of our directors and officers hold shares of Innoviva’s common stock or rights to acquire such shares, and these holdings may be significant for some of these individuals compared to their total assets. This ownership of Innoviva common stock by certain of our directors and officers may create, or may create the appearance of, conflicts of interest when these directors and officers are faced with decisions that could have different implications for Innoviva and for us. For example, potential or actual conflicts could arise relating to: our relationship with Innoviva, including Innoviva’s and our respective rights and obligations under agreements entered into in connection with the Spin-Off; Innoviva’s management of TRC, particularly given that we and Innoviva have different economic interests in TRC; and corporate opportunities that may be available to both companies in the future. Although we and Innoviva have implemented policies and procedures to identify and properly address such potential and actual conflicts of interest, there can be no assurance that, when such conflicts are resolved in accordance with applicable laws, such conflicts of interest will not harm our business, prospects and financial condition and result in the diversion of corporate opportunities to Innoviva.
If we are required to indemnify Innoviva or Cumberland, or if we are not able to enforce our indemnification rights against Innoviva or Cumberland, our business prospects and financial condition may be harmed.
We agreed to indemnify Innoviva from and after the Spin-Off with respect to (i) all debts, liabilities and obligations transferred to us in connection with the Spin-Off (including our failure to pay, perform or otherwise promptly discharge any such debts, liabilities or obligations after the Spin-Off), (ii) any misstatement or omission of a material fact resulting in a misleading statement in our Information Statement distributed to Innoviva stockholders in connection with the Spin-Off and (iii) any breach by us of certain agreements entered into with Innoviva in connection with the Spin-Off (namely, the Separation and Distribution Agreement, a Transition Services Agreement, an Employee Matters Agreement, a Tax Matters Agreement, and a Facility Sublease Agreement). We are not aware of any existing indemnification obligations at this time, but any such indemnification obligations that may arise could be significant. Under the terms of the Separation and Distribution Agreement, Innoviva agreed to indemnify us from and after the Spin-Off with respect to (i) all debts, liabilities and obligations retained by Innoviva after the Spin-Off (including its failure to pay, perform or otherwise promptly discharge any such debts, liabilities or obligations after the Spin-Off) and (ii) any breach by Innoviva of the Separation and Distribution Agreement, the Transition Services Agreement, the Employee Matters Agreement, the Tax Matters Agreement, and the Facility Sublease Agreement. Our and Innoviva’s ability to satisfy these indemnities, if called upon to do so, will depend upon our and Innoviva’s future financial strength. If we are required to indemnify Innoviva, or if we are not able to enforce our indemnification rights against Innoviva, our business prospects and financial condition may be harmed.
In addition, the agreement relating to the sale of VIBATIV to Cumberland contains indemnification obligations of both us and Cumberland. If we are required to indemnify Cumberland or if we are unable to enforce our indemnification rights against Cumberland for any reason, our business and financial condition may be harmed.
RISKS RELATED TO LEGAL AND REGULATORY UNCERTAINTY
If our efforts to protect the proprietary nature of the intellectual property related to our technologies are not adequate, we may not be able to compete effectively in our current or future markets.
We rely upon a combination of patents, patent applications, trade secret protection and confidentiality agreements to protect the intellectual property related to our technologies. Any involuntary disclosure to or misappropriation by third parties of this proprietary information could enable competitors to quickly duplicate or surpass our technological achievements, thus eroding our competitive position in our market. The status of patents in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical field involves complex legal and scientific questions and is very uncertain. As of December 31, 2019, we owned 445 issued US patents and 1,590 granted foreign patents, as well as additional pending US and foreign patent applications. Our patent applications may be challenged or fail to result in issued patents and our existing or future patents may be invalidated or be too narrow to prevent third parties from developing or designing around these patents. If the sufficiency of the breadth or strength of protection provided by our patents with respect to a product candidate is threatened, it could dissuade companies from collaborating with us to develop product candidates and threaten our ability to commercialize products. Further, if we encounter delays in our clinical trials or in obtaining regulatory approval of our product candidates, the patent lives of the related product candidates would be reduced.
In addition, we rely on trade secret protection and confidentiality agreements to protect proprietary know-how that is not patentable, for processes for which patents are difficult to enforce and for any other elements of our drug discovery and development processes that involve proprietary know-how, information and technology that is not covered by patent applications. Although we require our employees, consultants, advisors and any third parties who have access to our proprietary know-how, information and technology to enter into confidentiality agreements, we cannot be certain that this know-how, information and technology will not be misappropriated, disclosed or used for unauthorized purposes or that competitors will not otherwise gain access to our trade secrets or independently develop substantially equivalent information and techniques. Further, the laws of some foreign countries do not protect proprietary rights to the same extent as the laws of the US. As a result, we may encounter significant problems in protecting and defending our intellectual property both in the US and abroad. If we are unable to prevent material disclosure of the intellectual property related to our technologies to third parties, we will not be able to establish or, if established, maintain a competitive advantage in our market, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations, which could cause the price of our securities to fall.
Litigation to protect or defend our intellectual property or third-party claims of intellectual property infringement would require us to divert resources and may prevent or delay our drug discovery and development efforts.
Our commercial success depends in part on us and our partners not infringing the patents and proprietary rights of third parties. Third parties may assert that we or our partners are using their proprietary rights without authorization. There are third-party patents that may cover materials or methods for treatment related to our product candidates. At present, we are not aware of any patent infringement claims with merit that would adversely and materially affect our ability to develop our product candidates, but nevertheless the possibility of third-party allegations cannot be ruled out. In addition, third parties may obtain patents in the future and claim that use of our technologies infringes upon these patents. Furthermore, parties making claims against us or our partners may obtain injunctive or other equitable relief, which could effectively block our ability to further develop and commercialize one or more of our product candidates. Defense against these claims, regardless of their merit, would involve substantial litigation expense and would be a substantial diversion of employee resources from our business.
In the event of a successful claim of infringement against us, we may have to pay substantial damages, obtain one or more licenses from third parties or pay royalties. In addition, even in the absence of litigation, we may need to obtain licenses from third parties to advance our research or allow commercialization of our product candidates, and we have done so from time to time. We may fail to obtain any of these licenses at a reasonable cost or on reasonable terms, if at all. In that event, we would be unable to further develop and commercialize one or more of our product candidates, which could harm our business significantly.
In addition, in the future we could be required to initiate litigation to enforce our proprietary rights against infringement by third parties, prevent the unauthorized use or disclosure of our trade secrets and confidential information, or defend the validity of our patents. For example, in 2017, we filed a lawsuit against a former employee for misappropriation of certain of our confidential, proprietary and trade secret information. While this litigation has since been resolved, prosecution of claims to enforce or defend our rights against others involve substantial litigation expenses and divert substantial employee resources from our business but may not result in adequate remedy to us or sufficiently mitigate the harm to our business caused by any intellectual property infringement, unauthorized access, use or disclosure of trade secrets. If we fail to effectively enforce our proprietary rights against others, our business will be harmed and the price of our securities could fall.
If the efforts of our partners or future partners to protect the proprietary nature of the intellectual property related to collaboration assets are not adequate, the future commercialization of any medicines resulting from collaborations could be delayed or prevented, which would materially harm our business and could cause the price of our securities to fall.
The risks identified in the two preceding risk factors may also apply to the intellectual property protection efforts of our partners or future partners and to GSK with respect to the GSK-Partnered Respiratory Programs in which we hold an economic interest. To the extent the intellectual property protection of any partnered assets are successfully challenged or encounter problems with the US Patent and Trademark Office or other comparable agencies throughout the world, the future commercialization of these potential medicines could be delayed or prevented. Any challenge to the intellectual property protection of a late-stage development asset, particularly those of the GSK-Partnered Respiratory Programs in which we hold an economic interest, could harm our business and cause the price of our securities to fall.
Product liability and other lawsuits could divert our resources, result in substantial liabilities and reduce the commercial potential of our medicines.
The risk that we may be sued on product liability claims is inherent in the development and commercialization of pharmaceutical products. Side effects of, or manufacturing defects in, products that we or our partners develop or commercialize could result in the deterioration of a patient’s condition, injury or even death. Once a product is approved for sale and commercialized, the likelihood of product liability lawsuits tends to increase. Claims may be brought by individuals seeking relief for themselves or by individuals or groups seeking to represent a class, asserting injuries based both on potential adverse effects described in the label as well as adverse events not yet observed. We also face an inherent risk of product liability exposure related to the testing of our product candidates in human clinical trials. In addition, changes in laws outside the US are expanding our potential liability for injuries that occur during clinical trials. Product liability claims could harm our reputation, regardless of the merit or ultimate success of the claim, which may
adversely affect our and our partners’ ability to commercialize our products and cause the price of our securities to fall. These lawsuits may divert our management from pursuing our business strategy and may be costly to defend. In addition, if we are held liable in any of these lawsuits, we may incur substantial liabilities and may be forced to limit or forgo further commercialization of the applicable products.
Although we maintain general liability and product liability insurance, this insurance may not fully cover potential liabilities and we cannot be sure that our insurer will not disclaim coverage as to a future claim. In addition, inability to obtain or maintain sufficient insurance coverage at an acceptable cost or to otherwise protect against potential product liability claims could prevent or inhibit the commercial production and sale of our products, which could adversely affect our business.
We may also be required to prosecute or defend general commercial, intellectual property, securities and other lawsuits. Litigation typically involves substantial expenses and diverts substantial employee resources from our business. The cost of defending any product liability litigation or engaging in any other legal proceeding, even if resolved in our favor, could be substantial and uncertainties resulting from the initiation and continuation of the litigation or other proceedings could have a material adverse effect on our ability to compete in the marketplace and achieve our business goals.
If we fail to comply with data protection laws and regulations, we could be subject to government enforcement actions (which could include civil or criminal penalties), private litigation and/or adverse publicity, which could negatively affect our operating results and business.
We are subject to data protection laws and regulations (i.e., laws and regulations that address privacy and data security). In the US, numerous federal and state laws and regulations, including state data breach notification laws, state health information privacy laws, and federal and state consumer protection laws (e.g., Section 5 of the FTC Act), govern the collection, use, disclosure, and protection of health-related and other personal information. In California, the California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”) took effect on January 1, 2020. The CCPA establishes certain requirements for data use and sharing transparency and creates new data privacy rights for consumers. These laws and regulations are evolving and subject to interpretation, and may impose limitations on our activities or otherwise adversely affect our business. Failure to comply with data protection laws and regulations could result in government enforcement actions and create liability for us (which could include civil and/or criminal penalties), private litigation and/or adverse publicity that could negatively affect our operating results and business. In addition, we may obtain health information from third parties (e.g., healthcare providers who prescribe our products) that are subject to privacy and security requirements under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (“HIPAA”). Although we are not directly subject to HIPAA—other than with respect to providing certain employee benefits—we could be subject to criminal penalties if we knowingly obtain or disclose individually identifiable health information maintained by a HIPAA-covered entity in a manner that is not authorized or permitted by HIPAA. HIPAA generally requires that healthcare providers and other covered entities obtain written authorizations from patients prior to disclosing protected health information of the patient (unless an exception to the authorization requirement applies). If authorization is required and the patient fails to execute an authorization or the authorization fails to contain all required provisions, then we may not be allowed access to and use of the patient’s information and our research efforts could be impaired or delayed. Furthermore, use of protected health information that is provided to us pursuant to a valid patient authorization is subject to the limits set forth in the authorization (e.g., for use in research and in submissions to regulatory authorities for product approvals). In addition, HIPAA does not replace federal, state, international or other laws that may grant individuals even greater privacy protections.
EU Member States and other jurisdictions where we operate have adopted data protection laws and regulations, which impose significant compliance obligations. For example, the General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) which became applicable on May 25, 2018, replacing the EU Data Protection Directive, imposes strict obligations and restrictions on the ability to collect, analyze and transfer personal data, including health data from clinical trials and adverse event reporting.
Switzerland has adopted laws that impose restrictions and obligations similar to the GDPR. These obligations and restrictions concern, in particular, the consent of the individuals to whom the personal data relate, the information provided to the individuals, the transfer of personal data out of the European Economic Area (“EEA”) or Switzerland,
security breach notifications, security and confidentiality of the personal data, as well as substantial potential fines for breaches of the data protection obligations. Data protection authorities from the different EU Member States may interpret the GDPR and applicable related national laws differently and impose requirements additional to those provided in the GDPR. In addition, guidance on implementation and compliance practices may be updated or otherwise revised, which adds to the complexity of processing personal data in the EU. When processing personal data of subjects in the EU, we have to comply with the applicable data protection laws. In particular, as we rely on services providers processing personal data of subjects in the EU, we have to enter into suitable contract terms with such providers and receive sufficient guarantees that such providers meet the requirements of the applicable data protection laws, particularly the GDPR which imposes specific and relevant obligations.
Legal mechanisms to allow for the transfer of personal data from the EEA to the US have been challenged in the European Court of Justice, which generally increases uncertainty around compliance with EU privacy law requirements as these relate to transfer of data from the EU to the US. In 2016, the European Commission and the US Department of Commerce (“DOC”) put in place the EU-US “Privacy Shield,” which has been relied on by some US companies since that time to transfer data to the US, and, in its third annual review of the Privacy Shield in October 2019, the European Commission concluded that the U.S. continues to ensure an adequate level of protection for personal data transferred under the Privacy Shield. In addition, the DOC increased its monitoring and surveillance activities and introduced new oversight procedures and will increase pressure on companies to comply with Privacy Shield. However, in October 2016, an action for annulment was brought by three French digital rights advocacy groups, which is still pending before the General Court of the European Court of Justice. The US was admitted as an intervener in the action in 2018. If the European Court of Justice invalidates the Privacy Shield, it will no longer be possible to rely on the Privacy Shield certification to support transfer of personal data from the EU to entities in the US. Adherence to the Privacy Shield is not, however, mandatory. US-based companies are permitted to rely either on their adherence to the Privacy Shield or on the other authorized means and procedures to transfer personal data provided by the GDPR.
In addition, the privacy and data security landscape in the EU continues to remain in flux. The agreement that will hopefully be concluded between the EU and the UK following the UK’s withdrawal from the EU on January 31, 2020 may require organizations to revisit the way they transfer personal data from and to the UK. The GDPR has introduced additional data protection obligations that can have specific impact on the conduct of clinical trials in the EEA. This includes obligations concerning the rights of patients in relation to their personal data collected during the clinical trials and the need to conclude arrangements with clinical trials sites concerning data processing activities. Any perceived failure to ensure protection of patients’ rights during clinical trials or to ensure that sites fulfil obligations imposed by GDPR concerning their related processing activities could undermine the validity of the results of these clinical trials.
If we or our vendors fail to comply with applicable data privacy laws, or if the legal mechanisms we or our vendors rely upon to allow for the transfer of personal data from the EEA or Switzerland to the US (or other countries not considered by the European Commission to provide an adequate level of data protection) are not considered adequate, we could be subject to government enforcement actions and significant penalties against us. Moreover, our business could be adversely impacted if our ability to transfer personal data outside of the EEA or Switzerland to the US is restricted, which could adversely impact our operating results.
Changes in healthcare law and implementing regulations, including government restrictions on pricing and reimbursement, as well as healthcare policy and other healthcare payor cost-containment initiatives, may negatively impact us, our collaboration partners, or those commercializing products with respect to which we have an economic interest or right to receive royalties.
The continuing efforts of the government, insurance companies, managed care organizations and other payors of health care costs to contain or reduce costs of health care may adversely affect us, our collaboration partners, or those commercializing products with respect to which we have an economic interest or right to receive royalties in regard to one or more of the following:
the ability to set and collect a price believed to be reasonable for products;
the ability to generate revenues and achieve profitability; and
the availability of capital.
The pricing and reimbursement environment for products may change in the future and become more challenging due to, among other reasons, policies advanced by the current or new presidential administrations, federal agencies, new healthcare legislation passed by Congress or fiscal challenges faced by all levels of government health administration authorities. Among policy makers and payors in the US and elsewhere, there is significant interest in promoting changes in healthcare systems with the stated goals of containing healthcare costs, improving quality and expanding access to healthcare. In the US, the pharmaceutical industry has been a particular focus of these efforts and has been and may in the future be significantly affected by major legislative initiatives. For instance, in the fourth quarter of 2018, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (“CMS”), the federal agency that administers the Medicare and Medicaid programs, released an advance notice of proposed rule-making to solicit feedback on a potential change in the way Medicare Part B pays for certain physician-administered drugs. Under Part B’s current reimbursement policy, for most drugs, Medicare pays providers the average sales price of the drug plus 6% (reduced to 4.3% as a result of sequestration). CMS is considering a methodology that would more closely align payment for these drugs with prices in certain countries (such as Canada, the UK, Japan, and Germany), allow private-sector vendors to negotiate prices, and pay providers a flat add-on payment not tied to the price of the drug. We expect we, our collaboration partners or those commercializing products with respect to which we have an economic interest or right to receive royalties may experience pricing pressures in connection with the sale of drug products, due to the trend toward managed healthcare, the increasing influence of health maintenance organizations and additional legislative enactments.
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (together the “Healthcare Reform Act”), is a sweeping measure intended to expand healthcare coverage within the US, primarily through the imposition of health insurance mandates on employers and individuals, the provision of subsidies to eligible individuals enrolled in plans offered on the health insurance exchanges, and expansion of the Medicaid program. This law has substantially changed the way healthcare is financed by both governmental and private insurers, and has significantly impacted the pharmaceutical industry. The Healthcare Reform Act contains a number of provisions that impact our business and operations, including those governing enrollment in federal healthcare programs, reimbursement changes, benefits for patients within a coverage gap in the Medicare Part D prescription drug program (commonly known as the “donut hole”), rules regarding prescription drug benefits under the health insurance exchanges, changes to the Medicare Drug Rebate program, expansion of the Public Health Service Act’s 340B drug pricing program, fraud and abuse and enforcement. These changes have impacted previously existing government healthcare programs and have resulted in the development of new programs, including Medicare payment for performance initiatives and improvements to the physician quality reporting system and feedback program.
In particular, CMS issued final regulations to implement the changes to the Medicaid Drug Rebate program under the Healthcare Reform Act. These regulations became effective on April 1, 2016. Congress could enact additional legislation that further increases Medicaid drug rebates or other costs and charges associated with participating in the Medicaid Drug Rebate program. The issuance of regulations and coverage expansion by various governmental agencies relating to the Medicaid Drug Rebate program has increased and will continue to increase the costs and the complexity of compliance, has been and will be time-consuming to implement, and could have a material adverse effect on results of operations for us, our collaboration partners, or those commercializing products with respect to which we have an economic interest or right to receive royalties, particularly if CMS challenges the approach we take in our implementation of the final regulation.
Some states have elected not to expand their Medicaid programs by raising the income limit to 133% of the federal poverty level, as is permitted under the Healthcare Reform Act. For each state that does not choose to expand its Medicaid program, there may be fewer insured patients overall, which could impact the sales, business and financial condition of us, our collaboration partners, or those commercializing products with respect to which we have an economic interest or right to receive royalties. Where Medicaid patients receive insurance coverage under any of the new options made available through the Healthcare Reform Act, manufacturers may be required to pay Medicaid rebates on drugs used under these circumstances, which could impact manufacturer revenues.
Certain provisions of the Healthcare Reform Act have been subject to judicial challenges as well as efforts to repeal or replace them or to alter their interpretation or implementation. For example, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act enacted
on December 22, 2017 (the “Tax Act”), eliminated the shared responsibility payment for individuals who fail to maintain minimum essential coverage under section 5000A of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, commonly referred to as the individual mandate, effective January 1, 2019. In December 2018, a United States District Court Judge for the Northern District of Texas ruled (i) that the “individual mandate” was unconstitutional as a result of the associated tax penalty being repealed by Congress as part of the Tax Act; and (ii) the individual mandate is not severable from the rest of the ACA, and as a result the entire Healthcare Reform Act is invalid. On December 18, 2019, the US Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit affirmed the district court’s decision that the individual mandate is unconstitutional, but remanded the case to the district court to reconsider the severability question. It is unclear how the ultimate decision in this case, or other efforts to repeal, replace, or invalidate the Healthcare Reform Act or its implementing regulations, or portions thereof, will affect the Healthcare Reform Act or our business. Additional legislative changes to and regulatory changes under the Healthcare Reform Act remain possible, but the nature and extent of such potential additional changes are uncertain at this time. We expect that the Healthcare Reform Act, its implementation, efforts to repeal or replace, or invalidate the Healthcare Reform Act, or portions thereof, and other healthcare reform measures that may be adopted in the future, could have a material adverse effect on our industry generally and on the ability of us, our collaboration partners, or those commercializing products with respect to which we have an economic interest or right to receive royalties to maintain or increase sales of existing products or to successfully commercialize product candidates, if approved.
In addition, there have been proposals to modify the Medicare Part D benefit, including by imposing federally-mandated rebates on all drugs dispensed to Medicare Part D enrollees or on only those drugs dispensed to certain groups of lower income beneficiaries. If any of these proposals are adopted including any that result in additional rebates, this could have a negative impact on revenues for our collaboration partners, or those commercializing products with respect to which we have an economic interest or right to receive royalties, which could impact our revenues.
On August 2, 2011, the Budget Control Act of 2011, among other things, created the Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction to recommend to Congress proposals for spending reductions. The Joint Select Committee did not achieve a targeted deficit reduction, which triggered the legislation’s automatic reductions. In concert with subsequent legislation, this has resulted in aggregate reductions to Medicare payments to providers of, on average, 2% per fiscal year through 2027 unless Congress takes additional action. As long as these cuts remain in effect, they could adversely impact payment for any products that are reimbursed under Medicare. We expect that additional state and federal healthcare reform measures will be adopted in the future, any of which could limit the amounts that federal and state governments will pay for healthcare products and services, which could result in reduced demand for product or additional pricing pressures for our collaboration partners, or those commercializing products with respect to which we have an economic interest or right to receive royalties, which could impact our revenues.
If we failed to comply with our reporting and payment obligations under the Medicaid Drug Rebate program or other governmental pricing programs, we could be subject to additional reimbursement requirements, penalties, sanctions and fines, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
Prior to the sale of VIBATIV to Cumberland, we had certain price reporting obligations to the Medicaid Drug Rebate program and other governmental pricing programs, and we had obligations to report average sales price under the Medicare program. Following the consummation of the transaction with Cumberland, our price reporting obligations related to VIBATIV have been transitioned to Cumberland, and price reporting obligations for YUPELRI reside with Mylan. However, we retain liability related to price reporting for VIBATIV for historic periods.
Under the Medicaid Drug Rebate program, a manufacturer is required to pay a rebate to each state Medicaid program for its covered outpatient drugs that are dispensed to Medicaid beneficiaries and paid for by a state Medicaid program as a condition of having federal funds being made available to the states for our drugs under Medicaid and Medicare Part B. Those rebates are based on pricing data reported by the manufacturer on a monthly and quarterly basis to CMS, the federal agency that administers the Medicaid Drug Rebate program. These data include the average manufacturer price and, in the case of innovator products, the best price for each drug which, in general, represents the lowest price available from the manufacturer to any entity in the US in any pricing structure, calculated to include all sales and associated rebates, discounts and other price concessions.
Federal law requires that any company that participates in the Medicaid Drug Rebate program also participate in the Public Health Service’s 340B drug pricing program in order for federal funds to be available for the manufacturer’s drugs under Medicaid and Medicare Part B. The 340B program requires participating manufacturers to agree to charge no more than the 340B “ceiling price” for the manufacturer’s covered outpatient drugs to a variety of community health clinics and other entities that receive health services grants from the Public Health Service, as well as hospitals that serve a disproportionate share of low-income patients. Manufacturers also are required to report their 340B ceiling prices to HRSA on a quarterly basis. A final regulation regarding the calculation of the 340B ceiling price and the imposition of civil monetary penalties on manufacturers that knowingly and intentionally overcharge covered entities became effective on January 1, 2019.
Federal law also requires that a company that participates in the Medicaid Drug Rebate program report average sales price information each quarter to CMS for certain categories of drugs that are paid under the Medicare Part B program. Manufacturers calculate the average sales price based on a statutorily defined formula as well as regulations and interpretations of the statute by CMS. CMS uses these submissions to determine payment rates for drugs under Medicare Part B.
Pricing and rebate calculations vary across products and programs, are complex, and are often subject to interpretation by the manufacturer, governmental or regulatory agencies and the courts. A manufacturer that becomes aware that its Medicaid reporting for a prior quarter was incorrect, or has changed as a result of recalculation of the pricing data, is are obligated to resubmit the corrected data for up to three years after those data originally were due. Such restatements and recalculations increase the costs for complying with the laws and regulations governing the Medicaid Drug Rebate program and could result in an overage or underage in our rebate liability for past quarters. Price recalculations also may affect the 340B ceiling price.
We are liable for errors associated with our submission of pricing data. In addition to retroactive rebates and the potential for 340B program refunds, if we are found to have knowingly submitted any false price information to the government, we may be liable for significant civil monetary penalties per item of false information. If we are found to have made a misrepresentation in the reporting of our average sales price, the Medicare statute provides for significant civil monetary penalties for each misrepresentation for each day in which the misrepresentation was applied. If we are found to have charged 340B covered entities more than the statutorily mandated ceiling price, we could be subject to significant civil monetary penalties. Our failure to submit the required price data on a timely basis could result in a significant civil monetary penalty per day for each day the information is late beyond the due date. Such failure also could be grounds for CMS to terminate our Medicaid drug rebate agreement, pursuant to which we participate in the Medicaid program. In the event that CMS terminates our rebate agreement, federal payments may not be available under Medicaid or Medicare Part B for our covered outpatient drugs.
In order to be eligible to have its products paid for with federal funds under the Medicaid and Medicare Part B programs and purchased by the Department of Veterans Affairs (“VA”), Department of Defense (“DoD”), Public Health Service, and Coast Guard (the “Big Four agencies”) and certain federal grantees, a manufacturer is required to participate in the VA Federal Supply Schedule (“FSS”) pricing program, established under Section 603 of the Veterans Health Care Act of 1992. Under this program, the manufacturer is obligated to make its covered drugs available for procurement on an FSS contract and charge a price to the Big Four agencies that is no higher than the Federal Ceiling Price (“FCP”), which is a price calculated pursuant to a statutory formula. The FCP is derived from a calculated price point called the “non-federal average manufacturer price” (“Non-FAMP”), which the manufacturer calculates and reports to the VA on a quarterly and annual basis. Pursuant to applicable law, knowing provision of false information in connection with a Non-FAMP filing can subject a manufacturer to significant penalties for each item of false information. The FSS contract also contains extensive disclosure and certification requirements.
Under Section 703 of the National Defense Authorization Act for FY 2008, the manufacturer is required to pay quarterly rebates to DoD on utilization of its innovator products that are dispensed through DoD’s Tricare network pharmacies to Tricare beneficiaries. The rebates are calculated as the difference between the annual Non-FAMP and FCP for the calendar year that the product was dispensed. A manufacturer that overcharges the government in connection with the FSS contract or Tricare Retail Pharmacy Rebate Program, whether due to a misstated FCP or otherwise, is required to refund the difference to the government. Failure to make necessary disclosures and/or to
identify contract overcharges can result in allegations against us under the False Claims Act and other laws and regulations.
Our relationships with customers and third-party payors are subject to applicable anti-kickback, fraud and abuse, transparency and other healthcare laws and regulations, which could expose us to criminal sanctions, civil penalties, exclusion, contractual damages, reputational harm and diminished profits and future earnings.
Healthcare providers, physicians, distributors and third-party payors play a primary role in the distribution, recommendation and prescription of any pharmaceutical product for which we obtain marketing approval. Our arrangements with third-party payors and customers expose us to broadly applicable fraud and abuse and other healthcare laws and regulations that may constrain the business or financial arrangements through which we market, sell and distribute any products for which we have obtained or may obtain marketing approval. Restrictions under applicable federal and state healthcare laws and regulations include the following:
The US federal healthcare Anti-Kickback Statute prohibits any person from, among other things, knowingly and willfully offering, paying, soliciting, or receiving remuneration, directly or indirectly, in cash or in kind, to induce or reward either the referral of an individual for, or the purchasing, leasing, ordering or arranging for or recommending of any good or service for which payment may be made, in whole or in part, under federal and state healthcare programs such as Medicare and Medicaid. The term “remuneration” has been broadly interpreted to include anything of value. The Anti-Kickback Statute is subject to evolving interpretation and has been applied by government enforcement officials to a number of common business arrangements in the pharmaceutical industry. The government can establish a violation of the Anti-Kickback Statute without proving that a person or entity had actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it. There are a number of statutory exemptions and regulatory safe harbors protecting some common activities from prosecution; however, those exceptions and safe harbors are drawn narrowly. Failure to meet all of the requirements of a particular statutory exception or regulatory safe harbor does not make the conduct per se illegal under the Anti-Kickback Statute, but the legality of the arrangement will be evaluated on a case-by-case basis based on the totality of the facts and circumstances. We seek to comply with the available statutory exemptions and safe harbors whenever possible, but our practices may not in all cases meet all of the criteria for safe harbor protection from anti-kickback liability. Moreover, there are no safe harbors for many common practices, such as educational and research grants or patient or product assistance programs. In October 2019, the federal government published a proposed regulation that would create new safe harbors for (among other things) certain value-based arrangements and patient engagement tools, and modify and clarify the scope of existing safe harbors for warranties and personal service agreements; even if it is finalized, the impact of the proposed regulation on our operations is not yet clear.
The federal civil False Claims Act prohibits, among other things, knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, claims for payment of government funds that are false or fraudulent, or knowingly making, or using or causing to be made or used, a false record or statement material to a false or fraudulent claim to avoid, decrease, or conceal an obligation to pay money to the federal government. Private individuals, commonly known as “whistleblowers,” can bring civil False Claims Act qui tam actions, on behalf of the government and such individuals and may share in amounts paid by the entity to the government in recovery or settlement. In recent years, several pharmaceutical and other healthcare companies have faced enforcement actions under the federal False Claims Act for, among other things, allegedly submitting false or misleading pricing information to government health care programs and providing free product to customers with the expectation that the customers would bill federal programs for the product. Federal enforcement agencies also have showed increased interest in pharmaceutical companies’ product and patient assistance programs, including reimbursement and co-pay support services, and a number of investigations into these programs have resulted in significant civil and criminal settlements. Other companies have faced enforcement actions for causing false claims to be submitted because of the company’s marketing the product for unapproved, and thus non-reimbursable, uses. In addition, a claim including items or services resulting from a violation of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the federal civil False Claims Act. False Claims Act liability is potentially significant in the healthcare industry because the statute provides for treble damages and
significant mandatory penalties per false claim or statement for violations. Because of the potential for large monetary exposure, healthcare and pharmaceutical companies often resolve allegations without admissions of liability for significant and material amounts to avoid the uncertainty of treble damages and per claim penalties that may be awarded in litigation proceedings. Companies may be required, however, to enter into corporate integrity agreements with the government, which may impose substantial costs on companies to ensure compliance. Criminal penalties, including imprisonment and criminal fines, are also possible for making or presenting a false, fictitious or fraudulent claim to the federal government.
HIPAA, among other things, imposes criminal and civil liability for knowingly and willfully executing a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program, including private third-party payors, and also imposes obligations, including mandatory contractual terms, with respect to safeguarding the privacy, security and transmission of individually identifiable health information. HIPAA also prohibits knowingly and willfully falsifying, concealing or covering up a material fact or making any materially false, fictitious or fraudulent statement or representation, or making or using any false writing or document knowing the same to contain any materially false fictitious or fraudulent statement or entry in connection with the delivery of or payment for healthcare benefits, items or services. Similar to the federal healthcare Anti-Kickback Statute, a person or entity does not need to have actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it to have committed a violation.
The federal Physician Payment Sunshine Act, being implemented as the Open Payments Program, requires certain manufacturers of drugs, devices, biologics, and medical supplies for which payment is available under Medicare, Medicaid or the Children’s Health Insurance Program (with certain exceptions) to report annually to the US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, information related to payments and other transfers of value, directly or indirectly, to physicians (defined to include doctors, dentists, optometrists, podiatrists, and chiropractors) and teaching hospitals, as well as ownership and investment interests held by physicians and their immediate family members. Beginning in 2022, applicable manufacturers also will be required to report information regarding payments and transfers of value provided to physician assistants, nurse practitioners, clinical nurse specialists, certified nurse anesthetists, and certified nurse-midwives. A manufacturer’s failure to submit timely, accurately and completely the required information for all payments, transfers of value or ownership or investment interests may result in civil monetary penalties of up to an aggregate of $150,000 per year, and up to an aggregate of $1 million per year for “knowing failures.” Manufacturers must submit reports by the 90th day of each calendar year.
Analogous state laws and regulations, such as state anti-kickback and false claims laws, may apply to sales or marketing arrangements and claims involving healthcare items or services reimbursed by any third-party payors, including private insurers or patients. Several states also require pharmaceutical companies to report expenses relating to the marketing and promotion of pharmaceutical products in those states and to report gifts and payments to individual health care providers in those states. Some of these states also prohibit certain marketing-related activities, including the provision of gifts, meals, or other items to certain health care providers, and restrict the ability of manufacturers to offer co-pay support to patients for certain prescription drugs. Some states require the posting of information relating to clinical studies and their outcomes. Some states and cities require identification or licensing of sales representatives. In addition, several states require pharmaceutical companies to implement compliance programs or marketing codes.
Similar restrictions are imposed on the promotion and marketing of medicinal products in the EU Member States and other countries, including restrictions prohibiting the promotion of a compound prior to its approval. Laws (including those governing promotion, marketing and anti-kickback provisions), industry regulations and professional codes of conduct often are strictly enforced. Even in those countries where we may decide not to directly promote or market our products, inappropriate activity by our international distribution partners could have implications for us.
The shifting commercial compliance environment and the need to build and maintain robust and expandable systems to comply with different compliance or reporting requirements in multiple jurisdictions increase the possibility
that we or our partners may fail to comply fully with one or more of these requirements. Efforts to ensure that our business arrangements with third parties will comply with applicable healthcare laws and regulations may involve substantial costs. It is possible that governmental authorities will conclude that our business practices may not comply with applicable fraud and abuse or other healthcare laws and regulations or guidance. If our operations are found to be in violation of any of these laws or any other governmental regulations that may apply to us, we may be subject to significant civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, fines, disgorgement, exclusion from government funded healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid in the US and similar programs outside the US, contractual damages, diminished profits and future earnings, and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations, any of which could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our financial results. If any of the physicians or other providers or entities with whom we do or expect to do business are found to not be in compliance with applicable laws, they may be subject to criminal, civil or administrative sanctions, including exclusions from government funded healthcare programs. Even if we are not determined to have violated these laws, government investigations into these issues typically require the expenditure of significant resources and generate negative publicity, which could harm our financial condition and divert resources and the attention of our management from operating our business.
Our business and operations, including the use of hazardous and biological materials may result in liabilities with respect to environmental, health and safety matters.
Our research and development activities involve the controlled use of potentially hazardous substances, including chemical, biological and radioactive materials. In addition, our operations produce hazardous waste products, including hazardous waste. Federal, state and local laws and regulations govern the use, manufacture, management, storage, handling and disposal of hazardous materials and wastes. We may incur significant additional costs or liabilities to comply with, or for violations of, these and other applicable laws in the future. Also, even if we are in compliance with applicable laws, we cannot completely eliminate the risk of contamination or injury resulting from hazardous materials and we may incur liability as a result of any such contamination or injury. Further, in the event of a release of or exposure to hazardous materials, including at the sites we currently or formerly operate or at sites such as landfills where we send wastes for disposal, we could be held liable for cleanup costs or damages or subject to other costs or penalties and such liability could exceed our resources. We do not have any insurance for liabilities arising from hazardous materials or under environmental laws. Compliance with or liability under applicable environmental laws and regulations or with respect to hazardous materials may be expensive, and current or future environmental regulations may impair our research, development and production efforts, which could harm our business, which could cause the price of our securities to fall.
RISKS RELATING TO OUR ORDINARY SHARES
The market price for our shares has and may continue to fluctuate widely, and may result in substantial losses for purchasers of our ordinary shares.
The market price for our shares has and may continue to fluctuate widely, and may result in substantial losses for purchasers of our ordinary shares. To the extent that low trading volumes for our ordinary shares continues, our stock price may fluctuate significantly more than the stock market as a whole or the stock prices of similar companies. Without a larger public float of actively traded shares, our ordinary shares are likely to be more sensitive to changes in sales volumes, market fluctuations and events or perceived events with respect to our business, than the shares of common stock of companies with broader public ownership, and as a result, the trading prices for our ordinary shares may be more volatile. Among other things, trading of a relatively small volume of ordinary shares may have a greater effect on the trading price than would be the case if our public float of actively traded shares were larger. In addition, as further described below under the risk factor entitled “—Concentration of ownership will limit your ability to influence corporate matters,” a number of shareholders hold large concentrations of our shares which, if sold within a relatively short timeframe, could cause the price of our shares to drop significantly.
Market prices for securities of biotechnology and biopharmaceutical companies have been highly volatile, and we expect such volatility to continue for the foreseeable future, so that investment in our ordinary shares involves substantial risk. Additionally, the stock market from time to time has experienced significant price and volume fluctuations unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies.
The following are some of the factors that may have a significant effect on the market price of our ordinary shares:
lower than expected sales of YUPELRI;
any adverse developments or results or perceived adverse developments or results with respect to the GSK Partnered Respiratory Programs including, without limitation, lower than expected sales of TRELEGY ELLIPTA, difficulties or delays encountered with regard to the FDA or other regulatory authorities in these programs or any indication from clinical or non-clinical studies that the compounds in such programs are not safe or efficacious;
any adverse developments or results or perceived adverse developments or results with respect to our key clinical development programs, for example our JAK inhibitor program or ampreloxetine, including, without limitation, any delays in development in these programs, any halting of development in these programs, any difficulties or delays encountered with regard to the FDA or other regulatory authorities in these programs (including any class-based risks that emerge as a FDA or other regulatory agency focus), or any indication from clinical or non-clinical studies that the compounds in such programs are not safe or efficacious;
any announcements of developments with, or comments by, the FDA or other regulatory authorities with respect to products we or our partners have under development, are manufacturing or have commercialized;
any adverse developments or disagreements or perceived adverse developments or disagreements with respect to our relationship with Innoviva, such as our recently completed arbitration proceeding, or the relationship of Innoviva or TRC on the one hand and GSK on the other hand, including any such developments or disagreements resulting from or relating to the TRC LLC Agreement or to the Spin-Off;
any adverse developments or perceived adverse developments with respect to our relationship with any of our research, development or commercialization partners, including, without limitation, disagreements that may arise between us and any of those partners;
any adverse developments or perceived adverse developments in our programs with respect to partnering efforts or otherwise;
announcements of patent issuances or denials, technological innovations or new commercial products by us or our competitors;
publicity regarding actual or potential study results or the outcome of regulatory review relating to products under development by us, our partners or our competitors;
regulatory developments in the US and foreign countries;
announcements with respect to governmental or private insurer reimbursement policies;
announcements of equity or debt financings;
possible impairment charges on non-marketable equity securities;
economic and other external factors beyond our control, such as fluctuations in interest rates;
loss of key personnel;
likelihood of our ordinary shares to be more sensitive to changes in sales volume, market fluctuations and events or perceived events with respect to our business due to our small public float;
low public market trading volumes for our ordinary shares related in part to the concentration of ownership of our shares;
the sale of large concentrations of our shares, which may be more likely to occur due to the concentration of ownership of our shares, such as what we experienced when our largest shareholder, Woodford Investment Management Limited, divested its holdings;
developments or disputes as to patent or other proprietary rights;
approval or introduction of competing products and technologies;
results of clinical trials;
failures or unexpected delays in timelines for our potential products in development, including the obtaining of regulatory approvals;
delays in manufacturing adversely affecting clinical or commercial operations;
fluctuations in our operating results;
market reaction to announcements by other biotechnology or pharmaceutical companies;
initiation, termination or modification of agreements with our collaborators or disputes or disagreements with collaborators;
litigation or the threat of litigation;
public concern as to the safety of product candidates or medicines developed by us; and
comments and expectations of results made by securities analysts or investors.
If any of these factors causes us to fail to meet the expectations of securities analysts or investors, or if adverse conditions prevail or are perceived to prevail with respect to our business, the price of the ordinary shares would likely drop significantly. A significant drop in the price of a company’s securities often leads to the filing of securities class action litigation against the company. This type of litigation against us could result in substantial costs and a diversion of management’s attention and resources.
Concentration of ownership will limit your ability to influence corporate matters.
Based on our review of publicly available filings, as of December 31, 2019, our three largest shareholders collectively owned 48.2% of our outstanding ordinary shares. These shareholders could control the outcome of actions taken by us that require shareholder approval, including a transaction in which shareholders might receive a premium over the prevailing market price for their shares.
Certain provisions in our constitutional and other documents may discourage our acquisition by a third-party, which could limit your opportunity to sell shares at a premium.
Our constitutional documents include provisions that could limit the ability of others to acquire control of us, modify our structure or cause us to engage in change-of-control transactions, including, among other things, provisions that:
require supermajority shareholder voting to effect certain amendments to our amended and restated memorandum and articles of association;
establish a classified board of directors;
restrict our shareholders from calling meetings or acting by written consent in lieu of a meeting;
limit the ability of our shareholders to propose actions at duly convened meetings; and
authorize our board of directors, without action by our shareholders, to issue preferred shares and additional ordinary shares.
In addition, in May 2018, our shareholders approved a resolution authorizing our board of directors to adopt a shareholder rights plan in the future intended to deter any person from acquiring more than 19.9% of our outstanding ordinary shares without the approval of our board of directors.
These provisions could have the effect of depriving you of an opportunity to sell your ordinary shares at a premium over prevailing market prices by discouraging third parties from seeking to acquire control of us in a tender offer or similar transaction.
Our shareholders may face difficulties in protecting their interests because we are incorporated under Cayman Islands law.
Our corporate affairs are governed by our amended and restated memorandum and articles of association, by the Companies Law (2020 Revision) of the Cayman Islands and by the common law of the Cayman Islands. The rights of our shareholders and the fiduciary responsibilities of our directors under the laws of the Cayman Islands are different from those under statutes or judicial precedent in existence in jurisdictions in the US. Therefore, you may have more difficulty in protecting your interests than would shareholders of a corporation incorporated in a jurisdiction in the US, due to the different nature of Cayman Islands law in this area.
Shareholders of Cayman Islands exempted companies such as our company have no general rights under Cayman Islands law to inspect corporate records and accounts or to obtain copies of lists of shareholders. Our directors have discretion under our amended and restated memorandum and articles of association to determine whether or not, and under what conditions, our corporate records may be inspected by our shareholders, but are not obliged to make them available to our shareholders. This may make it more difficult for you to obtain the information needed to establish any facts necessary for a shareholder motion or to solicit proxies from other shareholders in connection with a proxy contest.
Our Cayman Islands counsel, Maples and Calder, is not aware of any reported class action having been brought in a Cayman Islands court. Derivative actions have been brought in the Cayman Islands courts, and the Cayman Islands courts have confirmed the availability for such actions. In most cases, the company will be the proper plaintiff in any claim based on a breach of duty owed to it, and a claim against (for example) our officers or directors usually may not be brought by a shareholder. However, based on English authorities, which would in all likelihood be of persuasive authority and be applied by a court in the Cayman Islands, exceptions to the foregoing principle apply in circumstances in which:
a company is acting, or proposing to act, illegally or beyond the scope of its authority;
the act complained of, although not beyond the scope of the authority, could be effected if duly authorized by more than the number of votes which have actually been obtained; or
those who control the company are perpetrating a “fraud on the minority.”
A shareholder may have a direct right of action against the company where the individual rights of that shareholder have been infringed or are about to be infringed.
There is uncertainty as to shareholders’ ability to enforce certain foreign civil liabilities in the Cayman Islands.
We are incorporated as an exempted company limited by shares with limited liability under the laws of the Cayman Islands. A material portion of our assets are located outside of the US. As a result, it may be difficult for our shareholders to enforce judgments against us or judgments obtained in US courts predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the federal securities laws of the US or any state of the US.
We have been advised by our Cayman Islands legal counsel, Maples and Calder, that the courts of the Cayman Islands are unlikely (i) to recognize or enforce against Theravance Biopharma judgments of courts of the US predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the US or any State; and (ii) in original actions brought in the Cayman Islands, to impose liabilities against Theravance Biopharma predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the US or any State, on the grounds that such provisions are penal in nature. However, in the case of laws that are not penal in nature, although there is no statutory enforcement in the Cayman Islands of judgments obtained in the US, the courts of the Cayman Islands will recognize and enforce a foreign money judgment of a foreign court of competent jurisdiction without retrial on the merits based on the principle that a judgment of a competent foreign court imposes upon the judgment debtor an obligation to pay the sum for which judgment has been given provided certain conditions are met. For a foreign judgment to be enforced in the Cayman Islands, such judgment must be final and conclusive and for a liquidated sum, and must not be in respect of taxes or a fine or penalty, inconsistent with a Cayman Islands’ judgment in respect of the same matter, impeachable on the grounds of fraud or obtained in a manner, and or be of a kind the enforcement of which is, contrary to natural justice or the public policy of the Cayman Islands (awards of punitive or multiple damages may well be held to be contrary to public policy). A Cayman Islands court, including the Grand Court of the Cayman Islands, may stay proceedings if concurrent proceedings are being brought elsewhere, which would delay proceedings and make it more difficult for our shareholders to bring action against us.
If securities or industry analysts cease coverage of us or do not publish research, or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research, about our business, the price of our ordinary shares and trading volume could decline.
The trading market for our ordinary shares depends in part on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. If few securities analysts commence coverage of us, or if industry analysts cease coverage of us, the trading price for our ordinary shares could be negatively affected. If one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our ordinary shares or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business or if our results fail to meet the expectations of these analysts, the price of our ordinary shares would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of us or fail to publish reports on us regularly, demand for our ordinary shares could decrease, which might cause our share price and trading volume to decline.
We do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our capital shares in the foreseeable future; as a result, capital appreciation, if any, of our ordinary shares will be your sole source of gain for the foreseeable future.
We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our capital shares. We do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our capital shares in the foreseeable future. We currently intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings to fund the development and growth of our business. In addition, the terms of any future debt financing arrangement may contain terms prohibiting or limiting the amount of dividends that may be declared or paid on our ordinary shares. As a result, capital appreciation, if any, of our ordinary shares will be your sole source of gain for the foreseeable future.
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
Our principal physical properties in the US consist of approximately 170,000 square feet of office and laboratory space leased in two buildings in South San Francisco, California. The South San Francisco lease expires in
May 2030. Our Irish subsidiary operates from approximately 6,100 square feet of leased office space in Dublin, Ireland, and the lease expires in April 2027. We believe our current space is sufficient for our needs.
ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
We are not currently a party to any material litigation or other material legal proceedings.
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR THE REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Our ordinary shares have traded on The NASDAQ Global Market under the symbol “TBPH” since June 3, 2014. As of February 19, 2020, there were 67 shareholders of record of our ordinary shares. As many of our ordinary shares are held by brokers and other institutions on behalf of shareholders, we are unable to estimate the total number of shareholders represented by these record holders.
We currently intend to retain any future earnings to finance our research and development efforts. We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our ordinary shares and do not intend to declare or pay cash dividends on our ordinary shares in the foreseeable future.
Equity Compensation Plans
The following table provides certain information with respect to all of our equity compensation plans in effect as of December 31, 2019:
Number of Securities
Number of Securities
for Future Issuance
to be Issued Upon
Exercise Price of
Warrants and Rights (a)
Warrants and Rights
reflected in column (a))
Employee share purchase plan
Equity compensation plans approved by security holders
Equity compensation plans not approved by security holders
We have three equity compensation plans — our 2013 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2013 EIP”), our 2013 Employee Share Purchase Plan (the “2013 ESPP”), and our 2014 New Employee Equity Incentive Plan (the “2014 NEEIP”). At inception of the plans, we were authorized to issue 5,428,571 ordinary shares under the 2013 EIP and 857,142 ordinary shares under the 2013 ESPP, and 750,000 ordinary shares under the 2014 NEEIP.
The 2013 EIP provides for the issuance of share-based awards, including restricted shares, restricted share units, options, share appreciation rights (“SARs”) and other equity-based awards, to our employees, officers, directors and consultants. As of January 1 of each year, commencing on January 1, 2015 and ending on (and including) January 1, 2023, the aggregate number of ordinary shares that may be issued under the 2013 EIP shall automatically increase by a number equal to the least of 5% of the total number of ordinary shares outstanding on December 31 of the prior year, 3,428,571 ordinary shares, or a number of ordinary shares determined by our board of directors. Options may be granted with an exercise price not less than the fair market value of the ordinary shares on the grant date. Under the terms of our 2013 EIP, options granted to employees generally have a maximum term of 10 years and vest over a four-year period from the date of grant; 25% vest at the end of one year, and 75% vest monthly over the remaining three years. We may grant options with different vesting terms from time to time. Unless an employee’s termination of service is due to disability or death, upon termination of service, any unexercised vested options will generally be forfeited at the end of three months or the expiration of the option, whichever is earlier.
Under the 2013 ESPP, our officers and employees may purchase ordinary shares through payroll deductions at a price equal to 85% of the lower of the fair market value of the ordinary share at the beginning of the offering period or at the end of each applicable purchase period. As of January 1 of each year, commencing on January 1, 2015 and ending on (and including) January 1, 2033, the aggregate number of ordinary shares that may be issued under the 2013 ESPP shall automatically increase by a number equal to the least of 1% of the total number of ordinary shares outstanding on December 31 of the prior year, 857,142 ordinary shares, or a number of ordinary shares determined by our board of directors. The ESPP generally provides for consecutive and overlapping offering periods of 24 months in duration, with each offering period generally composed of four consecutive six-month purchase periods. The purchase periods end on either May 15 or November 15. ESPP contributions are limited to a maximum of 15% of an employee’s eligible compensation.
Our 2013 ESPP also includes a feature that provides for the existing offering period to terminate and for participants in that offering period to automatically be enrolled in a new offering period when the fair market value of an ordinary share at the beginning of a subsequent offering period falls below the fair market value of an ordinary share on the first day of such offering period.
The 2014 NEEIP provides for the issuance of share-based awards, including restricted shares, restricted share units, non-qualified options and SARs, to our employees. Options may be granted with an exercise price not less than the fair market value of the ordinary shares on the grant date. Under the terms of our 2014 NEEIP, options granted to employees generally have a maximum term of 10 years and vest over a four-year period from the date of grant; 25% vest at the end of one year, and 75% vest monthly over the remaining three years. We may grant options with different vesting terms from time to time. Unless an employee’s termination of service is due to disability or death, upon termination of service, any unexercised vested options will generally be forfeited at the end of three months or the expiration of the option, whichever is earlier.
Additional information regarding share-based compensation is included in “Item 8, Note 1. Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies,” and “Item 8, Note 11. Share-Based Compensation,” to the consolidated financial statements appearing in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Share Performance Graph
The graph set forth below compares the cumulative total shareholder return on our ordinary shares for the period commencing on June 3, 2014, the date on which our ordinary shares began trading on The NASDAQ Global Market, through December 31, 2019, with the cumulative total return of (i) the NASDAQ Composite Index, (ii) the NYSE Arca Pharmaceutical Index (previously labeled as the NASDAQ Pharmaceutical Index) and (iii) the NASDAQ Biotechnology Index over the same period. This graph assumes the investment of $100 on June 3, 2014 in each of (1) our ordinary shares, (2) the NASDAQ Composite Index, (3) the NYSE Arca Pharmaceutical Index and (4) the NASDAQ Biotechnology Index, and assumes the reinvestment of dividends, if any, although dividends have never been declared on our ordinary shares.
The comparisons shown in the graph below are based upon historical data. We caution that the price performance shown in the graph below is not necessarily indicative of, nor is it intended to forecast, the potential future performance of our ordinary shares.
Notwithstanding anything to the contrary set forth in any of our previous or future filings under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act that might incorporate this Annual Report on Form 10-K or future filings made by us under those statutes, this Performance Graph section shall not be deemed filed with the SEC and shall not be deemed incorporated by reference into any of those prior filings or into any future filings made by us under those statutes.
$100 Investment in TBPH Shares or Index
NASDAQ Composite Index
NYSE Arca Pharmaceutical Index
NASDAQ Biotechnology Index
June 3, 2014
December 31, 2014
December 31, 2015
December 31, 2016
December 31, 2017
December 31, 2018
December 31, 2019
ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
The selected consolidated summary financial data below should be read in conjunction with Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and Part II, Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data”, in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
The following table sets forth certain summary historical financial information as of and for each of the years in the five-year period ended December 31, 2019, which have been derived from our (i) audited consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2019 and 2018 and for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018, and 2017, which are included in this Annual Report, and (ii) audited consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015 and for the years ended December 31, 2016, and 2015, which are not included in this Annual Report. The summary
historical financial information may not be indicative of our financial position or results of operations in any future period.
Year Ended December 31,
(In thousands, except per share data)
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS DATA
Product sales (1)
Mylan collaboration agreement
Costs and expenses:
Cost of goods sold (2)
Research and development
Selling, general and administrative
Total costs and expenses (3)
Loss from operations
Income from investment in TRC, LLC (4)
Other-than-temporary impairment loss
Interest and other income, net
Loss before income taxes
Provision for income tax benefit (expense)
Basic and diluted net loss per share
Shares used to compute basic and diluted net loss per share
As of December 31,
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS DATA
Cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities
Convertible senior notes due 2023, net
Non-recourse notes due 2033, net
Total shareholders’ (deficit) equity
In November 2018, we completed the sale of our assets related to the manufacture, marketing and sale of the VIBATIV product to Cumberland Pharmaceuticals Inc. pursuant to an Asset Purchase Agreement.
For the year ended December 31, 2018, cost of goods sold included a reversal of a $2.25 million charge related to excess inventory purchase commitments originally recognized in 2017. For the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016, and 2015 cost of goods sold included charges of $3.0 million, $0.3 million, and $1.9 million, respectively, arising from excess inventory.
The following table discloses the allocation of share-based compensation expense included in total operating expenses:
Year Ended December 31,
Research and development
Selling, general and administrative
Total share-based compensation
75% of the income from our investment in TRC is available only for payment of the Non-Recourse 2033 Notes and is not available to pay our other obligations or any claims of our other creditors.
ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Management’s Discussion and Analysis (“MD&A”) is intended to facilitate an understanding of our business and results of operations. This discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and notes included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The information contained in this discussion and analysis or set forth elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including information with respect to our plans and strategy for our business, our operating expenses, and future payments under our collaboration agreements, includes forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”). Such statements are based upon current expectations that involve risks and uncertainties. You should review the section entitled “Risk Factors” in Item 1A of Part I above for a discussion of important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the results described in or implied by the forward-looking statements contained in the following discussion and analysis. See the section entitled “Special Note regarding Forward-Looking Statements” above for more information.
Theravance Biopharma, Inc. (“we,” “our” or “Theravance Biopharma”) is a diversified biopharmaceutical company primarily focused on the discovery, development and commercialization of organ-selective medicines. Our purpose is to create transformational medicines to improve the lives of patients suffering from serious illnesses. Our research is focused in the areas of inflammation and immunology.
In pursuit of our purpose, we apply insights and innovation at each stage of our business and utilize our internal capabilities and those of partners around the world. We apply organ-selective expertise to biologically compelling targets to discover and develop medicines designed to treat underserved localized diseases and to limit systemic exposure, in order to maximize patient benefit and minimize risk. These efforts leverage years of experience in developing lung-selective medicines to treat respiratory disease, including the United States (“US”) Food and Drug Administration (the “FDA”) approved YUPELRI® (revefenacin) inhalation solution indicated for the maintenance treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (“COPD”). Our pipeline of internally discovered programs is targeted to address significant patient needs.
We have an economic interest in potential future payments from Glaxo Group or one of its affiliates (“GSK”) pursuant to its agreements with Innoviva, Inc. (“Innoviva”) relating to certain programs, including TRELEGY ELLIPTA.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Our management’s discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations is based on our financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (“GAAP”). The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, as well as the reported revenue generated and expenses incurred during the reporting periods. Our estimates are based on our historical experience and on various other factors that we believe are reasonable under the
circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying value of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions. We believe that the accounting policies discussed below are critical to understanding our historical and future performance, as these policies relate to the more significant areas involving management’s judgments and estimates.
Effective January 1, 2018, we adopted Accounting Standards Codification, Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASC 606”) using the modified retrospective method. Under ASC 606, an entity recognizes revenue when its customer obtains control of promised goods or services, in an amount that reflects the consideration which the entity expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. To determine revenue recognition for arrangements that an entity determines are within the scope of ASC 606, an entity performs the following five steps: (i) identify the contract(s) with a customer; (ii) identify the performance obligations in the contract; (iii) determine the transaction price; (iv) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (v) recognize revenue when (or as) the entity satisfies a performance obligation.
At contract inception, once the contract is determined to be within the scope of ASC 606, we identify the performance obligations in the contract by assessing whether the goods or services promised within each contract are distinct. We then recognize revenue for the amount of the transaction price that is allocated to the respective performance obligation when (or as) the performance obligation is satisfied.
In our accompanying consolidated statements of operations, the comparative prior period product sales revenue recognized in 2017 remains reported under Accounting Standards Codification, Topic 605, Revenue Recognition (“ASC 605”), and our product sales revenue recognized in 2018 would not have been materially different under ASC 605 as compared to ASC 606.
On November 12, 2018, we completed the sale of our assets related to the manufacture, marketing and sale of the VIBATIV product to Cumberland Pharmaceuticals Inc. (“Cumberland”) pursuant to the Asset Purchase Agreement dated November 1, 2018. Up until that date, we sold VIBATIV in the US market by making the drug product available through a limited number of distributors, who sold VIBATIV to healthcare providers. Title and risk of loss transferred upon receipt by these distributors. We recognized VIBATIV product sales and related cost of product sales when the distributors obtained control of the drug product, which was at the time title transferred to the distributors.
We recorded sales on a net sales basis which included estimates of variable consideration. The variable consideration resulted from sales discounts, government-mandated rebates and chargebacks, distribution fees, estimated product returns and other deductions for sales made by us prior to the November 12, 2018 sale to Cumberland. We reflected such reductions in revenue as either an allowance to the related account receivable from the distributor, or as an accrued liability, depending on the nature of the sales deduction. Sales deductions were based on management’s estimates that considered payor mix in target markets, industry benchmarks and historical experience. In general, these estimates took into consideration a range of possible outcomes which were probability-weighted in accordance with the expected value method in ASC 606. We monitored inventory levels in the distribution channel, as well as sales by distributors to healthcare providers, using product-specific data provided by the distributors. Product return allowances were based on amounts owed or to be claimed on related sales. These estimates took into consideration the terms of our agreements with customers, historical product returns, rebates or discounts taken, estimated levels of inventory in the distribution channel, the shelf life of the product and specific known market events, such as competitive pricing and new product introductions. We updated our estimates and assumptions each quarter and if actual future results varied from our estimates, we adjusted these estimates, which could have had an effect on product sales and earnings in the period of adjustment.
The following table summarizes activity in each of the product revenue allowance and reserve categories:
Balance at December 31, 2017
Provision related to current period sales
Adjustment related to prior period sales
Credit or payments made during the period
Balance at December 31, 2018
Provision related to current period sales
Adjustment related to prior period sales
Credit or payments made during the period
Balance at December 31, 2019
Collaborative Arrangements under ASC 606
We enter into collaborative arrangements with partners that fall under the scope of Accounting Standards Codification, Topic 808, Collaborative Arrangements (“ASC 808”). While these arrangements are in the scope of ASC 808, we may analogize to ASC 606 for some aspects of the arrangements. We analogize to ASC 606 for certain activities within the collaborative arrangement for the delivery of a good or service (i.e., a unit of account) that is part of our ongoing major or central operations. Revenue recognized by analogizing to ASC 606 is recorded as “collaboration revenue” or “licensing revenue” whereas, revenue recognized in accordance with ASC 808, is recorded on a separate collaboration revenue line on the consolidated statements of operations.
The terms of our collaborative arrangements typically include one or more of the following: (i) up-front fees; (ii) milestone payments related to the achievement of development, regulatory, or commercial goals; (iii) royalties on net sales of licensed products; (iv) reimbursements or cost-sharing of research and development expenses; and (v) profit/loss sharing arising from co-promotion arrangements. Each of these payments results in collaboration revenues or an offset against research and development expense. Where a portion of non-refundable up-front fees or other payments received is allocated to continuing performance obligations under the terms of a collaborative arrangement, they are recorded as deferred revenue and recognized as collaboration revenue when (or as) the underlying performance obligation is satisfied.
As part of the accounting for these arrangements, we must develop estimates and assumptions that require judgment to determine the underlying stand-alone selling price for each performance obligation which determines how the transaction price is allocated among the performance obligations. The estimation of the stand-alone selling price may include such estimates as, forecasted revenues or costs, development timelines, discount rates and probabilities of technical and regulatory success. We evaluate each performance obligation to determine if they can be satisfied at a point in time or over time, and we measure the services delivered to our collaborative partner which are periodically reviewed based on the progress of the related program. The effect of any change made to an estimated input component and, therefore revenue or expense recognized, would be recorded as a change in estimate. In addition, variable consideration (e.g., milestone payments) must be evaluated to determine if it is constrained and, therefore, excluded from the transaction price.
Up-front Fees: If a license to our intellectual property is determined to be distinct from the other performance obligations identified in the arrangement, we recognize collaboration revenues from the transaction price allocated to the license when the license is transferred to the licensee and the licensee is able to use and benefit from the license. For licenses that are bundled with other promises, we utilize judgment to assess the nature of the combined performance obligation to determine whether the combined performance obligation is satisfied over time or at a point in time and, if over time, the appropriate method of measuring progress for purposes of recognizing collaboration revenue from the allocated transaction price. For example, when we receive up-front fees for the performance of research and development services, or when research and development services are not considered to be distinct from a license, we recognize collaboration revenue for those units of account over time using a measure of progress. We evaluate the
measure of progress each reporting period and, if necessary, adjust the measure of performance and related revenue or expense recognition as a change in estimate.
Milestone Payments: At the inception of each arrangement that includes milestone payments (variable consideration), we evaluate whether the milestones are considered probable of being reached and estimate the amount to be included in the transaction price using the most likely amount method. If it is probable that a significant revenue reversal would not occur, the associated milestone value is included in the transaction price. Milestone payments that are not within our or the collaborative partner’s control, such as non-operational developmental and regulatory approvals, are generally not considered probable of being achieved until those approvals are received. At the end of each reporting period, we re-evaluate the probability of achievement of milestones that are within our or the collaborative partner’s control, such as operational developmental milestones and any related constraint, and if necessary, adjust our estimate of the overall transaction price. Any such adjustments are recorded on a cumulative catch-up basis, which would affect collaboration revenues and earnings in the period of adjustment. Revisions to our estimate of the transaction price may also result in negative collaboration revenues and earnings in the period of adjustment.
Royalties: For arrangements that include sales-based royalties, including commercial milestone payments based on the level of sales, and the license is deemed to be the predominant item to which the royalties relate, we recognize revenue at the later of (i) when the related sales occur, or (ii) when the performance obligation to which some or all of the royalty has been allocated has been satisfied (or partially satisfied).
Following the sale of VIBATIV to Cumberland in November 2018, VIBATIV royalties earned from Cumberland are included within “interest and other income, net” on the consolidated statements of operations. In addition, our income earned related to TRELEGY ELLIPTA sales is included within “income from our investment in TRC, LLC” on the consolidated statements of operations.
Reimbursement, cost-sharing and profit-sharing payments: Under certain collaborative arrangements, we have been reimbursed for a portion of our research and development expenses or participate in the cost-sharing of such research and development expenses. Such reimbursements and cost-sharing arrangements have been reflected as a reduction of research and development expense in our consolidated statements of operations, as we do not consider performing research and development services for reimbursement to be a part of our ongoing major or central operations.
Research and Development Expenses
Research and development (“R&D”) expenses are recorded in the period that services are rendered or goods are received. R&D expenses consist of salaries and benefits, laboratory supplies and facility costs, as well as fees paid to third parties that conduct certain R&D activities on behalf of us, net of certain external R&D expenses reimbursed under our collaborative arrangements.
As part of the process of preparing financial statements, we are required to estimate and accrue certain R&D expenses. This process involves the following:
identifying services that have been performed on our behalf and estimating the level of service performed and the associated cost incurred for the service when we have not yet been invoiced or otherwise notified of actual cost;
estimating and accruing expenses in our financial statements as of each balance sheet date based on facts and circumstances known to us at the time; and
periodically confirming the accuracy of our estimates with selected service providers and making adjustments, if necessary.
Examples of estimated research and development expenses that we accrue include:
fees paid to clinical research organizations (“CROs”) in connection with preclinical and toxicology studies and clinical studies;
fees paid to investigative sites in connection with clinical studies;
fees paid to contract manufacturing organizations (“CMOs”) in connection with the production of product and clinical study materials; and
professional service fees for consulting and related services.
We base our expense accruals related to clinical studies on our estimates of the services received and efforts expended pursuant to contracts with multiple research institutions and CROs that conduct and manage clinical studies on our behalf. The financial terms of these agreements vary from contract to contract and may result in uneven payment flows. Payments under some of these contracts depend on factors, such as the successful enrollment of patients and the completion of clinical study milestones. Our service providers typically invoice us monthly in arrears for services performed. In accruing service fees, we estimate the time period over which services will be performed and the level of effort to be expended in each period. If we do not identify costs that we have begun to incur or if we underestimate or overestimate the level of services performed or the costs of these services, our actual expenses could differ from our estimates.
To date, we have not experienced significant changes in our estimates of accrued research and development expenses after a reporting period. Such changes in estimates recorded after a reporting period have been less than 1% of our annual R&D expenses and have not been material. However, due to the nature of estimates, there is no assurance that we will not make changes to our estimates in the future as we become aware of additional information about the status or conduct of our clinical studies and other research activities. Such changes in estimates will be recognized as research and development expenses in the period that the change in estimate occurs.
Theravance Respiratory Company, LLC (“TRC”)
Through our equity ownership of TRC, we are entitled to receive an 85% economic interest in any future payments that may be made by GSK relating to the GSK-Partnered Respiratory Programs (net of TRC expenses paid and the amount of cash, if any, expected to be used by TRC pursuant to the TRC LLC Agreement over the next four fiscal quarters). The GSK-Partnered Respiratory Programs consist primarily of the Trelegy Ellipta program and the inhaled Bifunctional Muscarinic Antagonist-Beta2 Agonist (“MABA”) program.
We analyzed our ownership, contractual and other interests in TRC to determine if TRC is a variable-interest entity (“VIE”), whether we have a variable interest in TRC and the nature and extent of that interest. We determined that TRC is a VIE. The party with the controlling financial interest, the primary beneficiary, is required to consolidate the entity determined to be a VIE. Therefore, we also assessed whether we are the primary beneficiary of TRC based on the power to direct its activities that most significantly impact its economic performance and our obligation to absorb its losses or the right to receive benefits from it that could potentially be significant to TRC. Based on our assessment, we determined that we are not the primary beneficiary of TRC, and, as a result, we do not consolidate TRC in our consolidated financial statements. TRC is recognized in our consolidated financial statements under the equity method of accounting. Income related to our equity ownership of TRC is reflected in our consolidated statements of operations as non-operating income.
We utilize the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on differences between financial reporting and tax basis of assets and liabilities and are measured using enacted tax rates and laws that are anticipated to be in effect when the differences are expected to reverse. A valuation allowance is provided when it is more likely than not that some portion or all of a deferred tax asset will not be realized.
Our total unrecognized tax benefits of $58.8 million and $52.4 million, as of December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, respectively, may reduce the effective tax rate in the period of recognition. We currently have a full valuation allowance against our deferred tax assets, which would impact the timing of the effective tax rate benefit should any of these uncertain positions be favorably settled in the future.
We assess all material positions, including all significant uncertain positions, in all tax years that are still subject to assessment or challenge by relevant taxing authorities. Assessing an uncertain tax position begins with the initial determination of the position’s sustainability and is measured at the largest amount of benefit that is greater than 50% likely to be realized upon ultimate settlement. As of each balance sheet date, unresolved uncertain tax positions must be reassessed, and we will determine whether the factors underlying the sustainability assertion have changed and whether the amount of the recognized tax benefit is still appropriate.
The recognition and measurement of tax benefits requires significant judgment. We have taken certain positions where we believe that our position is greater than 50% likely to be realized upon ultimate settlement and for which no reserve for uncertain tax positions has been recorded. If we do not ultimately realize the expected benefit of these positions, we will record additional income tax expenses in future periods. Judgments concerning the recognition and measurement of a tax benefit might change as new information becomes available.
Any tax levied or credited by a governmental taxing authority that is not based on our income is outside the scope of accounting for income taxes. Therefore, we record such items as a component in our loss before income taxes.
Results of Operations
The following tables set forth our results of operations for the periods presented. Management’s commentary for the 2019 results compared to 2018 results are presented in the paragraphs below, and management’s commentary for the 2018 results compared to the 2017 results are included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) on February 28, 2019.
Revenue, as compared to the prior years, was as follows:
Year Ended December 31,
Mylan collaboration agreement
NM: Not Meaningful
As a result of the sale of our VIBATIV business to Cumberland in November 2018, no product sales were recognized in 2019.
Collaboration revenue was $31.3 million in 2019, which represented a $10.5 million decrease from 2018. The $10.5 million decrease was primarily due to Alfasigma’s exercise of its option to develop and commercialize velusetrag in April 2018. In 2019, collaboration revenue from the Janssen collaboration agreement for TD-1473 and related back-up compounds, entered into in February 2018, was $31.1 million and unchanged from 2018.
Licensing revenue was $28.5 million in 2019 and was comprised of an $18.5 million upfront payment (before a required tax withholding) from Mylan associated with the June 2019 amendment for the commercialization and development rights to nebulized revefenacin in China and adjacent territories and a $10.0 million upfront payment from the Pfizer collaboration agreement for our preclinical skin-selective, locally-acting pan-JAK inhibitor program that was entered into in December 2019.
We are entitled to a share of US profits and losses (65% to Mylan; 35% to Theravance Biopharma) received in connection with commercialization of YUPELRI. Any reimbursement from Mylan attributed to the 65% cost-sharing of our R&D expenses is characterized as a reduction of R&D expense, as we do not consider performing research and development services for reimbursement to be a part of our ongoing major or central operations. In accordance with the applicable accounting guidance, amounts receivable from Mylan in connection with the commercialization of YUPELRI are recorded within the consolidated statements of operations as revenue from “Mylan collaboration agreement” irrespective of whether the overall collaboration is profitable. Amounts payable to Mylan in connection with the commercialization of YUPELRI are recorded within the consolidated statements of operations as a collaboration loss within selling, general and administrative expenses.
In 2019, we recognized $13.7 million in revenue from the Mylan collaboration agreement which represented the receivables due from Mylan since YUPELRI’s formal product launch in early 2019. Revenue from the Mylan collaboration agreement was $3.3 million in 2018 and represented the receivables due from Mylan during the initial channel buildout for YUPELRI in late 2018.
Cost of Goods Sold
Cost of goods sold, as compared to the prior years, was as follows: