tbph_Current_Folio_10Q

Table of Contents

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 


Form 10-Q


 

(Mark One)

 

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2018

 

OR

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the transition period from                  to

 

Commission file number:  001-36033

 

THERAVANCE BIOPHARMA, INC.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)

 


 

 

 

 

Cayman Islands

    

98-1226628

(State or Other Jurisdiction of

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Incorporation or Organization)

 

Identification No.)

 

 

 

PO Box 309

 

 

Ugland House, South Church Street

 

 

George Town, Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands

 

KY1-1104

(Address of Principal Executive Offices)

 

(Zip Code)

 

(650) 808-6000

(Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code)

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒  No ☐ 

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes ☒  No ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

 

 

 

 

Large accelerated filer ☒

    

Accelerated filer ☐

Non-accelerated filer ☐

 

Smaller reporting company ☐

(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)

 

Emerging growth company ☐

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐  No ☒

 

As of May 1, 2018, the number of the registrant’s outstanding ordinary shares was 54,853,858.

 

 

 


 

Table of Contents

THERAVANCE BIOPHARMA, INC.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

 

Page No.

PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION 

 

Item 1. Financial Statements 

 

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets as of March 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017 (unaudited) 

3

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss for the three months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017 (unaudited) 

4

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the three months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017 (unaudited) 

5

Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (unaudited) 

6

Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations 

19

Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk 

35

Item 4. Controls and Procedures 

35

 

 

PART II. OTHER INFORMATION 

 

Item 1. Legal Proceedings 

37

Item 1A. Risk Factors 

37

Item 2. Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds 

67

Item 6. Exhibits 

68

Signatures 

69

 

 

2


 

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PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION

ITEM 1.    FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

THERAVANCE BIOPHARMA, INC.

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS

(Unaudited)

(In thousands, except per share data)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

March 31, 

 

December 31, 

 

 

    

2018

    

2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

125,831

 

$

88,980

 

Short-term marketable securities

 

 

292,700

 

 

259,586

 

Accounts receivable, net of allowances of $888 and $992 at March 31, 2018

     and December 31, 2017, respectively

 

 

1,973

 

 

2,253

 

Receivables from collaborative arrangements

 

 

2,845

 

 

7,109

 

Prepaid taxes

 

 

926

 

 

291

 

Other prepaid and current assets 

 

 

5,326

 

 

3,700

 

Inventories

 

 

17,217

 

 

16,830

 

Total current assets

 

 

446,818

 

 

378,749

 

Property and equipment, net

 

 

10,329

 

 

10,157

 

Long-term marketable securities

 

 

16,999

 

 

41,587

 

Tax receivable

 

 

3,324

 

 

8,191

 

Restricted cash

 

 

833

 

 

833

 

Other assets

 

 

1,805

 

 

1,883

 

Total assets

 

$

480,108

 

$

441,400

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Liabilities and Shareholders' Equity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts payable

 

$

5,085

 

$

5,924

 

Accrued personnel-related expenses

 

 

21,989

 

 

24,136

 

Accrued clinical and development expenses

 

 

16,435

 

 

20,657

 

Other accrued liabilities

 

 

11,508

 

 

11,710

 

Deferred revenue

 

 

50,162

 

 

125

 

Total current liabilities

 

 

105,179

 

 

62,552

 

Convertible senior notes, net

 

 

224,014

 

 

223,746

 

Deferred rent

 

 

5,772

 

 

3,668

 

Long-term deferred revenue

 

 

45,651

 

 

1,436

 

Other long-term liabilities

 

 

36,085

 

 

34,820

 

Commitments and contingencies

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shareholders’ equity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Preferred shares, $0.00001 par value: 230 shares authorized, no shares issued or

    outstanding

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

Ordinary shares, $0.00001 par value: 200,000 shares authorized; 54,798 and 54,381 shares issued and outstanding at March 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively

 

 

 1

 

 

 1

 

Additional paid-in capital

 

 

925,968

 

 

913,650

 

Accumulated other comprehensive loss

 

 

(854)

 

 

(733)

 

Accumulated deficit

 

 

(861,708)

 

 

(797,740)

 

Total shareholders’ equity

 

 

63,407

 

 

115,178

 

Total liabilities and shareholders’ equity

 

$

480,108

 

$

441,400

 

 

See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.

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THERAVANCE BIOPHARMA, INC.

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS AND COMPREHENSIVE LOSS

(Unaudited)

(In thousands, except per share data)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended

 

 

 

March 31, 

 

 

    

2018

    

2017

    

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Revenue:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Product sales

 

$

3,679

 

$

3,050

 

Revenue from collaborative arrangements

 

 

4,640

 

 

37

 

Total revenue

 

 

8,319

 

 

3,087

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Costs and expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cost of goods sold

 

 

826

 

 

565

 

Research and development (1)

 

 

47,765

 

 

40,565

 

Selling, general and administrative (1)

 

 

24,704

 

 

20,786

 

Total costs and expenses

 

 

73,295

 

 

61,916

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Loss from operations

 

 

(64,976)

 

 

(58,829)

 

Interest expense

 

 

(2,137)

 

 

(2,137)

 

Interest and other income, net

 

 

2,170

 

 

1,030

 

Loss before income taxes

 

 

(64,943)

 

 

(59,936)

 

Provision for income taxes

 

 

144

 

 

5,383

 

Net loss

 

$

(65,087)

 

$

(65,319)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss per share:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic and diluted net loss per share

 

$

(1.22)

 

$

(1.27)

 

Shares used to compute basic and diluted net loss per share

 

 

53,256

 

 

51,617

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net unrealized loss on available-for-sale investments

 

 

(120)

 

 

(19)

 

Total comprehensive loss

 

$

(65,207)

 

$

(65,338)

 


(1)

Amounts include share-based compensation expense as follows:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended

 

 

 

March 31, 

 

(In thousands)

    

2018

    

2017

    

Research and development

 

$

6,559

 

$

5,101

 

Selling, general and administrative

 

 

7,439

 

 

5,168

 

Total share-based compensation expense

 

$

13,998

 

$

10,269

 

 

See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.

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THERAVANCE BIOPHARMA, INC.

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS

(Unaudited)

(In thousands)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended

 

 

 

March 31, 

 

 

    

2018

    

2017

    

Operating activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

 

$

(65,087)

 

$

(65,319)

 

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Depreciation and amortization

 

 

900

 

 

1,083

 

Share-based compensation

 

 

13,998

 

 

10,269

 

Other

 

 

(890)

 

 

53

 

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts receivable

 

 

280

 

 

(587)

 

Receivables from collaborative arrangements

 

 

4,264

 

 

1,437

 

Other prepaid and current assets

 

 

(1,578)

 

 

(1,237)

 

Inventories

 

 

(371)

 

 

140

 

Tax receivable

 

 

5,092

 

 

 —

 

Other assets

 

 

 —

 

 

266

 

Accounts payable

 

 

(449)

 

 

2,004

 

Accrued personnel-related expenses, accrued clinical and development expenses,     and other accrued liabilities

 

 

(5,076)

 

 

(3,214)

 

Deferred rent

 

 

2,104

 

 

(292)

 

Deferred revenue

 

 

95,371

 

 

17

 

Other long-term liabilities

 

 

1,267

 

 

5,354

 

Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities

 

 

49,825

 

 

(50,026)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Investing activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Purchases of property and equipment

 

 

(2,771)

 

 

(587)

 

Purchases of marketable securities

 

 

(54,839)

 

 

(159,217)

 

Maturities of marketable securities

 

 

46,299

 

 

36,282

 

Proceeds from the sales of fixed assets

 

 

17

 

 

 —

 

Net cash (used in) investing activities

 

 

(11,294)

 

 

(123,522)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Financing activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Proceeds from option exercises

 

 

35

 

 

2,816

 

Repurchase of shares to satisfy tax withholding

 

 

(1,715)

 

 

(4,032)

 

Net cash (used in) financing activities

 

 

(1,680)

 

 

(1,216)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net increase (decrease) in cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash 

 

 

36,851

 

 

(174,764)

 

Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash at beginning of period 

 

 

89,813

 

 

345,542

 

Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash at end of period 

 

$

126,664

 

$

170,778

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Supplemental disclosure of cash flow information

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash received for income taxes, net

 

$

4,473

 

$

 —

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.

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THERAVANCE BIOPHARMA, INC.

NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

(Unaudited)

 

1. Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

 

Theravance Biopharma, Inc. (“Theravance Biopharma”, the “Company”, or “we” and other similar pronouns) is a diversified biopharmaceutical company with the core purpose of creating medicines that help improve the lives of patients suffering from serious illness.

 

In our relentless pursuit of this objective, we strive to apply insight and innovation at each stage of our business, including research, development and commercialization, and utilize both internal capabilities and those of partners around the world. Our research efforts are focused in the areas of inflammation and immunology. Our research goal is to design localized medicines that target diseased tissues, without systemic exposure, in order to maximize patient benefit and minimize risk. These efforts leverage years of experience in developing localized medicines for the lungs to treat respiratory disease. The first potential medicine to emerge from our research focus on immunology and localized treatments is an oral, intestinally restricted pan-Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor, currently in development to treat a range of inflammatory intestinal diseases. Our pipeline of internally discovered product candidates will continue to evolve with the goal of creating transformational medicines to address the significant needs of patients.

 

In addition, we have an economic interest in future payments that may be made by Glaxo Group or one of its affiliates (GSK) pursuant to its agreements with Innoviva, Inc. relating to certain programs, including Trelegy Ellipta.

 

Basis of Presentation

 

Our condensed consolidated financial information as of March 31, 2018, and the three months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017 are unaudited but include all adjustments (consisting only of normal recurring adjustments), which we consider necessary for a fair presentation of the financial position at such date and of the operating results and cash flows for those periods, and have been prepared in accordance with US generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) for interim financial information. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and notes required by GAAP for complete financial statements. The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated December 31, 2017 financial statements and notes thereto included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) on February 28, 2018.

 

Effective January 1, 2018, we adopted Accounting Standards Codification, Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASC 606”) using the modified retrospective method applied to those contracts which were not completed as of January 1, 2018 and recognized the cumulative effect of ASC 606 at the date of initial application. This standard applies to all contracts with customers, except for contracts that are within the scope of other standards, such as leases, insurance, collaboration arrangements and financial instruments. Results for reporting periods beginning after January 1, 2018 are presented under ASC 606, while prior period amounts are not adjusted and continue to be reported under the accounting standards in effect for the prior period. We recorded a reduction to the opening balance of accumulated deficit of approximately $1.1 million and a corresponding reduction in deferred revenue as of January 1, 2018 due to ASC 606’s cumulative adoption impact on our collaborative arrangements. Our product sales revenue under ASC 606 would not have been materially different under the legacy Accounting Standards Codification, Topic 605, Revenue Recognition (“ASC 605”).

 

Effective January 1, 2018, we adopted Accounting Standards Update 2016-18, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Restricted Cash (“ASU 2016-18”) that changed the presentation of restricted cash and cash equivalents on the condensed consolidated statement of cash flows. Restricted cash are now included with cash and cash equivalents when reconciling the beginning of period and end of period total amounts shown on the condensed consolidated statements of cash flows. To conform to the presentation under ASU 2016-18, we revised the amounts previously reported on the condensed consolidated statements of cash flows for the comparable prior year period.

 

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Significant Accounting Policies

 

Other than the policies below, there have been no material revisions in our significant accounting policies described in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017.

 

Revenue Recognition

 

Under ASC 606, an entity recognizes revenue when its customer obtains control of promised goods or services, in an amount that reflects the consideration which the entity expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. To determine revenue recognition for arrangements that an entity determines are within the scope of ASC 606, the entity performs the following five steps: (i) identify the contract(s) with a customer; (ii) identify the performance obligations in the contract; (iii) determine the transaction price; (iv) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (v) recognize revenue when (or as) the entity satisfies a performance obligation.

 

At contract inception, once the contract is determined to be within the scope of ASC 606, we identify the performance obligations in the contract by assessing whether the goods or services promised within each contract are distinct. We then recognize revenue for the amount of the transaction price that is allocated to the respective performance obligation when (or as) the performance obligation is satisfied.

 

Product Sales

 

We sell VIBATIV in the US market by making the drug product available through a limited number of distributors, who sell VIBATIV to healthcare providers. Title and risk of loss transfer upon receipt by these distributors. We recognize VIBATIV product sales and related cost of product sales when the distributors obtain control of the drug product, which is at the time title transfers to the distributors.

 

Product sales are recorded on a net sales basis which includes estimates of variable consideration. The variable consideration results from sales discounts, government‑mandated rebates and chargebacks, distribution fees, estimated product returns and other deductions. We reflect such reductions in revenue as either an allowance to the related account receivable from the distributor, or as an accrued liability, depending on the nature of the sales deduction. Sales deductions are based on management’s estimates that consider payor mix in target markets, industry benchmarks and experience to date. In general, these estimates take into consideration a range of possible outcomes which are probability-weighted in accordance with the expected value method in ASC 606. We monitor inventory levels in the distribution channel, as well as sales of VIBATIV by distributors to healthcare providers, using product‑specific data provided by the distributors. Product return allowances are based on amounts owed or to be claimed on related sales. These estimates take into consideration the terms of our agreements with customers, historical product returns of VIBATIV, rebates or discounts taken, estimated levels of inventory in the distribution channel, the shelf life of the product, and specific known market events, such as competitive pricing and new product introductions. We update our estimates and assumptions each quarter and if actual future results vary from our estimates, we may adjust these estimates, which could have an effect on product sales and earnings in the period of adjustment.

 

Sales Discounts: We offer cash discounts to certain customers as an incentive for prompt payment. We expect our customers to comply with the prompt payment terms to earn the cash discount. In addition, we offer contract discounts to certain direct customers. We estimate sales discounts based on contractual terms, historical utilization rates, as available, and our expectations regarding future utilization rates. We account for sales discounts by reducing accounts receivable by the expected discount and recognizing the discount as a reduction of revenue in the same period the related revenue is recognized.

 

Chargebacks and Government Rebates: For VIBATIV sales in the US, we estimate reductions to product sales for qualifying federal and state government programs including discounted pricing offered to Public Health Service (“PHS”), as well as government‑managed Medicaid programs. Our reduction for PHS is based on actual chargebacks that distributors have claimed for reduced pricing offered to such healthcare providers and our expectation about future utilization rates. Our accrual for Medicaid is based upon statutorily‑defined discounts, estimated payor mix, expected sales to qualified healthcare providers, and our expectation about future utilization. The Medicaid accrual and government rebates that are invoiced

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directly to us are recorded in other accrued liabilities on the condensed consolidated balance sheets. For qualified programs that can purchase our products through distributors at a lower contractual government price, the distributors charge back to us the difference between their acquisition cost and the lower contractual government price, which we record as an allowance against accounts receivable.

 

Distribution Fees: We have contracts with our distributors in the US that include terms for distribution‑related fees. We determine distribution‑related fees based on a percentage of the product sales price, and we record the distribution fees as an allowance against accounts receivable.

 

Product Returns: We offer our distributors a right to return product purchased directly from us, which is principally based upon the product’s expiration date. Our policy is to accept product returns during the six months prior to and twelve months after the product expiration date on product that has been sold to our distributors. Product return allowances are based on amounts owed or to be claimed on related sales. These estimates take into consideration the terms of our agreements with customers, historical product returns of VIBATIV, rebates or discounts taken, estimated levels of inventory in the distribution channel, the shelf life of the product, and specific known market events, such as competitive pricing and new product introductions. We record our product return reserves as accrued other liabilities.

 

Allowance for Doubtful Accounts: We maintain a policy to record allowances for potentially doubtful accounts for estimated losses resulting from the inability of our customers to make required payments. As of March 31, 2018, there was no allowance for doubtful accounts related to customer payments.

 

The following table summarizes activity in each of the product revenue allowance and reserve categories for the three months ended March 31, 2018.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

Chargebacks,

    

Government

    

 

    

 

 

 

 

 

Discounts and

 

and Other

 

 

 

 

 

(In thousands)

 

Fees

 

Rebates

 

Returns

 

Total

 

Balance at December 31, 2017

 

$

992

 

$

352

 

$

947

 

$

2,291

 

Provision related to current period sales

 

 

1,482

 

 

174

 

 

79

 

 

1,735

 

Adjustment related to prior period sales

 

 

(71)

 

 

73

 

 

(449)

 

 

(447)

 

Credit or payments made during the period

 

 

(1,515)

 

 

(238)

 

 

(49)

 

 

(1,802)

 

Balance at March 31, 2018

 

$

888

 

$

361

 

$

528

 

$

1,777

 

 

Collaborative Arrangements

 

We enter into collaborative arrangements with partners that fall under the scope of both ASC 606 and Accounting Standards Codification, Topic 808, Collaborative Arrangements (“ASC 808”), as applicable. The terms of these arrangements typically include one or more of the following: (i) up-front fees; (ii) milestone payments related to the achievement of development, regulatory, or commercial goals; (iii) royalties on net sales of licensed products; (iv) reimbursements or cost sharing of R&D expenses; and (v) profit/loss sharing arising from co-promotion arrangements. Each of these payments results in collaboration revenues or an offset against R&D expenses. Where a portion of non‑refundable up-front fees or other payments received are allocated to continuing performance obligations under the terms of a collaborative arrangement, they are recorded as deferred revenue and recognized as revenue when (or as) the underlying performance obligation is satisfied. 

 

As part of the accounting for these arrangements, we must develop estimates and assumptions that require judgment to determine the underlying stand-alone selling price for each performance obligation which determines how the transaction price is allocated among the performance obligations. The estimation of the stand-alone selling price may include such estimates as, forecasted revenues or costs, development timelines, discount rates, and probabilities of technical and regulatory success. We evaluate each performance obligation to determine if they can be satisfied at a point in time or over time, and we measure the services delivered to the customer which are periodically reviewed based on the progress of the related program. The effect of any change made to an estimated input component and, therefore revenue or expense recognized, would be recorded as a change in estimate. In addition, variable consideration (e.g., milestone payments) must be evaluated to determine if it is constrained and, therefore, excluded from the transaction price.

 

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License Fees: If a license to our intellectual property is determined to be distinct from the other performance obligations identified in the arrangement, we recognize revenues from the transaction price allocated to the license when the license is transferred to the licensee and the licensee is able to use and benefit from the license. For licenses that are bundled with other promises, we utilize judgment to assess the nature of the combined performance obligation to determine whether the combined performance obligation is satisfied over time or at a point in time and, if over time, the appropriate method of measuring progress for purposes of recognizing revenue from the allocated transaction price. We evaluate the measure of progress each at reporting period and, if necessary, adjust the measure of performance and related revenue or expense recognition as a change in estimate.

 

Milestone Payments: At the inception of each arrangement that includes milestone payments (variable consideration), we evaluate whether the milestones are considered probable of being reached and estimate the amount to be included in the transaction price using the most likely amount method. If it is probable that a significant revenue reversal would not occur, the associated milestone value is included in the transaction price. Milestone payments that are not within our or the collaboration partner’s control, such as non-operational developmental and regulatory approvals, are generally not considered probable of being achieved until those approvals are received. At the end of each reporting period, we re-evaluate the probability of achievement of milestones that are within our or the collaboration partner’s control, such as operational developmental milestones and any related constraint, and if necessary, adjust our estimate of the overall transaction price. Any such adjustments are recorded on a cumulative catch-up basis, which would affect collaboration revenues and earnings in the period of adjustment. Revisions to our estimate of the transaction price may also result in negative collaboration revenues and earnings in the period of adjustment.

 

Royalties: For arrangements that include sales-based royalties, including commercial milestone payments based on the level of sales, and the license is deemed to be the predominant item to which the royalties relate, we recognize revenue at the later of (i) when the related sales occur, or (ii) when the performance obligation to which some or all of the royalty has been allocated has been satisfied (or partially satisfied). To date, we have not recognized any material royalty revenue resulting from any of our collaborative arrangements.

 

Under certain collaborative arrangements, we have been reimbursed for a portion of our R&D expenses or participate in the cost sharing of such R&D expenses. Such reimbursements and cost sharing arrangements have been reflected as a reduction of R&D expense in our condensed consolidated statements of operations, as we do not consider performing research and development services to be a part of our ongoing and central operations. Therefore, the reimbursement or cost sharing of research and development services are recorded as a reduction of R&D expense.

 

Under the terms of our collaboration agreement with Mylan Ireland Limited (“Mylan”) for revefenacin, we are also entitled to a share of US profits and losses (65% Mylan/35% Theravance Biopharma) received in connection with commercialization of revefenacin, and we are entitled to low double-digit royalties on ex-US net sales (excluding China). If and when revefenacin is approved, we expect that Mylan will be the principal in the sales transaction and will record the product sales.  For the periods presented, our share of the losses under a co-promote arrangement are recorded within R&D expense and selling, general and administrative expense on our condensed consolidated statements of operations. See “Note 3. Collaborative Arrangements” for additional information about our collaboration agreement with Mylan.

 

We adopted ASC 606 on January 1, 2018 using the modified retrospective method.  Our prior periods remain reported under ASC 605.  Our revenue recognition policy under ASC 605 for the comparative 2017 periods is included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017.

 

Income Taxes

 

On January 1, 2018, we adopted ASU 2016-16, Income Taxes (Topic 740), Intra-Entity Transfers of Assets Other Than Inventory (“ASU 2016-16”) using the modified retrospective approach. ASU 2016-16 requires immediate recognition of income tax consequences of intra-company asset transfers, other than inventory transfers. Legacy GAAP prohibited recognition of income tax consequences of intra-company asset transfers whereby the seller defers any net tax effect and the buyer is prohibited from recognizing a deferred tax asset on the difference between the newly created tax basis of the asset in its tax jurisdiction and its financial statement carrying amount as reported in the consolidated financial statements. An example of an inter-company asset transfers included in ASU 2016-16’s scope is intellectual property. The adoption of ASU

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2016-16 did not have a material impact on our balance sheet or statement of operations as our deferred tax assets are fully offset by a valuation allowance.

 

Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted

 

In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016‑02, Leases (“ASU 2016‑02”). ASU 2016‑02 is aimed at making leasing activities more transparent and comparable, and requires substantially all leases be recognized by lessees on their balance sheet as a right‑of‑use asset and corresponding lease liability, including leases currently accounted for as operating leases. ASU 2016‑02 is effective for all interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018 with early adoption permitted. Based on our initial assessment of ASU 2016-02, we believe that the largest impact to our balance sheet will be from recognizing a right-of-use asset and corresponding lease liability related to our property leases in South San Francisco and Dublin, Ireland. We expect to adopt ASU 2016-02 in the first quarter of 2019, and we are continuing to evaluate the full impact that the adoption of ASU 2016‑02 will have on our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.

 

We have evaluated other recently issued accounting pronouncements and do not believe that any of these pronouncements will have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.

 

2. Net Loss per Share

 

Basic net loss per share is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted-average number of shares of outstanding, less ordinary shares subject to forfeiture. Diluted net loss per share is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted-average number of shares outstanding, less ordinary shares subject to forfeiture, plus all additional ordinary shares that would have been outstanding, assuming dilutive potential ordinary shares had been issued for other dilutive securities.

 

For the three months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017, diluted and basic net loss per share was identical since potential ordinary shares were excluded from the calculation, as their effect was anti-dilutive.

 

Anti-dilutive Securities

 

The following ordinary equivalent shares were not included in the computation of diluted net loss per share because their effect was anti-dilutive:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended

 

 

 

March 31, 

 

(In thousands)

    

2018

    

2017

    

Share issuances under equity incentive plans and ESPP 

 

3,916

 

3,386

 

Restricted shares

 

 5

 

26

 

Share issuances upon the conversion of convertible senior notes

 

6,676

 

6,676

 

    Total

 

10,597

 

10,088

 

 

In addition, there were 1,305,000 shares that are subject to performance‑based vesting criteria which have been excluded from the ordinary equivalent shares table above as of March 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.

 

3. Collaborative Arrangements

 

Revenue from Collaborative Arrangements

 

We recognized revenues from our collaborative arrangements as follows:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended

 

 

 

March 31, 

 

(In thousands)

    

2018

    

2017

    

Janssen

 

$

4,613

 

$

 —

 

Other

 

 

27

 

 

37

 

Total revenue from collaborative arrangements

 

$

4,640

 

$

37

 

 

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Under legacy ASC 605 revenue guidance, we would have recognized $4.7 million in revenue from collaboration arrangements for the three months ended March 31, 2018.

 

Changes in Deferred Revenue Balances

 

We recognized the following revenue as a result of changes in our deferred revenue balance during the period below:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended

 

 

 

March 31, 

 

(In thousands)

 

2018

 

Revenue recognized in the period from:

 

 

 

 

Amounts included in deferred revenue at the beginning of the period

 

$

16

 

 

Mylan

 

Development and Commercialization Agreement

 

In January 2015, Mylan Ireland Limited (“Mylan”) and we established a strategic collaboration for the development and, subject to regulatory approval, commercialization of revefenacin (TD‑4208), our investigational LAMA in development for the treatment of COPD (the “Mylan Agreement”). We entered into this collaboration to expand the breadth of our revefenacin development program and extend our commercial reach beyond the acute care setting where we currently market VIBATIV.

 

Under the Mylan Agreement, Mylan paid us an up-front fee of $15.0 million for the delivery of the revefenacin license in 2015 and, in 2016, Mylan paid us a milestone payment $15.0 million for the achievement of 50% enrollment in the Phase 3 twelve-month safety study. Separately, pursuant to an ordinary share purchase agreement entered into on January 30, 2015, Mylan Inc., a subsidiary of Mylan N.V., made a $30.0 million equity investment in us, buying 1,585,790 ordinary shares from us in early February 2015 in a private placement transaction at a price of approximately $18.918 per share, which represented a 10% premium, equal to $4.2 million, over the volume weighted average price per share of our ordinary shares for the five trading days ending on January 30, 2015. 

 

As of March 31, 2018, we are eligible to receive from Mylan additional potential development, regulatory and sales milestone payments totaling up to $205.0 million in the aggregate, with $160.0 million associated with revefenacin monotherapy and $45.0 million for future potential combination products. Of the $160.0 million associated with monotherapy, $150.0 million relates to sales milestones based on achieving certain levels of net sales and $10.0 million relates to regulatory actions in the European Union (“EU”).

 

We evaluated the terms of the Mylan Agreement under ASC 606 and identified two performance obligations: (1) delivery of the license to develop and commercialize revefenacin; and (2) joint steering committee participation. We determined the license to be distinct from the joint steering committee participation. We further determined that the transaction price under the arrangement was comprised of the following: (1) $15.0 million up-front license fee received in 2015; (2) $4.2 million premium related to the ordinary share purchase agreement received in 2015; and (3) $15.0 million milestone for 50% enrollment in the Phase 3 twelve-month safety study received in 2016. The total transaction price of $34.2 million was allocated to the two performance obligations based on our best estimate of the relative stand-alone selling price. For the delivery of the license, we based the stand-alone selling price on a discounted cash flow approach and considered several factors including, but not limited to: discount rate, development timeline, regulatory risks, estimated market demand and future revenue potential. For the committee participation, we based the stand-alone selling price on the average compensation of our committee members estimated to be incurred over the performance period. We expect to recognize revenue from the committee participation ratably over the performance period of approximately seventeen years.

 

The future potential milestone amounts were not included in the transaction price, as they were all determined to be fully constrained under ASC 606. As part of our evaluation of the development and regulatory milestones constraint, we determined that the achievement of such milestones are contingent upon success in future clinical trials and regulatory approvals which are not within our control and uncertain at this stage. We expect that the sales-based milestone payments and

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royalty arrangements will be recognized when the sales occur or the milestone is achieved. We will re-evaluate the transaction price each quarter and as uncertain events are resolved or other changes in circumstances occur.

 

Under the terms of the Mylan Agreement, Mylan is responsible for reimbursement of our costs related to the registrational program up until the approval of the first new drug application. Performing R&D services for reimbursement is considered to be a collaborative activity under the scope of ASC 808. Reimbursable program costs are recognized proportionately with the performance of the underlying services and accounted for as reductions to R&D expense. For this unit of account, we do not recognize revenue or analogize to ASC 606 and, as such, the reimbursable program costs are excluded from the transaction price.

 

We are also entitled to a share of US profits and losses (65% Mylan/35% Theravance Biopharma) received in connection with commercialization of revefenacin, and we are entitled to low double-digit royalties on ex-US net sales (excluding China). We expect that Mylan will be the principle in the sales transaction and will record the product sales. Under a co-promote arrangement with Mylan, we currently record losses in the period incurred based on our estimate of those amounts. Until revefenacin is approved and we have recognized a profit under the agreement, losses are recognized within R&D expense and selling, general and administrative expense on our condensed consolidated statements of operations. For this unit of account, we have determined that Mylan is not a customer and do not analogize to ASC 606 for the profits and losses sharing activities. These activities are considered to be collaborative activities under the scope of ASC 808, and we will recognize the shared profits and losses in the periods that such profits and losses occur.

 

As of March 31, 2018, $0.3 million was recorded in deferred revenue on the condensed consolidated balance sheet under the Mylan Agreement. This amount reflects revenue allocated to joint steering committee participation and will be recognized as revenue over the course of the remaining performance period of approximately fourteen years. For the three months ended March 31, 2018, we recognized $6,000 in revenue primarily from the recognition of previously deferred revenue. 

 

Janssen Biotech

 

In February 2018, we entered into a global co-development and commercialization agreement with Janssen Biotech, Inc. (“Janssen”) for TD-1473 and related back-up compounds for inflammatory intestinal diseases, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease (the “Janssen Agreement”). Under the terms of the Janssen Agreement, we received an upfront payment of $100.0 million.  In 2018, we plan to initiate a large, Phase 2b/3 adaptive design induction and maintenance study in ulcerative colitis with TD-1473, as well as a Phase 2 study in Crohn’s disease. Following completion of the Phase 2 Crohn’s study and the Phase 2b induction portion of the ulcerative colitis study, Janssen can elect to obtain an exclusive license to develop and commercialize TD-1473 and certain related compounds by paying us a fee of $200.0 million. Upon such election, we and Janssen will jointly develop and commercialize TD-1473 in inflammatory intestinal diseases and share profits in the US and expenses related to a potential Phase 3 program (67% to Janssen; 33% to Theravance Biopharma). We would receive royalties on ex-US sales at double-digit tiered percentage royalty rates, and we would be eligible to receive up to an additional $700.0 million in development and commercialization milestone payments from Janssen.

 

We evaluated the terms of the Janssen Agreement under ASC 606 and identified research and development activities as our only performance obligation. We further determined that the transaction price under the arrangement was the $100.0 million upfront payment which was allotted to the single performance obligation.

 

The $900.0 million in future potential payments is considered variable consideration if Janssen elects to remain in the collaboration arrangement following completion of certain Phase 2 activities, as described above and, as such, was not included in the transaction price, as the potential payments were all determined to be fully constrained under ASC 606. As part of our evaluation of this variable consideration constraint, we determined that the potential payments are contingent upon developmental and regulatory milestones that are uncertain and are highly susceptible to factors outside of our control. We expect that any consideration related to royalties and sales-based milestones will be recognized when the subsequent sales occur.

 

For the three months ended March 31, 2018, we recognized $4.6 million as revenue from collaboration agreements related to the Janssen Agreement. The remaining transaction price of $95.4 million was recorded in deferred revenue on the condensed consolidated balance sheet and is expected to be recognized as revenue as the research and development services

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are delivered over the Phase 2 period. Revenue is recognized for the research and development services based on a measure of our efforts toward satisfying a performance obligation relative to the total expected efforts or inputs to satisfy the performance obligation (e.g., costs incurred compared to total budget). In future reporting periods, we will revisit our estimates related to our efforts towards satisfying the performance obligation and may record a change in estimate.

 

Alfasigma

 

Development and Collaboration Agreement

 

Under an October 2012 development and collaboration agreement for velusetrag, we and Alfasigma S.p.A (“Alfasigma”) agreed to collaborate in the execution of a two-part Phase 2 program to test the efficacy, safety and tolerability of velusetrag in the treatment of patients with gastroparesis (a medical condition consisting of a paresis (partial paralysis) of the stomach, resulting in food remaining in the stomach for a longer time than normal) (the “Alfasigma Agreement”). As part of the Alfasigma Agreement, Alfasigma funded the majority of the costs associated with the Phase 2 gastroparesis program, which consisted of a Phase 2 study focused on gastric emptying and a Phase 2 study focused on symptoms. Alfasigma had an exclusive option to develop and commercialize velusetrag in the EU, Russia, China, Mexico and certain other countries, while we retained full rights to velusetrag in the US, Canada, Japan and certain other countries.

 

In late April 2018, Alfasigma exercised its exclusive option to develop and commercialize velusetrag, and we elected not to pursue further development of velusetrag. As a result, we will transfer global rights for velusetrag to Alfasigma under the terms of the existing collaboration agreement. We have received a $10.0 million option fee from Alfasigma, and we are eligible to receive future potential development, regulatory and sales milestone payments and royalties.

 

As of March 31, 2018, we evaluated the terms of the Alfasigma Agreement under ASC 606 and identified committee participation as our only performance obligation. We further determined that the transaction price under the arrangement was nil, as of March 31, 2018, as any potential development or regulatory milestones were determined to be fully constrained as prescribed under ASC 606. As part of our evaluation of this variable consideration constraint, we determined that the potential payments are contingent upon development and regulatory milestones that are uncertain and are highly susceptible to factors outside of our control. In addition, we expect that any consideration related to sales-based milestones would be recognized when the subsequent sales occur.

 

Reimbursement of R&D Expense

 

Under certain collaborative arrangements, we are entitled to reimbursement of certain R&D expense. Activities under collaborative arrangements for which we are entitled to reimbursement are considered to be collaborative activities under the scope of ASC 808.  For these units of account, we do not analogize to ASC 606 or recognize revenue.  We record reimbursement payments received from our collaboration partners as reductions to R&D expense.

 

The following table summarizes the reductions to R&D expenses related to the reimbursement payments:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended

 

 

 

March 31, 

 

(In thousands)

    

2018

    

2017

    

Mylan

 

$

1,850

 

$

7,089

 

Other

 

 

 —

 

 

37

 

Total reduction to R&D expense

 

$

1,850

 

$

7,126

 

 

 

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4. Cash, Cash Equivalents, and Restricted Cash

 

The following table provides a reconciliation of cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash reported within the condensed consolidated balance sheets that sum to the total of the same such amount shown on the condensed consolidated statements of cash flows.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

March 31,

 

(In thousands)

 

2018

 

2017

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

125,831

 

$

169,945

 

Restricted cash

 

 

833

 

 

833

 

Total cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash shown on the
condensed consolidated statements of cash flows

 

$

126,664

 

$

170,778

 

 

Restricted cash pertained to certain lease agreements and letters of credit where we have pledged cash and cash equivalents as collateral. The cash-related amounts reported in the table above exclude our investments in short and long-term marketable securities that are reported separately on the condensed consolidated balance sheets.

 

5. Investments and Fair Value Measurements

 

Available‑for‑Sale Securities

 

The estimated fair value of marketable securities is based on quoted market prices for these or similar investments that were based on prices obtained from a commercial pricing service. The fair value of our marketable securities classified within Level 2 is based upon observable inputs that may include benchmark yields, reported trades, broker/dealer quotes, issuer spreads, two‑sided markets, benchmark securities, bids, offers and reference data including market research publications.

 

Available‑for‑sale securities are summarized below:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

March 31, 2018

 

    

 

    

 

 

    

Gross

    

Gross

    

 

 

 

 

 

 

Amortized

 

Unrealized

 

Unrealized

 

Estimated

(In thousands)

 

 

 

Cost

 

Gains

 

Losses

 

Fair Value

US government securities

 

Level 1

 

$

99,833

 

$

 —

 

$

(372)

 

$

99,461

US government agency securities

 

Level 2

 

 

37,187

 

 

 —

 

 

(89)

 

 

37,098

Corporate notes

 

Level 2

 

 

120,945

 

 

 1

 

 

(383)

 

 

120,563

Commercial paper

 

Level 2

 

 

73,523

 

 

 —

 

 

(11)

 

 

73,512

Marketable securities

 

 

 

 

331,488

 

 

 1

 

 

(855)

 

 

330,634

Money market funds

 

Level 1

 

 

73,184

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

73,184

Total

 

 

 

$

404,672

 

$

 1

 

$

(855)

 

$

403,818

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December 31, 2017

 

    

 

    

 

 

    

Gross

    

Gross

    

 

 

 

 

 

 

Amortized

 

Unrealized

 

Unrealized

 

Estimated

(In thousands)

 

 

 

Cost

 

Gains

 

Losses

 

Fair Value

US government securities

 

Level 1

 

$

89,896

 

$

 —

 

$

(342)

 

$

89,554

US government agency securities

 

Level 2

 

 

50,891

 

 

 —

 

 

(113)

 

 

50,778

Corporate notes

 

Level 2

 

 

141,226

 

 

 2

 

 

(280)

 

 

140,948

Commercial paper

 

Level 2

 

 

19,893

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

19,893

Marketable securities

 

 

 

 

301,906

 

 

 2

 

 

(735)

 

 

301,173

Money market funds

 

Level 1

 

 

69,055

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

69,055

Total

 

 

 

$

370,961

 

$

 2

 

$

(735)

 

$

370,228

 

As of March 31, 2018, all of the marketable securities had contractual maturities within two years and the weighted average maturity of the marketable securities was approximately six months. There were no transfers between Level 1 and Level 2 during the periods presented and there have been no changes to our valuation techniques during the three months ended March 31, 2018.

 

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In general, we invest in debt securities with the intent to hold such securities until maturity at par value. We do not intend to sell the investments that are currently in an unrealized loss position, and it is unlikely that we will be required to sell the investments before recovery of their amortized cost basis, which may be maturity. We have determined that the gross unrealized losses on our marketable securities, as of March 31, 2018, were temporary in nature. There were no material unrealized losses on investments which have been in a loss position for more than twelve months as of March 31, 2018.

 

As of March 31, 2018, our accumulated other comprehensive loss on our condensed consolidated balance sheets consisted of net unrealized losses on available-for-sale investments. During the three months ended March 31, 2018, we did not sell any of our marketable securities.

 

Long-term Debt Fair Value

 

We have $230.0 million of 3.25% convertible senior notes (“Notes”) outstanding as of March 31, 2018 with an estimated fair value of $234.0 million. The estimated fair value was primarily based upon the underlying price of Theravance Biopharma’s publicly traded shares and other observable inputs as of March 31, 2018. The inputs to determine fair value of the Notes are categorized as Level 2 inputs. Level 2 inputs include quoted prices for similar instruments in active markets; quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in markets that are not active; and model-derived valuations whose inputs are observable or whose significant value drivers are observable.

 

6. Theravance Respiratory Company, LLC

 

Prior to the spin-off from Innoviva, our former parent company, (the “Spin-Off”) Innoviva assigned to Theravance Respiratory Company, LLC (“TRC”), a Delaware limited liability company formed by Innoviva, its strategic alliance agreement with GSK and all of its rights and obligations under its collaboration agreement with GSK other than with respect to RELVAR® ELLIPTA®/BREO® ELLIPTA®, ANORO® ELLIPTA® and vilanterol monotherapy. Through our 85% equity interests in TRC, we are entitled to receive an 85% economic interest in any future payments made by GSK under the strategic alliance agreement and under the portion of the collaboration agreement assigned to TRC. The drug programs assigned to TRC include Trelegy Ellipta and the MABA program, as monotherapy and in combination with other therapeutically active components, such as an inhaled corticosteroid (“ICS”), and any other product or combination of products that may be discovered and developed in the future under the GSK agreements.

 

On May 31, 2014, we entered into the TRC LLC Agreement with Innoviva that governs the operation of TRC. Under the TRC LLC Agreement, Innoviva is the manager of TRC, and the business and affairs of TRC are managed exclusively by the manager, including (i) day to day management of the drug programs in accordance with the existing GSK agreements, (ii) preparing an annual operating plan for TRC and (iii) taking all actions necessary to ensure that the formation, structure and operation of TRC complies with applicable law and partner agreements. We are responsible for our proportionate share of TRC’s administrative expenses incurred by Innoviva.

 

We analyzed our ownership, contractual and other interests in TRC to determine if it is a variable‑interest entity (“VIE”), whether we have a variable interest in TRC and the nature and extent of that interest. We determined that TRC is a VIE. The party with the controlling financial interest, the primary beneficiary, is required to consolidate the entity determined to be a VIE. Therefore, we also assessed whether we are the primary beneficiary of TRC based on the power to direct its activities that most significantly impact its economic performance and our obligation to absorb its losses or the right to receive benefits from it that could potentially be significant to TRC. Based on our assessment, we determined that we are not the primary beneficiary of TRC, and, as a result, we do not consolidate TRC in our consolidated financial statements. TRC is recognized on our consolidated financial statements under the equity method of accounting, and the value of our equity investment in TRC was not material for the periods presented.  

 

For the three months ended March 31, 2018, we recognized $0.7 million in Interest and other income on our condensed consolidated statements of operations which represented our share in the net income of TRC which was generated by royalty payments from GSK to TRC arising from the net sales of Trelegy Ellipta. There was no income from TRC in the comparable prior year period.

 

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7. Inventories

 

Inventory consists of the following:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

March 31, 

 

December 31, 

 

(In thousands)

    

2018

    

2017

    

Raw materials

 

$

10,611

 

$

11,729

 

Work-in-process

 

 

1,986

 

 

66

 

Finished goods

 

 

4,620

 

 

5,035

 

Total inventories

 

$

17,217

 

$

16,830

 

 

 

8.  Share-Based Compensation

 

Share-Based Compensation Expense Allocation

 

The allocation of share-based compensation expense included in the condensed consolidated statements of operations was as follows:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended

 

 

 

March 31, 

 

(In thousands)

    

2018

    

2017

    

Research and development

 

$

6,559

 

$

5,101

 

Selling, general and administrative

 

 

7,439

 

 

5,168

 

Total share-based compensation expense

 

$

13,998

 

$

10,269

 

 

Performance-Contingent Awards

 

In the first quarter of 2016, the Compensation Committee of our Board of Directors (“Compensation Committee”) approved the grant of 1,575,000 performance-contingent restricted share awards (“RSAs”) and 135,000 performance-contingent restricted share units (“RSUs”) to senior management. The vesting of such awards is dependent on the Company meeting its critical operating goals and objectives during a five-year period from 2016 to December 31, 2020. The goals that must be met in order for the performance-contingent RSAs and RSUs to vest are strategically important for the Company, and the Compensation Committee believes the goals, if achieved, will increase shareholder value. The awards have dual triggers of vesting based upon the achievement of these goals and continued employment. As of March 31, 2018 and 2017, there were 1,305,000 performance-contingent RSAs and 135,000 performance-contingent RSUs outstanding.

 

Expense associated with these awards is broken into three separate tranches and may be recognized during the years 2016 to 2020 depending on the probability of meeting the performance conditions. Compensation expense relating to awards subject to performance conditions is recognized if it is considered probable that the performance goals will be achieved. The probability of achievement is reassessed at each quarter-end reporting period. The maximum potential expense associated with the awards could be up to $35.5 million (allocated as $13.3 million for research and development expense and $22.2 million for selling, general and administrative expense) if all of the performance conditions are achieved.

 

For the three months ended March 31, 2018,  we recognized $1.1 million and $0.9 million of share-based compensation expense related to our assessment of the probability that the performance conditions associated with the first and second tranches of these awards, respectively, was considered to be probable of vesting. For the three months ended March 31, 2017, we recognized $0.4 million of share-based compensation expense related to our assessment of the probability that the performance conditions associated with the first tranche was considered to be probable of vesting. As of March 31, 2017, the second tranche was not considered probable of vesting. As of March 31, 2018 and 2017, we determined that the remaining third tranche was not probable of vesting and, as a result, no compensation expense related to the third tranche has been recognized to date.

 

In the third quarter of 2017, the Compensation Committee approved the grant of 50,000 performance contingent RSUs to a newly appointed member of senior management. The RSUs have dual triggers of vesting based upon the achievement of certain corporate operating milestones in specified timelines, as well as a requirement for continued

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employment. Share-based compensation expense related to this grant is broken into two separate tranches and recognized when the associated performance goals are deemed to be probable of achievement. The maximum expense associated with the first tranche is $0.8 million. In 2017, we recognized $0.4 million in share-based compensation expense as we determined that the performance conditions associated with the first tranche was probable of vesting, and during the three months ended March 31, 2018, we recognized the remaining $0.4 million of share-based compensation expense as the performance conditions associated with the first tranche of this award were met.  We have determined that the second tranche was not probable of vesting as of March 31, 2018 and, as a result, no compensation expense related to the second tranche has been recognized to date.

 

9. Income Taxes

 

The income tax provision was $0.1 million and $5.4 million for the three months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively, although we incurred operating losses on a consolidated basis. The provision for income tax was primarily due to recording contingent tax liabilities pertaining primarily to uncertain tax positions taken with respect to transfer pricing and tax credits. No provision for income taxes has been recognized on undistributed earnings of our foreign subsidiaries because we consider such earnings to be indefinitely reinvested.

 

We follow the accounting guidance related to accounting for income taxes which requires that a company reduce its deferred tax assets by a valuation allowance if, based on the weight of available evidence, it is more likely than not that some portion or all of its deferred tax assets will not be realized. As of March 31, 2018, our deferred tax assets were offset in full by a valuation allowance.

 

We record liabilities related to uncertain tax positions in accordance with the income tax guidance which clarifies the accounting for uncertainty in income taxes recognized in an enterprise’s financial statements by prescribing a minimum recognition threshold and measurement attribute for the financial statement recognition and measurement of a tax position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. Resolution of one or more of these uncertain tax positions in any period may have a material impact on the results of operations for that period. We include any applicable interest and penalties within the provision for income taxes in the condensed consolidated statements of operations.

 

The difference between the Irish statutory rate and our effective tax rate was primarily due to the valuation allowance on deferred tax assets and the liabilities recorded for the uncertain tax position related to transfer pricing and tax credits.

 

Our future income tax expense may be affected by such factors as changes in tax laws, our business, regulations, tax rates, interpretation of existing laws or regulations, the impact of accounting for share-based compensation, the impact of accounting for business combinations, our international organization, shifts in the amount of income before tax earned in the US as compared with other regions in the world, and changes in overall levels of income before tax.

 

US Tax Reform

 

On December 22, 2017, the US government enacted the Tax Cuts and Jobs Acts (the "Tax Act"). The Tax Act significantly revises the US corporate income tax laws by, amongst other things, reducing the corporate income tax rate from 35% to 21% and implementing a modified territorial tax system that includes a one-time repatriation tax on accumulated undistributed foreign earnings.

 

Based on provisions of the Tax Act, we remeasured the deferred tax assets and liabilities based on the rates at which they are expected to reverse in the future, which is generally 21%. The estimated amount of the remeasurement of our federal deferred tax balance was $12.4 million. However, as we recognize a valuation allowance on deferred tax assets, if it is more likely than not that the assets will not be realized in future years, there is no impact to effective tax rate, as any change to deferred taxes would be offset by valuation allowances.

 

The changes included in the Tax Act are broad and complex. The final transition impact of the Tax Act may differ from the above estimate, possibly materially, due to, among other things, changes in interpretations of the Tax Act, any legislative action to address questions that arise because of the Tax Act, any changes in accounting standards for income

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taxes or related interpretations in response to the Tax Act, or any updates or changes to estimates the Company has utilized to calculate the transition impact, including impact from changes to current year earnings estimates and foreign exchange rates of foreign subsidiaries. For example, one area where we are waiting on further guidance before finalizing our conclusion as to the impact of the Tax Act on our deferred tax assets and liabilities is the transition rules with respect to the tax deductibility of executive compensation. The Securities Exchange Commission has issued rules that would allow for a measurement period of up to one year after the enactment date of the Tax Act to finalize the recording of the related tax impacts. For the three months ended March 31, 2018, we did not adjust or include any previously assessed Tax Act effect in our quarterly tax provision. We currently anticipate finalizing and recording any resulting adjustments by December 22, 2018.

 

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ITEM 2.   MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

Forward-Looking Statements

 

You should read the following discussion in conjunction with our condensed financial statements (unaudited) and related notes included elsewhere in this report. This report includes “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 (the “Securities Act”), as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”), as amended, that involve risks and uncertainties. All statements in this report, other than statements of historical facts, including statements regarding our strategy, future operations, future financial position, future revenues, projected costs, prospects, plans, intentions, expectations and objectives are forward-looking statements. The words “anticipate,” “assume,” “believe,” “contemplate,” “continue,” “could,” “designed,” “developed,” “drive,” “estimate,” “expect,” “forecast,” “goal,” “intend,” “may,” “mission,” “opportunities,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “pursue,” “seek,” “should,” “target,” “will,” “would,” and similar expressions (including the negatives thereof) are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. These statements reflect our current views with respect to future events or our future financial performance, are based on assumptions, and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors which may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions, expectations or objectives disclosed in our forward-looking statements and the assumptions underlying our forward-looking statements may prove incorrect. Therefore, you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Actual results or events could differ materially from the plans, intentions, expectations and objectives disclosed in the forward-looking statements that we make. Factors that we believe could cause actual results or events to differ materially from our forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, those discussed in “Risk Factors,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and elsewhere in this report and in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017. Our forward-looking statements in this report are based on current expectations and we do not assume any obligation to update any forward-looking statements for any reason, even if new information becomes available in the future.

 

Management Overview

 

Theravance Biopharma, Inc. (“Theravance Biopharma”) is a diversified biopharmaceutical company with the core purpose of creating medicines that help improve the lives of patients suffering from serious illness.

 

In our relentless pursuit of this objective, we strive to apply insight and innovation at each stage of our business, including research, development and commercialization, and utilize both internal capabilities and those of partners around the world. Our research efforts are focused in the areas of inflammation and immunology. Our research goal is to design localized medicines that target diseased tissues, without systemic exposure, in order to maximize patient benefit and minimize risk. These efforts leverage years of experience in developing localized medicines for the lungs to treat respiratory disease. The first potential medicine to emerge from our research focus on immunology and localized treatments is an oral, intestinally restricted pan-Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor, currently in development to treat a range of inflammatory intestinal diseases. Our pipeline of internally discovered product candidates will continue to evolve with the goal of creating transformational medicines to address the significant needs of patients.

 

In addition, we have an economic interest in future payments that may be made by Glaxo Group or one of its affiliates (GSK) pursuant to its agreements with Innoviva, Inc. relating to certain programs, including Trelegy Ellipta.

 

Program Highlights

 

Intestinally Restricted Pan-Janus Kinase (JAK) Inhibitor Program (TD-1473)  

 

JAK inhibitors function by inhibiting the activity of one or more of the Janus kinase family of enzymes (JAK1, JAK2, JAK3, TYK2) that play a key role in cytokine signaling. Inhibiting these JAK enzymes interferes with the JAK/STAT signaling pathway and, in turn, modulates the activity of a wide range of pro-inflammatory cytokines. JAK inhibitors are currently approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and myelofibrosis and have demonstrated therapeutic benefit for

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patients with ulcerative colitis. However, these products are known to have side effects based on their systemic exposure. Our goal is to develop an orally administered, intestinally restricted pan-JAK inhibitor specifically designed to distribute adequately and predominantly to the tissues of the intestinal tract, treating inflammation in those tissues while minimizing systemic exposure. We are focused on utilizing targeted JAK inhibitors for potential treatment of a range of inflammatory intestinal diseases, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. TD-1473 is our lead intestinally restricted pan-JAK inhibitor that is progressing into multiple clinical studies in 2018, as further described below. TD-3504 is a back-up compound that has successfully completed Phase 1 studies in healthy volunteers. Development of TD-3504 has been paused, consistent with the strategy we generally apply to back-up compounds and due to our significant investments in TD-1473.

 

Phase 1 Single Ascending Dose (SAD) and Multiple Ascending Dose (MAD) Studies

 

In June 2016, we completed a Phase 1 clinical study of TD-1473, an internally-discovered JAK inhibitor that has demonstrated a high affinity for each of the JAK family of enzymes. The primary objective of the study was to evaluate the safety and tolerability of single ascending and multiple ascending doses of TD-1473 in healthy volunteers. A key secondary objective of the trial was to characterize the pharmacokinetics of TD-1473, including the determination of the amount of TD-1473 that entered systemic circulation following oral administration. Data from the study demonstrated TD-1473 to be generally well tolerated. Study results also demonstrated that systemic exposures of TD-1473 were low relative to that reported for tofacitinib, a JAK inhibitor currently in development for ulcerative colitis. At steady state, the plasma exposures of TD-1473 were significantly lower than the plasma exposure of tofacitinib.

 

Furthermore, subjects exhibited high stool concentrations of TD-1473, which were comparable to concentrations associated with efficacy in preclinical colitis models. Preclinical studies also demonstrated penetration of TD-1473 into the intestinal wall and membrane. The data generated from the study met our target pharmacokinetic profile and support clinical progression of the compound.

 

Previously announced findings from a preclinical model of colitis evaluating TD-1473 and tofacitinib demonstrated that both compounds significantly reduced disease activity scores. However, at doses providing similar preclinical efficacy, the systemic exposure of TD-1473 was much lower than that of tofacitinib and, in contrast to tofacitinib, TD-1473 did not reduce systemic immune cell counts. Also, we completed six and nine month toxicology studies of TD-1473 and demonstrated favorable safety margins in these studies, in support of the dose ranges planned in the Phase 3 registrational program. Based on these preclinical findings, we believe that TD-1473 represents a potential breakthrough approach to treating inflammatory intestinal diseases without the risk generally associated with systemically active therapies.

 

Phase 1b Study

 

In late 2016, we announced dosing of the first patient in a Phase 1b clinical study of TD-1473 in patients with moderate to severe ulcerative colitis. The Phase 1b exploratory study in 40 patients was designed to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics (PK) of TD-1473 over a 28-day treatment period. In addition, the study incorporates biomarker analysis and clinical, endoscopic, and histologic assessments to evaluate biological effect.

 

In August 2017, we announced encouraging data from the first cohort of patients in the Phase 1b study. Data from the first cohort demonstrated evidence of localized biological activity for TD-1473 after four weeks of treatment, based on a compilation of clinical, endoscopic, and biomarker assessments. Pharmacokinetic data demonstrated minimal systemic exposure, and there was no evidence of systemic immunosuppression.

 

Janssen Biotech Collaboration

 

In February 2018, we announced a global co-development and commercialization agreement with Janssen Biotech, Inc. (“Janssen”) for TD-1473 and related back-up compounds for inflammatory intestinal diseases, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Under the terms of the agreement, we received an upfront payment of $100.0 million and will be eligible to receive up to an additional $900.0 million in potential payments, if Janssen elects to remain in the collaboration following the completion of certain Phase 2 activities. Upon such election, we and Janssen will jointly develop and commercialize TD-1473 in inflammatory intestinal diseases, and we and Janssen will share profits and losses in the US and

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expenses related to a potential Phase 3 program (67% to Janssen; 33% to us). In addition, we would receive royalties on ex-US sales at double-digit tiered percentage royalty rates.

 

In 2018, we plan to initiate a large, Phase 2b/3 adaptive design induction and maintenance study in ulcerative colitis with TD-1473, as well as a Phase 2 study in Crohn’s disease. Following completion of the Phase 2 Crohn’s study and the Phase 2b induction portion of the ulcerative colitis study, Janssen can elect to obtain an exclusive license to develop and commercialize TD-1473 and certain related compounds by paying us a fee of $200.0 million. The closing of this portion of the transaction is subject to clearance under the Hart-Scott-Rodino Antitrust Improvements Act (“HSR Act”). After Phase 2, Janssen would lead subsequent development of TD-1473 in Crohn’s disease if it makes such election. We will lead development of TD-1473 in ulcerative colitis through completion of the Phase 2b/3 program. If TD-1473 is commercialized, we have the option to co-commercialize in the US, and Janssen would have sole commercialization responsibilities outside the US. 

 

TD‑9855

 

TD-9855 is an investigational norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake inhibitor (“NSRI”). TD-9855 completed a Phase 2 study in patients with fibromyalgia, demonstrating statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvements in pain and core symptoms at the highest dose tested compared to placebo.

 

We are assessing the potential use of TD-9855 in neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (“nOH”), and in May 2016, we initiated an exploratory Phase 2a study of TD-9855 in this indication. The Phase 2a study was designed to evaluate postural changes in blood pressure, symptom reduction, and safety and tolerability of single ascending doses in patients with nOH.

 

Based on encouraging treatment responses in the first part of the study, we announced in February 2017 our plan to amend the study design to allow those patients who respond to continue dosing for up to 20 weeks to assess the durability of their response. We believe the ability to demonstrate a durable effect in nOH could lead to significant benefits for patients over existing therapy. Given many nOH patients suffer from underlying conditions that can cause rapid deterioration of their health, the endpoints of the extended dosing portion of the study evaluate patient responses following 4 weeks of therapy. We expect data from the extended Phase 2a study by the end of July.

 

In parallel with the Phase 2a study, we are seeking regulatory support for an orphan drug designation and an expedited development pathway for TD-9855 in nOH.

 

Long-Acting Muscarinic Antagonist—Revefenacin (TD-4208)

 

Revefenacin is an investigational long-acting muscarinic antagonist (“LAMA”) under regulatory review for the treatment of COPD, with an FDA PDUFA target action date in November of 2018. We believe that revefenacin may become a valuable addition to the COPD treatment regimen and that it represents a significant commercial opportunity. Our market research indicates there is an enduring population of COPD patients in the US that either need or prefer nebulized delivery for maintenance therapy. LAMAs are a cornerstone of maintenance therapy for COPD, but existing LAMAs are only available in handheld devices that may not be suitable for every patient. Revefenacin has the potential to be a best-in-class once-daily single-agent product for COPD patients who require, or prefer, nebulized therapy. The therapeutic profile of revefenacin, together with its physical characteristics, suggest that this LAMA could serve as a foundation for combination products and for delivery in metered dose inhaler and dry powder inhaler (“MDI/DPI”) products.

 

Mylan Collaboration

 

In January 2015, Mylan Ireland Limited (“Mylan”) and we established a strategic collaboration for the development and, subject to regulatory approval, commercialization of revefenacin. Partnering with a world leader in nebulized respiratory therapies enables us to expand the breadth of our revefenacin development program and extend our commercial reach beyond the acute care setting where we currently market VIBATIV. Mylan funded the Phase 3 development program, enabling us to advance other high value pipeline assets alongside revefenacin.

 

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Under the terms of the Mylan Development and Commercialization Agreement (the “Mylan Agreement”), Mylan and we are co-developing nebulized revefenacin for COPD and other respiratory diseases. We are leading the US Phase 3 development program, and Mylan is responsible for reimbursement of our costs related to the registrational program up until the approval of the first new drug application (“NDA”), after which costs will be shared. If a product developed under the collaboration is approved in the US, Mylan will lead commercialization, and we retain the right to co-promote the product in the US under a profit and loss sharing arrangement (65% Mylan/35% Theravance Biopharma). Currently, we plan to co-promote revefenacin with Mylan in the US, and we are working diligently, together with Mylan, to prepare for the anticipated launch. Outside the US (excluding China), Mylan will be responsible for development and commercialization and will pay us a tiered royalty on net sales at percentage royalty rates ranging from low double-digits to mid-teens.

 

Under the Mylan Agreement, Mylan paid us an initial payment of $15.0 million in cash in the second quarter of 2015. Also, pursuant to an ordinary share purchase agreement entered into on January 30, 2015, Mylan Inc., the indirect parent corporation of Mylan, made a $30.0 million equity investment in us, buying 1,585,790 ordinary shares from us in early February 2015 in a private placement transaction at a price of approximately $18.918 per share, which represented a 10% premium over the volume weighted average price per share of our ordinary shares for the five trading days ending on January 30, 2015. In February 2016, we earned a $15.0 million development milestone payment for achieving 50% enrollment in the Phase 3 twelve-month safety study. As of March 31, 2018, we are eligible to receive from Mylan additional potential development, regulatory and sales milestone payments totaling up to $205.0 million in the aggregate, with $160.0 million associated with revefenacin monotherapy and $45.0 million for future potential combination products. Of the $160.0 million associated with monotherapy, $150.0 million relates to sales milestones based on achieving certain levels of net sales and $10.0 million relates to regulatory actions in the European Union (“EU”). We do not expect to earn any milestone payments from Mylan in 2018.

 

We retain worldwide rights to revefenacin delivered through other dosage forms, such as a MDI/DPI, while Mylan has certain rights of first negotiation with respect to our development and commercialization of revefenacin delivered other than via a nebulized inhalation product. In China, we retain all rights to revefenacin in any dosage form.  

 

Phase 3 Study in COPD and NDA Submission

 

In September 2015, we announced, with our partner Mylan, the initiation of the Phase 3 development program for revefenacin for the treatment of COPD. The Phase 3 development program included two replicate three-month efficacy studies and a single twelve-month safety study. The two efficacy studies examined two doses (88 mcg and 175 mcg) of revefenacin inhalation solution administered once-daily via nebulizer in patients with moderate to severe COPD. The Phase 3 efficacy studies were replicate, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trials designed to provide pivotal efficacy and safety data for once-daily revefenacin over a dosing period of 12 weeks, with a primary endpoint of trough forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) on day 85. The Phase 3 safety study was an open-label, active comparator study of 12 months duration.

 

In October 2016, we announced positive top-line results from the two replicate Phase 3 efficacy studies of revefenacin in more than 1,200 moderate to very severe COPD patients, and in May and November 2017 we reported additional data from these studies. Both Phase 3 efficacy studies met their primary endpoints, demonstrating statistically significant improvements over placebo in trough FEV1 after 12 weeks of dosing for each of the revefenacin doses studied (88 mcg once daily and 175 mcg once daily). The studies also demonstrated that the 88 mcg and 175 mcg doses of revefenacin were generally well-tolerated, with comparable rates of adverse events and serious adverse events across all treatment groups (active and placebo). In July 2017, we announced positive top-line results from the twelve-month safety study in more than 1,000 COPD patients. Data demonstrated that both the 88 mcg and 175 mcg doses of revefenacin were generally well-tolerated, with low rates of adverse events (AEs) and serious adverse events (SAEs), comparable to those seen with the active comparator. Together, the three studies enrolled approximately 2,280 patients.

 

In November 2017, we submitted to the FDA for filing a NDA for revefenacin supported by data from the two replicate Phase 3 efficacy studies and twelve-month safety study. In January 2018, the FDA accepted the NDA for filing and assigned a PDUFA target action date of November 13, 2018.

 

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Phase 3b PIFR Study

 

In March 2017, we initiated a Phase 3b study of revefenacin in patients with suboptimal peak inspiratory flow rate (“PIFR”). This study is not required for NDA approval and was designed to support commercialization, if revefenacin is approved. The purpose of the study was to assess whether nebulized revefenacin was superior to handheld tiotropium (dosed via the Handihaler® device) in a broad population of COPD patients with suboptimal PIFR. The primary endpoint was improvement in lung function, as measured by trough forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) after 4 weeks of treatment.

 

The PIFR study was completed in the first quarter of 2018. In the overall population of approximately 200 moderate to very severe (GOLD Stage 2/3/4) COPD patients, we saw numerical improvements for revefenacin over tiotropium, but these improvements were not statistically significant, and as a result the study failed to meet the predefined threshold for superiority. In the pre‑specified subgroup of severe and very severe (GOLD 3/4) COPD patients, which represented approximately 80% of the patients in the study, revefenacin demonstrated nominally statistically significant and clinically relevant improvements in trough FEV1 versus tiotropium. Data generated in the study provide important insights to inform future potential studies of revefenacin in COPD patients with suboptimal PIFR. Revefenacin was well tolerated in this study, with no new safety issues identified. The Company plans to publish the results from this study in a future medical meeting or publication.

 

Velusetrag (TD‑5108)

 

Velusetrag is an oral, investigational medicine developed for gastrointestinal motility disorders. It is a highly selective agonist with high intrinsic activity at the human 5-HT4 receptor. We are partnered in the development of velusetrag and its commercialization in certain countries with Alfasigma S.p.A. (“Alfasigma”) (formerly Alfa Wassermann S.p.A.). In April 2014, we announced top-line results from the initial Phase 2 proof-of-concept study under this partnership, which evaluated gastric emptying, safety and tolerability of multiple doses of velusetrag.

 

In August 2017, we announced positive top-line results from a 12-week, Phase 2b study of velusetrag characterizing the impact on symptoms and gastric emptying of three oral doses of velusetrag (5, 15 and 30 mg) compared to placebo administered once daily over 12 weeks of therapy. Results from the study demonstrated statistically significant improvements in gastroparesis symptoms and gastric emptying for patients receiving 5 mg of velusetrag as compared to placebo. Patients in the 15 and 30 mg velusetrag study arms demonstrated statistically significant improvements in gastric emptying, but they did not experience statistically significant improvements in gastroparesis symptoms. Velusetrag was shown to be generally well-tolerated, with 5 mg and placebo having comparable rates of adverse events and serious adverse events. Completion of the Phase 2b study was followed by dialogue with regulatory authorities in the US and EU regarding further development of velusetrag.

 

In late April 2018, Alfasigma exercised its exclusive option to develop and commercialize velusetrag. As a result, we received a $10.0 million option fee. Additionally, we elected not to pursue further development of velusetrag, based on our planned pipeline investments and in light of the current FDA requirement that a chronically administered gastroparesis product in this class complete a large Phase 3 safety study. Global rights to develop, manufacture and commercialize velusetrag will transfer to Alfasigma under the terms of the existing collaboration agreement. Under the terms of the collaboration with Alfasigma, we are now entitled to receive future potential development, regulatory and commercial milestone payments of up to $26.8 million, and tiered royalties on global net sales ranging from high single digits to the mid-teens.

 

VIBATIV® (telavancin)

 

VIBATIV is a bactericidal, once-daily injectable antibiotic to treat patients with serious, life-threatening infections due to Staphylococcus aureus and other Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant (“MRSA”) strains. VIBATIV is approved in the US for the treatment of adult patients with complicated skin and skin structure infections (“cSSSI”) caused by susceptible Gram-positive bacteria and for the treatment of adult patients with hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (“HABP”/“VABP”) caused by susceptible isolates of Staphylococcus aureus when alternative treatments are not suitable. In addition, in 2016, the Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) allowed us to add new clinical

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data to the VIBATIV label concerning concurrent bacteremia in cases of HABP/VABP and cSSSI. VIBATIV is also indicated in Canada and Russia for cSSSI and HABP and VABP caused by Gram-positive bacteria, including MRSA.

 

Our acute care sales force markets VIBATIV in the US, and we maintain an independent marketing and medical affairs team. This same organization will support revefenacin, if approved in the US, alongside our partner for the program. Outside of the US, our strategy is to market VIBATIV through a network of partners. To date, we have secured partners for VIBATIV in the following geographies: Canada, Middle East and North Africa, Israel, Russia, China and India. In 2016, we and Clinigen reached a mutual decision for Clinigen to return to us the commercial rights to market and distribute VIBATIV in the EU. We do not intend to commercialize VIBATIV in the EU without a partner, and we have been unable to secure another such partner. Accordingly, in early 2018 we filed a withdrawal notice with the European Medicines Agency (“EMA”), and this notice was approved, thus extinguishing VIBATIV’s EU marketing authorization. 

 

Given the challenges we have faced commercializing VIBATIV in the US in a highly competitive environment against a variety of generic drugs, we have reduced and are closely managing our overall spending related to the product while preparing for and investing in the potential commercial launch of revefenacin as a treatment for COPD. We continue to view VIBATIV as an important medicine to treat serious infections in very sick patients, and we intend to continue to support the product.

 

Phase 3 Registrational Study in Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia

 

As part of our effort to explore additional settings in which VIBATIV may offer patients therapeutic benefit, in February 2015, we initiated a Phase 3 registrational study for the treatment of patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. The 250-patient registrational study is a multi-center, randomized, open-label study designed to evaluate the non-inferiority of telavancin in treating Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia as compared to standard therapy. Key secondary outcome measures of the study include an assessment of the duration of bacteremia post-randomization and the incidence of development of metastatic complications, as compared to standard therapy.  

 

In February 2018, the study stopped enrolling new patients following an interim analysis conducted by an independent review committee and company-wide review of investment priorities. The committee concluded the study was underpowered and therefore unlikely to achieve the primary study objective, without a significant increase in study size beyond the planned sample size of approximately 250 patients. Given the incremental investment required, we elected to close the study. No new safety issues were identified in the study, and as a result patients previously enrolled are allowed to complete dosing. We plan to submit data generated from the study for future scientific publication.

 

Telavancin Observational Use Registry (“TOURTM”) Study

 

Initiated in February 2015, the 1,000-patient TOURTM study is designed to assess the manner in which VIBATIV is used by healthcare practitioners to treat patients. By broadly collecting and examining data related to VIBATIV treatment patterns, as well as clinical effectiveness and safety outcomes in medical practice, we aim to create an expansive knowledge base to guide clinical use and future development of the drug. Data from this study is providing information about the use of VIBATIV in real-world clinical settings, including reports of positive clinical responses in patients with bacteremia, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, skin and respiratory infections. During 2017, we concluded the TOURTM registry study and completed the data base. We have begun and plan to continue to analyze the data and publish in a number of areas reflecting real world use of VIBATIV at future medical meetings and medical journals.

 

Janssen Pharmaceutica License Agreement

 

In 2002, we entered into a License Agreement with Janssen Pharmaceutica N.V. (“Janssen Pharmaceutica”) pursuant to which we have licensed rights under certain patents owned by Janssen Pharmaceutica covering an excipient used in the formulation of telavancin. Pursuant to the terms of this license agreement, we are obligated to pay royalties to Janssen Pharmaceutica of 2.5% to 5% of any net commercial sales of VIBATIV (telavancin). The license will terminate in 2019 on the later of 10 years from first commercial sale of VIBATIV and the date of expiration of the last applicable Janssen Pharmaceutica patent covering VIBATIV. The license is terminable by us upon prior written notice to Janssen Pharmaceutica or upon an uncured breach or a liquidation event of one of the parties.

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Neprilysin (NEP) Inhibitor Program (TD-0714 and TD-1439)

 

Neprilysin (“NEP”) is an enzyme that degrades natriuretic peptides. These peptides play a protective role in controlling blood pressure and preventing cardiovascular tissue remodeling. Inhibiting NEP may result in clinical benefit for patients, including diuresis, control of blood pressure, and reversing maladaptive changes in the heart and vascular tissue in patients with congestive heart failure. Our primary objective for this program is to develop a NEP inhibitor that could be used across a broad population of patients with cardiovascular and renal diseases, including acute and chronic heart failure and chronic kidney disease, including diabetic nephropathy. We aim to create a platform for multiple combination products with our NEP inhibitor with features that are differentiated from currently available products. Our NEP inhibitor program consists of two compounds (TD-0714 and TD-1439), each of which demonstrated characteristics in line with our target product profile in Phase 1 studies in healthy volunteers.

 

TD-0714

 

Phase 1 Single Ascending Dose (SAD) and Multiple Ascending Dose (MAD) Studies

 

In March 2016, we completed a Phase 1 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single ascending dose (“SAD”) study in healthy volunteers of our most advanced NEP inhibitor compound, TD-0714. The study was designed to assess the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of TD-0714, as well as measure biomarker evidence of target engagement and the amount of the drug that is eliminated via the kidneys. Results from the SAD study of TD-0714 demonstrate that the compound achieved maximal and sustained levels of target engagement for 24 hours after a single-dose, supporting the drug’s potential for once-daily dosing. Target engagement was measured by dose-related increases in the levels of cyclic GMP (cGMP, a well-precedented biomarker of NEP engagement). TD-0714 also demonstrated very low levels of renal elimination, as evidenced by intravenous microtracer testing technology, and a favorable tolerability profile.

 

In October 2016, we completed a Phase 1 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple ascending dose (“MAD”) study in healthy volunteers of TD-0714. The findings from the MAD study were consistent with the Phase 1 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, SAD study in healthy volunteers we completed in March 2016, demonstrating sustained target engagement, low levels of renal elimination, and a favorable tolerability profile.

 

TD-1439

 

TD-1439 is a second NEP inhibitor compound, which is structurally distinct from TD-0714. In the first half of 2017, we announced favorable results from Phase 1 SAD and a Phase 1 MAD studies of TD-1439. In both Phase 1 studies, TD-1439 demonstrated characteristics which met our target product profile, including sustained 24-hour target engagement, low levels of renal elimination and a favorable tolerability profile.

 

We are evaluating next steps for both compounds in our NEP inhibitor program clinical program. The results from the Phase 1 programs provide confidence for pursuing future efficacy studies of either compound in a broad range of cardiovascular and renal diseases, including in patients with compromised renal function.

 

Selective 5-HT4 Agonist (TD-8954)

 

Takeda Collaborative Arrangement

 

In June 2016, we entered into a License and Collaboration Agreement with Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a Delaware corporation (“Millennium”) (the “Takeda Agreement”), in order to establish a collaboration for the development and commercialization of TD-8954 (TAK-954), a selective 5-HT4 receptor agonist. Millennium is an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited (TSE: 4502), a publicly-traded Japanese corporation listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange (collectively with Millennium, “Takeda”). TD-8954 is being developed for potential use in the treatment of gastrointestinal motility disorders, including short-term intravenous use for enteral feeding intolerance (“EFI”) to achieve early nutritional adequacy in critically ill patients at high nutritional risk, an indication for which the compound received FDA Fast Track designation. Under the terms of the Takeda Agreement, Takeda will be responsible for worldwide

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development and commercialization of TD-8954. We received an upfront cash payment of $15.0 million and will be eligible to receive success-based development, regulatory and sales milestone payments by Takeda. The first $110.0 million of potential milestones are associated with the development, regulatory and commercial launch milestones for EFI or other intravenously dosed indications. We will also be eligible to receive a tiered royalty on worldwide net sales by Takeda at percentage royalty rates ranging from low double-digits to mid-teens.

 

Other Programs

 

Economic Interest in GSK-Partnered Respiratory Programs

 

We are entitled to receive an 85% economic interest in any future payments that may be made by GSK (pursuant to its agreements with Innoviva) relating to the GSK-Partnered Respiratory Programs, which Innoviva partnered with GSK and assigned to Theravance Respiratory Company, LLC (“TRC”) in connection with Innoviva’s separation of its biopharmaceutical operations into its then wholly-owned subsidiary Theravance Biopharma. The GSK-Partnered Respiratory Programs consist primarily of the Trelegy Ellipta program and the inhaled Bifunctional Muscarinic Antagonist-Beta2 Agonist (“MABA”) program, each of which are described in more detail below. We are entitled to this economic interest through our equity ownership in TRC. Our economic interest does not include any payments associated with RELVAR® ELLIPTA®/BREO® ELLIPTA®, ANORO® ELLIPTA® or vilanterol monotherapy. The following information regarding the Trelegy Ellipta and MABA programs is based solely upon publicly available information and may not reflect the most recent developments under the programs.

 

Trelegy Ellipta (the combination of fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium bromide/vilanterol)

 

Trelegy Ellipta is the first treatment to provide the activity of an inhaled corticosteroid (FF) plus two bronchodilators (UMEC, a LAMA, and VI, a long-acting beta2 agonist, or LABA) in a single delivery device administered once-daily. Trelegy Ellipta is approved for use in the US and EU for the long-term, once-daily, maintenance treatment of appropriate patients with COPD. We are entitled to receive an 85% economic interest in the royalties payable by GSK to TRC on worldwide net sales. Those royalties are upward-tiering from 6.5% to 10%, resulting in cash flows to Theravance Biopharma of approximately 5.5% to 8.5% of worldwide net sales of Trelegy Ellipta. Theravance Biopharma is not responsible for any costs related to Trelegy Ellipta.

 

Innoviva and GSK conducted two global pivotal Phase 3 studies of Trelegy Ellipta in COPD, the IMPACT study and the FULFIL study.

 

The IMPACT study, which enrolled 10,355 COPD patients, was initiated in July 2014. In September 2017, GSK and Innoviva disclosed positive headline results from the IMPACT study, in which data demonstrated statistically significant reductions in the annual rate of on-treatment moderate/severe exacerbations for Trelegy Ellipta (100/62.5/25mcg) when compared with two, once-daily dual COPD therapies RELVAR® ELLIPTA®/BREO® ELLIPTA® (FF/VI), an ICS/LABA combination, and ANORO® ELLIPTA® (UMEC/VI), a LAMA/LABA combination. In addition, statistically significant improvements were observed across all pre-specified key secondary endpoints and associated treatment comparisons.

 

The FULFIL study, which enrolled 1,810 COPD patients, was initiated in February 2015. In June 2016, GSK and Innoviva disclosed positive top‑line results from the FULFIL study, in which data demonstrated superiority of Trelegy Ellipta as compared to twice‑daily SYMBICORT® TURBOHALER® (budesonide/formoterol) in improving lung function and health‑related quality of life, as well as reducing exacerbations in COPD patients.

In September 2017, GSK and Innoviva announced that the US FDA approved Trelegy Ellipta for the long-term, once-daily, maintenance treatment of appropriate patients with COPD. In November 2017, GSK and Innoviva announced the submission of a sNDA to the FDA with data from the IMPACT study to support an expanded label for Trelegy Ellipta. In April 2018, GSK and Innoviva announced the FDA approved the sNDA with an expanded indication for treatment of a broader population of COPD patients with airflow limitation or who have experienced an acute worsening of respiratory symptoms. The new indication is for the long-term, once-daily, maintenance treatment of airflow obstruction in patients with COPD, including chronic bronchitis and/or emphysema. It is also indicated to reduce exacerbations of COPD in patients with a history of exacerbations. In addition, the FDA removed a boxed warning from Trelegy Ellipta prescribing information.

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In December 2017, GSK and Innoviva announced the European Commission granted marketing authorization for Trelegy Ellipta as a maintenance treatment for appropriate patients with COPD.

 

In February 2018, GSK and Innoviva announced the submission of the IMPACT data to the EMA as part of a type II variation to support an expanded label for Trelegy Ellipta in Europe for the maintenance treatment of moderate to severe COPD. Approval of the submission would mean Trelegy Ellipta, the only once-daily single inhalation triple therapy for the treatment of COPD, could be used by physicians to treat a wider population of patients with the condition who are at risk of an exacerbation and require triple therapy.

 

Additionally, in December 2016, GSK and Innoviva announced the initiation of the Phase 3 (CAPTAIN) study of Trelegy Ellipta in patients with asthma. The CAPTAIN study is expected to be completed in 2019.

 

Inhaled Bifunctional Muscarinic Antagonist-Beta2 Agonist (MABA)

 

GSK961081 (‘081), also known as batefenterol, is an investigational, single-molecule bifunctional bronchodilator with both muscarinic antagonist and beta2 receptor agonist activity that was discovered by us when we were part of Innoviva.

 

If a single-agent MABA medicine containing ‘081 is successfully developed and commercialized, we are entitled to receive an 85% economic interest in the royalties payable by GSK to TRC on worldwide net sales, which royalties range between 10% and 20% of annual global net sales up to $3.5 billion, and 7.5% for all annual global net sales above $3.5 billion. If a MABA medicine containing ‘081 is commercialized only as a combination product, such as ‘081/FF, the royalty rate is 70% of the rate applicable to sales of the single-agent MABA medicine. If a MABA medicine containing ‘081 is successfully developed and commercialized in multiple regions of the world, TRC is eligible to receive contingent milestone payments from GSK. The agreements allow for total milestones of up to $125.0 million for a single-agent medicine and an incremental $125.0 million for a combination medicine. Of these amounts, $112.0 million in potential milestones remain for a single-agent medicine, and $122.0 million remain for a combination medicine. In each case, we would be entitled to receive an 85% economic interest in any such payments.

 

Theravance Respiratory Company, LLC (“TRC”)

 

Our equity interest in TRC is the mechanism by which we are entitled to the 85% economic interest in any future payments made by GSK under the strategic alliance agreement and under the portion of the collaboration agreement assigned to TRC by Innoviva. The drug programs assigned to TRC include all Trelegy Ellipta products and the MABA program, as monotherapy and in combination with other therapeutically active components, such as an inhaled corticosteroid (“ICS”), as well as any other product or combination of products that may be discovered and developed in the future under these GSK agreements.

 

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

 

Our management’s discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations is based on our financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with US generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”). The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, as well as the reported revenue generated and expenses incurred during the reporting periods. Our estimates are based on our historical experience and on various other factors that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying value of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions. Other than the policies below, there have been no material changes to the critical accounting policies and estimates discussed in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017.

 

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Revenue Recognition

 

Effective January 1, 2018, we adopted Accounting Standards Codification, Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASC 606”) using the modified retrospective method. Under ASC 606, an entity recognizes revenue when its customer obtains control of promised goods or services, in an amount that reflects the consideration which the entity expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. To determine revenue recognition for arrangements that an entity determines are within the scope of ASC 606, the entity performs the following five steps: (i) identify the contract(s) with a customer; (ii) identify the performance obligations in the contract; (iii) determine the transaction price; (iv) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (v) recognize revenue when (or as) the entity satisfies a performance obligation.

 

At contract inception, once the contract is determined to be within the scope of ASC 606, we identify the performance obligations in the contract by assessing whether the goods or services promised within each contract are distinct.  We then recognize revenue for the amount of the transaction price that is allocated to the respective performance obligation when (or as) the performance obligation is satisfied.

 

Product Sales

 

We sell VIBATIV in the US market by making the drug product available through a limited number of distributors, who sell VIBATIV to healthcare providers. Title and risk of loss transfer upon receipt by these distributors. We recognize VIBATIV product sales and related cost of product sales when the distributors obtain control of the drug product, which is at the time title transfers to the distributors.

 

Product sales are recorded on a net sales basis which includes estimates of variable consideration. The variable consideration results from sales discounts, government‑mandated rebates and chargebacks, distribution fees, estimated product returns and other deductions. We reflect such reductions in revenue as either an allowance to the related account receivable from the distributor, or as an accrued liability, depending on the nature of the sales deduction. Sales deductions are based on management’s estimates that consider payor mix in target markets, industry benchmarks and experience to date. In general, these estimates take into consideration a range of possible outcomes which are probability-weighted in accordance with the expected value method in ASC 606. We monitor inventory levels in the distribution channel, as well as sales of VIBATIV by distributors to healthcare providers, using product‑specific data provided by the distributors. Product return allowances are based on amounts owed or to be claimed on related sales. These estimates take into consideration the terms of our agreements with customers, historical product returns of VIBATIV, rebates or discounts taken, estimated levels of inventory in the distribution channel, the shelf life of the product, and specific known market events, such as competitive pricing and new product introductions. We update our estimates and assumptions each quarter and if actual future results vary from our estimates, we may adjust these estimates, which could have an effect on product sales and earnings in the period of adjustment.

 

Sales Discounts: We offer cash discounts to certain customers as an incentive for prompt payment. We expect our customers to comply with the prompt payment terms to earn the cash discount. In addition, we offer contract discounts to certain direct customers. We estimate sales discounts based on contractual terms, historical utilization rates, as available, and our expectations regarding future utilization rates. We account for sales discounts by reducing accounts receivable by the expected discount and recognizing the discount as a reduction of revenue in the same period the related revenue is recognized.

 

Chargebacks and Government Rebates: For VIBATIV sales in the US, we estimate reductions to product sales for qualifying federal and state government programs including discounted pricing offered to Public Health Service (“PHS”), as well as government‑managed Medicaid programs. Our reduction for PHS is based on actual chargebacks that distributors have claimed for reduced pricing offered to such healthcare providers and our expectation about future utilization rates. Our accrual for Medicaid is based upon statutorily‑defined discounts, estimated payor mix, expected sales to qualified healthcare providers, and our expectation about future utilization. The Medicaid accrual and government rebates that are invoiced directly to us are recorded in other accrued liabilities on the condensed consolidated balance sheets. For qualified programs that can purchase our products through distributors at a lower contractual government price, the distributors charge back to us

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the difference between their acquisition cost and the lower contractual government price, which we record as an allowance against accounts receivable.

 

Distribution Fees: We have contracts with our distributors in the US that include terms for distribution‑related fees. We determine distribution‑related fees based on a percentage of the product sales price, and we record the distribution fees as an allowance against accounts receivable.

 

Product Returns: We offer our distributors a right to return product purchased directly from us, which is principally based upon the product’s expiration date. Our policy is to accept product returns during the six months prior to and twelve months after the product expiration date on product that has been sold to our distributors. Product return allowances are based on amounts owed or to be claimed on related sales. These estimates take into consideration the terms of our agreements with customers, historical product returns of VIBATIV, rebates or discounts taken, estimated levels of inventory in the distribution channel, the shelf life of the product, and specific known market events, such as competitive pricing and new product introductions. We record our product return reserves as accrued other liabilities.

 

Allowance for Doubtful Accounts: We maintain a policy to record allowances for potentially doubtful accounts for estimated losses resulting from the inability of our customers to make required payments. As of March 31, 2018, there was no allowance for doubtful accounts related to customer payments.

 

The following table summarizes activity in each of the product revenue allowance and reserve categories for the three months ended March 31, 2018.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

Chargebacks,

    

Government

    

 

    

 

 

 

 

 

Discounts and

 

and Other

 

 

 

 

 

(In thousands)

 

Fees

 

Rebates

 

Returns

 

Total

 

Balance at December 31, 2017

 

$

992

 

$

352

 

$

947

 

$

2,291

 

Provision related to current period sales

 

 

1,482

 

 

174

 

 

79

 

 

1,735

 

Adjustment related to prior period sales

 

 

(71)

 

 

73

 

 

(449)

 

 

(447)

 

Credit or payments made during the period

 

 

(1,515)

 

 

(238)

 

 

(49)

 

 

(1,802)

 

Balance at March 31, 2018

 

$

888

 

$

361

 

$

528

 

$

1,777

 

 

Collaborative Arrangements

 

We enter into collaborative arrangements with partners that fall under the scope of both ASC 606 and Accounting Standards Codification, Topic 808, Collaborative Arrangements (“ASC 808”), as applicable. The terms of these arrangements typically include one or more of the following: (i) up-front fees; (ii) milestone payments related to the achievement of development, regulatory, or commercial goals; (iii) royalties on net sales of licensed products; (iv) reimbursements or cost sharing of R&D expenses; and (v) profit/loss sharing arising from co-promotion arrangements. Each of these payments results in collaboration revenues or an offset against R&D expense. Where a portion of non‑refundable up-front fees or other payments received are allocated to continuing performance obligations under the terms of a collaborative arrangement, they are recorded as deferred revenue and recognized as revenue when (or as) the underlying performance obligation is satisfied. 

 

As part of the accounting for these arrangements, we must develop estimates and assumptions that require judgment to determine the underlying stand-alone selling price for each performance obligation which determines how the transaction price is allocated among the performance obligations. The estimation of the stand-alone selling price may include such estimates as, forecasted revenues or costs, development timelines, discount rates, and probabilities of technical and regulatory success. We evaluate each performance obligation to determine if they can be satisfied at a point in time or over time, and we measure the services delivered to the customer which are periodically reviewed based on the progress of the related program. The effect of any change made to an estimated input component and, therefore revenue or expense recognized, would be recorded as a change in estimate. In addition, variable consideration (e.g., milestone payments) must be evaluated to determine if it is constrained and, therefore, excluded from the transaction price.

 

License Fees: If a license to our intellectual property is determined to be distinct from the other performance obligations identified in the arrangement, we recognize revenues from transaction price allocated to the license when the

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license is transferred to the licensee and the licensee is able to use and benefit from the license. For licenses that are bundled with other promises, we utilize judgment to assess the nature of the combined performance obligation to determine whether the combined performance obligation is satisfied over time or at a point in time and, if over time, the appropriate method of measuring progress for purposes of recognizing revenue from the allocated transaction price. We evaluate the measure of progress each at reporting period and, if necessary, adjust the measure of performance and related revenue or expense recognition as a change in estimate.

 

Milestone Payments: At the inception of each arrangement that includes milestone payments (variable consideration), we evaluate whether the milestones are considered probable of being reached and estimate the amount to be included in the transaction price using the most likely amount method. If it is probable that a significant revenue reversal would not occur, the associated milestone value is included in the transaction price. Milestone payments that are not within our or the collaboration partner’s control, such as non-operational developmental and regulatory approvals, are generally not considered probable of being achieved until those approvals are received. At the end of each reporting period, we re-evaluate the probability of achievement of milestones that are within our or the collaboration partner’s control, such as operational developmental milestones and any related constraint, and if necessary, adjust our estimate of the overall transaction price. Any such adjustments are recorded on a cumulative catch-up basis, which would affect collaboration revenues and earnings in the period of adjustment. Revisions to our estimate of the transaction price may also result in negative collaboration revenues and earnings in the period of adjustment.

 

Royalties: For arrangements that include sales-based royalties, including commercial milestone payments based on the level of sales, and the license is deemed to be the predominant item to which the royalties relate, we recognize revenue at the later of (i) when the related sales occur, or (ii) when the performance obligation to which some or all of the royalty has been allocated has been satisfied (or partially satisfied). To date, we have not recognized any material royalty revenue resulting from any of our collaborative arrangements.

 

Under certain collaborative arrangements, we have been reimbursed for a portion of our R&D expenses or participate in the cost sharing of such R&D expenses. Such reimbursements and cost sharing arrangements have been reflected as a reduction of R&D expense in our condensed consolidated statements of operations, as we do not consider performing research and development services to be a part of our ongoing and central operations. Therefore, the reimbursement or cost sharing of research and development services are recorded as a reduction of R&D expense.

 

Under the terms of our collaboration agreement with Mylan for revefenacin, we are also entitled to a share of US profits and losses (65% Mylan/35% Theravance Biopharma) received in connection with commercialization of revefenacin, and we are entitled to low double-digit royalties on ex-US net sales (excluding China). If and when revefenacin is approved, we expect that Mylan will be the principal in the sales transaction and will record the product sales.  For the periods presented, our share of the losses under the co-promote arrangement are recorded within R&D expense and selling, general and administrative expense on our condensed consolidated statements of operations. See “Note 3. Collaborative Arrangements” for additional information about our collaboration agreement with Mylan.

 

We adopted ASC 606 on January 1, 2018 using the modified retrospective method.  Our prior periods remain reported under Accounting Standards Codification, Topic 605, Revenue Recognition (“ASC 605”).  Our revenue recognition policy under ASC 605 for the comparative 2017 periods is included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017.

 

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Results of Operations

 

Product Sales and Revenue from Collaborative Arrangements

 

Product sales and revenue from collaborative arrangements, as compared to the comparable period in the prior year, were as follows:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31, 

 

Change

 

 

(In thousands)

    

2018

    

2017

    

$

    

%

    

    

Product sales

 

$

3,679

 

$

3,050

 

$

629

 

21

%  

 

Revenue from collaborative arrangements

 

 

4,640

 

 

37

 

 

4,603

 

12,440

 

 

Total revenue

 

$

8,319

 

$

3,087

 

$

5,232

 

169

%  

 

 

Revenue from product sales increased by $0.6 million for the three months ended March 31, 2018, compared to the same period in 2017. The $0.6 million increase was primarily due to increased VIBATIV sales volume and pricing.

 

Revenue from collaborative arrangements increased by $4.6 million for the three months ended March 31, 2018, compared to the same period in 2017. The $4.6 million increase was primarily attributed to the revenue recognized as part of the $100.0 million upfront payment from the Janssen collaboration agreement that was entered into in February 2018. The remaining $95.4 million in deferred revenue is expected to be recognized as revenue as the research and development services are delivered to Janssen over the Phase 2 development period.

 

Cost of Goods Sold

 

Cost of goods sold, as compared to the comparable period in the prior year, was as follows:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31, 

 

Change

 

 

(In thousands)

    

2018

    

2017

    

$

    

%

 

    

Cost of goods sold

 

$

826

 

$

565

 

$

261

 

46

%  

 

 

Cost of goods sold increased by $0.3 million for the three months ended March 31, 2018, compared to the same periods in 2017. The $0.3 million increase was primarily due to increased sales volume and manufacturing costs in the current quarter.

 

Research and Development

 

Our research and development (“R&D”) expenses consist primarily of employee-related costs, external costs, and various allocable expenses. We budget total R&D expenses on an internal department level basis, and we manage and report our R&D activities across the following four cost categories:

 

1)

Employee-related costs, which include salaries, wages and benefits;

 

2)

Share-based compensation, which includes expenses associated with our equity plans;

 

3)

External-related costs, which include clinical trial related expenses, other contract research fees, consulting fees, and contract manufacturing fees; and

 

4)

Facilities and other, which include laboratory and office supplies, depreciation and other allocated expenses, which include general and administrative support functions, insurance and general supplies.

 

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The following table summarizes our R&D expenses incurred, net of reimbursements from collaboration partners, during the periods presented:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31, 

 

Change

 

 

(In thousands)

    

2018